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Veliko obećanje pomoći G8 Arici - Povijest

Veliko obećanje pomoći G8 Arici - Povijest


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G-8 (čelnici 8 najvećih svjetskih gospodarstava) na sastanku u Škotskoj Engleska obećala je udvostručiti svoju pomoć Africi do 2010. Također su potvrdili raniju obvezu da će otkazati veliki vanjski dug devet najsiromašnijih afričkih država. Ovo je bilo najveće obećanje koje je industrijski svijet ikada dao pomoći Africi

Grupa sedam (G7) bio je neslužbeni forum koji je okupio čelnike najbogatijih industrijski razvijenih zemalja: Francuske, Njemačke, Italije, Japana, Ujedinjenog Kraljevstva, Sjedinjenih Država i Kanade počevši od 1976. Grupa osam (G8) , koji se prvi put sastao 1997., formiran je uz dodatak Rusije. [3] Osim toga, predsjednik Europske komisije službeno je uključen u samite od 1981. [4] Vrhovi nisu trebali biti formalno povezani s širim međunarodnim institucijama, a zapravo, blaga pobuna protiv ukočenih formalnosti drugih međunarodni sastanci bili su dio geneze suradnje između francuskog predsjednika Giscarda d'Estainga i kancelara Zapadne Njemačke Helmuta Schmidta dok su zamišljali početni samit Grupe šest (G6) 1975. [5]

U raspravama o Africi tijekom 34. samita G8, čelnici G8 odredili su petogodišnji rok za izdvajanje 60 milijardi američkih dolara za pomoć u borbi protiv bolesti u Africi i obnovili obvezu preuzetu tri godine ranije da udvostruči pomoć Africi na 25 milijardi dolara do 2010. i razmotriti obećanje daljnje pomoći nakon 2010. [6] Na temu globalnog zatopljenja, čelnici G8 složili su se oko potrebe da svijet smanji emisiju ugljika za što je krivo globalno zagrijavanje za najmanje 50 posto do 2050. Aktivisti i čelnici za zaštitu okoliša iz zemalja u razvoju opisali su ovu izjavu kao "gestu bez zuba". [6] Rezultati rasprava o Trgovinskom sporazumu protiv krivotvorenja, koji je ranije procurio WikiLeaks, [7] nisu bili poznati. Čelnici G8 dali su izjave u vezi svojih odnosa sa Zimbabveom, [8] Iranom i Sjevernom Korejom. [6] Odgovori čelnika G8 na "Izazov vladama G8" više od 100 nevladinih udruga i drugih organizacija i pojedinaca koji su od njih tražili da "ponište sav nelegitimni dug", kako bi se "prekinula praksa korištenja kredita i otpisa duga radi nametanja uvjeti "i" olakšavanje povrata ukradene imovine koja se čuva u bankama u zemljama G8 "trenutno nisu poznati. [9] Vezano za svjetsku krizu cijena hrane u razdoblju 2007. -2008., Razlike između čelnika G8 i pristupa građanskih skupina rješavanju krize izgledale su neriješene. U priopćenju G8 rečeno je da je "imperativ" ukloniti ograničenja izvoza [6], za razliku od zahtjeva potpisnika "Izaziva vladama G8". [9]

Sastanci skupine G8 tijekom 21. stoljeća također su uključivali široko rasprostranjene paralelne rasprave i prosvjede građana [10] i tvrdili da se protiv nekih od njih krši ljudska prava tijekom masovnih policijskih/vojnih [11] operacija. Pre početka summita uhićeno je više od 40 disidenata [12], a devetnaest ili dvadeset Korejaca koji su kritizirali vodstvo G8 bili su zatočeni u zračnoj luci New Chitose najmanje 24 sata. [13] [14] Tijekom "nenasilnih demonstracija u kojima se nisu dogodila djela protiv imovine ili ljudi" prema pravnom promatraču, uhićene su najmanje četiri osobe, uključujući snimatelja Reutersa. [15] Na ovom mjestu, među razlozima navedenim za demonstracije i prosvjede bilo je to što je samit G8 samo proizvoljan sastanak nacionalnih čelnika [16] i što je također veza koja postaje više od zbroja njegovih dijelova, podižući sudionici, događaj i mjesto kao žarišta pritiska aktivista. [17]

G8 je neslužbeni godišnji forum za čelnike Kanade, Europske komisije, Francuske, Njemačke, Italije, Japana, Rusije, Velike Britanije i Sjedinjenih Država. [4]

34. samit G8 bio je prvi summit za britanskog premijera Gordona Browna i ruskog predsjednika Dmitrija Medvedeva [18], a posljednji je bio za američkog predsjednika Georgea W. Busha. [19] Bio je to također prvi i jedini summit za japanskog premijera Yasuo Fukudu. [20] Fukuda je 1. rujna podnio ostavku na mjesto japanskog premijera, a on je prvi od čelnika G8 na summitu napustio dužnost. [21]

Francuski predsjednik Nicolas Sarkozy primijetio je: "Mislim da nije razumno nastaviti se sastajati kao osam radi rješavanja velikih svjetskih pitanja, zaboravljajući Kinu - milijardu 300 milijuna ljudi - i ne pozivajući Indiju - milijardu ljudi." [22] Japan i Sjedinjene Države najavili su protivljenje Sarkozyjevom impliciranom prijedlogu. [23]

Sudionici Uređivanje

Ovi sudionici summita trenutačni su "jezgreni članovi" međunarodnog foruma: [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35 ] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43]

Temeljni članovi G8
Stanje domaćina i voditelj prikazani su podebljanim tekstom.
Član Predstavljen od Titula
Kanada Stephen Harper premijer
Francuska Nicolas Sarkozy predsjednik
Njemačka Angela Merkel Kancelar
Italija Silvio Berlusconi premijer
Japan Yasuo Fukuda premijer
Rusija Dmitrij Medvedev predsjednik
Ujedinjeno Kraljevstvo Gordon Brown premijer
Ujedinjene države George W. Bush predsjednik
Europska unija José Manuel Barroso Predsjednik komisije
Nicolas Sarkozy Predsjednik Vijeća
G8+5 pozvanih (zemlje)
Član Predstavljen od Titula
Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva predsjednik
Kina Hu Jintao predsjednik
Indija Manmohan Singh premijer
Meksiko Felipe Calderón predsjednik
Južna Afrika Kgalema Motlanthe predsjednik
Ograničeni gosti (zemlje)
Član Predstavljen od Titula
Alžir Abdelaziz Bouteflika predsjednik
Australija Kevin Rudd premijer
Etiopija Meles Zenawi premijer
Gana John Kufuor predsjednik
Indonezija Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono predsjednik
Nigerija Umaru Musa Yar'Adua predsjednik
Senegal Abdoulaye Wade predsjednik
Južna Korea Lee Myung-bak predsjednik
Tanzanija Jakaya Kikwete predsjednik
Pozvani gosti (međunarodne institucije)
Član Predstavljen od Titula
Afrička unija Jean Ping Predsjednik komisije
Jakaya Kikwete Predsjedavajući
Zajednica nezavisnih država Sergej Lebedev Izvršni tajnik
Međunarodna agencija za atomsku energiju Mohamed ElBaradei Generalni direktor
Međunarodna agencija za energiju Nobuo Tanaka Izvršni direktor
Ujedinjeni narodi Ban Ki-moon Generalni sekretar
UNESCO Kōichirō Matsuura Generalni direktor
Svjetska banka Robert Zoellick predsjednik
Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija Margaret Chan Generalni direktor
Svjetska trgovinska organizacija Pascal Lamy Generalni direktor

Tradicionalno, zemlja domaćin summita G8 postavlja dnevni red pregovora, koji se prvenstveno održavaju među višenacionalnim državnim službenicima u tjednima prije samog sastanka, što dovodi do zajedničke deklaracije koju sve zemlje mogu pristati potpisati. Ove godine, čelnici G8 nadali su se da će pronaći zajednički jezik o klimatskim promjenama, globalnom gospodarstvu i nizu političkih kriza. [6]

Summit je zamišljen kao mjesto za rješavanje razlika među članovima. Praktično, summit je također zamišljen kao prilika za njegove članove da se međusobno ohrabre pred teškim ekonomskim odlukama. [5]

Afrika Edit

Čelnici G8 bili su u poziciji razgovarati o "cijelom nizu pitanja koja se odnose na afrički razvoj". [44] Potreba za rješavanjem dugoročnog planiranja afričkog razvoja već je niz godina na dnevnom redu G8. U 2008. Japan je bio domaćin sastanka na vrhu G8 i Četvrte tokijske međunarodne konferencije o afričkom razvoju (TICAD-IV)-petogodišnjeg sastanka (ponavlja se u petogodišnjim ciklusima) za afričke lidere i njihove razvojne partnere. To je značilo da je Japan imao priliku pomoći Africi u središtu pozornosti međunarodne pozornosti. [45] Afrika, koja je na dnevnom redu G8 od 2000. godine, kada je Japan zadnji put predsjedavao G8, nastavila je zaostajati u napretku u postizanju Milenijskih razvojnih ciljeva (MRC -i), dok je Azija u istom razdoblju napravila značajne pomake. Ostaju neodgovorena pitanja zašto se ono što se dogodilo u Aziji nije dogodilo u Africi. [46]

Nakon rasprave, čelnici G8 najavili su nove mjere za poboljšanje obrazovanja, zdravstva, opskrbe vodom i sanitarija te povećanje broja liječnika i medicinskih sestara u Africi. Međutim Times kaže da će se po prisutnosti ili odsutnosti glavne brojke o ukupnoj afričkoj pomoći njihovi razgovori ocijeniti uspješnim ili neuspješnim. Prema izvještajima, Fukuda i Brown vrše pritisak na ispunjenje obećanja danih na summitu Gleneagles 2005., no vidi se da se Sarkozy i Berlusconi povlače iz tih obveza. [47]

Čelnici G8 odredili su petogodišnji rok za izdvajanje 60 milijardi dolara za pomoć Africi u borbi protiv bolesti, uključujući obećanje 100 milijuna mreža protiv komaraca do 2010. godine što će spriječiti tisuće smrtnih slučajeva od malarije. Također su obnovili obvezu preuzetu prije tri godine da će udvostručiti pomoć za Afriku na 25 milijardi dolara do 2010. te razmotriti obećanje dodatne pomoći nakon 2010. [6]

Klimatske promjene Uredi

Čelnici G8 tvrdili su da će razgovarati o "cijelom nizu pitanja koja se odnose na klimu". [48]

Paket prijedloga razvijen je za daljnju raspravu, uključujući "novi okvir koji će osigurati sudjelovanje Sjedinjenih Država i Kine, najvećih svjetskih emitera stakleničkih plinova". Organizatori G8 tvrde da je konferencija G8 "važna platforma za učvršćivanje obaveza" na temelju početnog okvira dogovorenog na Konferenciji Ujedinjenih naroda o klimatskim promjenama održanoj u prosincu 2007. na Baliju u Indoneziji. [46]

U "Izazovu vladama G8" više od 100 nevladinih organizacija i drugih organizacija i pojedinaca, kritičari G8 tvrdili su da su same zemlje G8 same odgovorne za klimatsku krizu. Pozvali su vlade G8 da "prestanu financirati projekte i politike koje doprinose klimatskim promjenama". [9]

Čelnici G8 složili su se oko potrebe da svijet smanji emisije ugljika za koje je krivo globalno zagrijavanje za najmanje 50 posto do 2050. godine i da svaka država postavi vlastiti cilj za kratkoročne ciljeve. Saopćenje predstavlja mali korak naprijed u odnosu na prošlogodišnji poziv da se "ozbiljno razmotre" takvi dugoročni rezovi, no ekološki aktivisti i čelnici iz zemalja u razvoju bili su razočarani, opisavši tu izjavu kao bezubu gestu. [6]

Utjecaj klimatskih promjena na male pacifičke otočne zemlje također će biti "neslužbena tema" summita G8, prema izvješću Asahi Evening News. [49] Japan je u lipnju 2008. predstavio plan pod nazivom Partnerstvo hladne zemlje kako bi pomogao malim pacifičkim državama i drugim zemljama u razvoju da se nose s izazovima klimatskih promjena. [49] Službenik japanskog Ministarstva okoliša izjavio je da želi predstaviti novi paket pomoći prije samita G8 kako bi se nastavio dijalog na tu temu. [49] Tavau Teii, potpredsjednik vlade Tuvalua, primatelj japanskog paketa pomoći protiv porasta razine mora, obišao je Japan uoči summita G8 kako bi podigao svijest o utjecaju klimatskih promjena na svoju malu otočku državu. [49] [50]

Prava intelektualnog vlasništva Uredi

Dokument koji je procurio [51] detaljno opisuje odredbe predloženog višestranog trgovinskog sporazuma koji bi nametnuo strogu provedbu prava intelektualnog vlasništva u vezi s internetskim aktivnostima i trgovinom robom temeljenom na informacijama. Ako se usvoji, ugovor ovog oblika nametnuo bi snažan, odozgo prema dolje, režim provedbe koji bi nametnuo nove zahtjeve suradnje ISP-ovima, uključujući površno otkrivanje podataka o korisnicima, kao i mjere koje ograničavaju upotrebu internetskih alata za privatnost. Prijedlog također određuje plan za poticanje zemalja u razvoju na prihvaćanje pravnog režima. Govornici Europske komisije, Ureda trgovačkog predstavnika Sjedinjenih Država, Australskog ministarstva vanjskih poslova i trgovine i drugi objavili su odabrane odlomke navodno iz ovog dokumenta. [52]

Politička pitanja Uredi

Među važnim pitanjima koja su otvorena za raspravu bili su terorizam i neširenje nuklearnog oružja. [53]

  • Zimbabve: U priopćenju G8 izražena je "ozbiljna zabrinutost" zbog izbornog procesa pokvarenog nasiljem, što je površno potvrdilo nastavak mandata Roberta Mugabea na mjestu predsjednika. Upozorili su na daljnje mjere uključujući ciljane sankcije protiv onih u Mugabeovoj vladi koji stoje iza nasilja. Čelnici su zajedno preporučili imenovanje posebnog izaslanika UN -a. [6] Gordon Brown zatražio je izjavu koja bi Mugabea označila kao nelegitimnog predsjednika, a George Bush je prošlomjesečne nasilne predsjedničke izbore opisao kao "privid". Međutim, među G8 nije bilo jednoglasnosti, a Rusija je tiho signalizirala protivljenje uvođenju dodatnih sankcija protiv Mugabeova režima. [54]
  • Iran: U priopćenju G8 pozvana je iranska vlada da okonča svoj program obogaćivanja urana u skladu s rezolucijama Vijeća sigurnosti UN -a te su formalno pozvali Teheran da pozitivno odgovori na međunarodno posredovanje. [6]
  • Sjeverna Koreja: Komunike G8 ohrabrio je Sjevernu Koreju da napusti nuklearno oružje i surađuje u provjeri dosjea o nuklearnim programima. U znak podrške ključnoj brizi japanske vlade, čelnici G8 također su pozvali na napredak u rješavanju pitanja bez odgovora o otmicama japanskih civila Sjeverne Koreje 1970 -ih i 1980 -ih. [6]

Svjetsko gospodarstvo Edit

Web stranica Summita ističe nekoliko ključnih pitanja vezanih uz svjetsko gospodarstvo o kojima će se raspravljati, uključujući: održivi rast svjetskog gospodarstva, ulaganja, trgovinu, zaštitu prava intelektualnog vlasništva, gospodarstva u razvoju i prirodne resurse. [53]

Zahtjevi vlada G8 izraženi u "Izazovu vladama G8" više od 100 nevladinih organizacija i drugih organizacija i pojedinaca u vezi sa svjetskom ekonomijom bili su da "ponište sve nelegitimne dugove", "prekinu praksu korištenja kredita i otpisa duga za nametanje uvjeti "i" olakšavaju povrat ukradene imovine koja se čuva u bankama u zemljama G8 ". [9]

Kriza s hranom Uredi

Vezano za svjetsku krizu cijena hrane u razdoblju 2007. -2008., Više od 100 nevladinih organizacija i drugih organizacija i pojedinaca objavilo je "Izazov vladama G8" u kojem se traži da G8 "poštuje napore da preokrene štetne politike koje su dovele do krize hrane" i za G8 da "zabrani špekulacije o cijenama hrane". [9]

Čelnici G8 pozvali su zemlje s dovoljnim zalihama hrane da oslobode neke svoje rezerve kako bi pomogle drugima u suočavanju s naglim cijenama, a u blago izraženom priopćenju G8 rečeno je da je "imperativ" ukloniti ograničenja izvoza. [6]

Okvirni raspored summita G8 bio je unaprijed dogovoren, a planeri summita predviđali su nepredviđene situacije koje će utjecati na neke okolne događaje. [55]

5. srpnja Edit

Subotnji dnevni red uključivao je sljedeće: [55]

6. srpnja Edit

Nedjeljni dnevni red uključivao je sljedeće: [55]

  • Nevladine organizacije održavaju "Narodni samit" u Sapporu, Hokkaido (do 8. srpnja). [57]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Bush-Fukuda, [58] summit SAD-a i Japana. [59]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Harper-Fukuda, [60] summit Kanade i Japana. [61]
  • Večera čelnika SAD-a i Japana. [55]

7. srpnja Uredite

Prvi službeni dan sastanaka u Tōyaku bio je usredotočen na afrička razvojna pitanja. Razmjena mišljenja predstavljena je na brojnim bilateralnim sastancima i u proširenom poslijepodnevnom zasjedanju koje je okupilo čelnike G8 i čelnike sedam afričkih zemalja - Alžira, Etiopije, Gane, Nigerije, Senegala, Južne Afrike, Tanzanije i predsjednika komisija Afričke unije. Na dnevnom redu u ponedjeljak bilo je sljedeće: [55]

  • Bilateralni sastanak Merkel-Fukuda. [62]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Medvedev-Brown. [63]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Medvedeva i Merkel. [63]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Medvedev-Sarkozy. [63]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Medvedev-Bush. [64]
  • Outreach radni ručak: Čelnici G8 + 8 afričkih vođa. [65]
  • Outreach radna sjednica: Čelnici G8 + 8 afričkih vođa. [65]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Mbeki-Bush. [66]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Mbeki-Fukuda, [66] summit Južnoafričke Republike i Japana. [67]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Bouteflika-Sarkozy. [68]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Bouteflika-Fukuda. [69]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Yar'Adua-Fukuda, [43] summit Nigerije i Japana. [70]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Brown-Fukuda. [71]
  • Društveni događaj G8 (Događaj povezan s Tanabatom) [65]
  • Društvena večera G8. [72]

8. srpnja Edit

Drugi dan sastanaka u Tōyaku bio je usredotočen na krizu hrane, cijene nafte i klimatske promjene. Dnevni red u utorak uključivao je sljedeće: [55]

  • Bilateralni sastanak Merkel-Bush. [73]
  • G8 Jutarnja radna sjednica.[65]
  • G8 radni ručak.[65]
  • Poslijepodnevna radna sjednica G8.[65]
  • Sastanak zemalja "+5" (G8+5) u Saporo prije jutarnjeg zasjedanja u srijedu (Brazil, Kina, Indija, Meksiko i Južna Afrika)
  • Bilateralni sastanak Medvedev-Fukuda. [74]
  • Bilalusni sastanak Berlusconi-Fukuda. [75]
  • Radna večera G8.[65]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Hu-Lula [76]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Hu-Mbeki [77]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Hu-Singh [78]

9. srpnja Uredite

Treći dan samita bio je posvećen izradi sažetih izjava kako bi se opisala neka bitna pitanja o kojima su razgovarali čelnici. Raspored za srijedu uključivao je dvije jutarnje sjednice. Terenski sastanak u ranim jutarnjim satima okupio je čelnike G8 i čelnike Brazila, Kine, Indije, Meksika, Južne Afrike. Održan je zaseban sastanak za čelnike G8 i čelnike "velikih gospodarstava" - Australije, Brazila, Kine, Indije, Indonezije, Meksika, Južne Afrike i Južne Koreje. Na dnevnom redu u srijedu bilo je sljedeće: [55]

  • Bilateralni sastanak Singh-Bush. [79]
  • Outreach radna sjednica.[65]
  • Sastanak velikih ekonomija.[65]
  • G8 radni ručak sa sudionicima sastanka velikih gospodarstava. [65]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Hu-Busha. [80]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Hu-Medvedev [81]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Hu-Harper [82]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Hu-Sarkozy [83]
  • Konferencija za novinare.[84]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Lee-Bush. [85]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Hu-Fukuda. [86]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Singh-Fukuda. [87]
  • Biladeran sastanak Calderon-Fukuda. [88]
  • Bilatelan sastanak Lule da Silve i Fukude. [89]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Rudd-Fukuda. [90]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Yudhoyono-Fukuda. [91]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Singh-Medvedev. [79]
  • Bilateralni sastanak Singh-Rudd. [79]

Međunarodne razvojne nevladine organizacije [92] i mreže reagirale su s mješavinom razočaranja i frustracije na posljednje priopćenje sa summita G8 u srpnju 2008. u Hokkaidu u Japanu.

60.000 britanskih građana i 1.000.000 ljudi diljem svijeta potpisali su peticije u kojima pozivaju čelnike G8 da riješe krizu s hranom, riješe klimatske promjene, dostave sredstva za vodu i sanitarne uvjete te pruže pomoć za zdravstvenu zaštitu i obrazovanje.

Međutim, nisu uslijedili konkretni planovi G8 za poduzimanje radnji po ovim vitalnim problemima.

Kriza s hranom Uredi

G8 je izrazio duboku zabrinutost zbog trenutne globalne krize s hranom, ali nije najavio opipljive ili mjerljive inicijative za njezino rješavanje.

Prema World Visionu, 10 milijardi dolara obećanih od siječnja kratkoročno će promijeniti. Tearfund smatra da je imenovanje stručne skupine G8 za praćenje provedbe obveza vezanih uz sigurnost hrane pozitivan korak, iako nedostatak usvojenih mjerljivih planova znači da je nejasno koju će ulogu ta skupina imati.

Mnoge nevladine organizacije izvještavaju da se G8 nije pozabavio strukturnim uzrocima krize u hrani. Umjesto pružanja trgovinske pravde, čelnici G8 zatražili su još veću liberalizaciju trgovine za zemlje u razvoju. G8 je također šutio o ulozi spekulacija o cijenama hrane na globalnim tržištima u pogoršanju krize. Također su koristili samo neodređene riječi o smanjenju biogoriva i rješavanju klimatskih promjena.

Klimatske promjene Uredi

G8 obećao je smanjiti emisije CO2 do polovine do 2050. Međutim, nevladine organizacije, uključujući CAFOD, ActionAid, Christian Aid, Oxfam i Save the Children, sve tvrde da to nije vjerodostojno jer nema dogovorene osnovne godine, nema dogovora o tome kada će emisije doseći vrhunac i početi opadati, a nema srednjoročnih ciljeva smanjenja emisija.

6 milijardi dolara obećano je "Fondu za klimatske investicije". Međutim, Christian Aid s tim ističe dva problema. Prvo, fond će biti smješten u Svjetskoj banci koja ima evidenciju o nametanju štetnih ekonomskih politika siromašnim zemljama i podržava veliki portfelj projekata koji emitiraju stakleničke plinove u cijelom svijetu. Drugo, ovo nije novi novac - novac će izaći iz proračuna za pomoć, u vrijeme kada se proračuni za pomoć smanjuju.

Voda i kanalizacija Edit

Međunarodni savez End Water Poverty izvještava da su se nade o proboju u globalnoj sanitarnoj i vodenoj krizi na summitu G8 srušile jer je G8 poslao priopćenje uglavnom bez konkretnih radnji za pomoć 2,6 milijardi ljudi koji nemaju pristup sigurnom toaletu, i 1,1 milijarda ljudi nema pristup čistoj vodi. Umjesto da se dogovore o akcijskom planu za rješavanje onoga što prema nedavnom izvješću WaterAida tvrdi da ubija više djece nego bilo koji drugi pojedinačni faktor, čelnici G8 bili su zadovoljni izvještavanjem o napretku na summitu 2009. i poduzimanju koraka za provedbu diskreditiranog akcijskog plana G8 Evian za vodu iz 2003. godine.

Pomoć za zdravstvo i obrazovanje Edit

Tearfund je pozdravio činjenicu da su se čelnici G8 obvezali osigurati predviđenih 60 milijardi dolara za zdravlje u sljedećih 5 godina. Međutim, ističu da je to daleko od onoga što je potrebno za postizanje MRC-a vezanih za zdravlje i univerzalnog pristupa do 2010. Na temelju trenutnih procjena resursa UNAIDS-a, udio G8 sredstava potrebnih samo za HIV iznosi 65 milijardi USD za sljedeću godinu. tri godine. U međuvremenu, prethodne obveze, poput univerzalnog pristupa pedijatrijskom liječenju, kako je navedeno u Heiligendammu 2007., upadljive su zbog njihove odsutnosti.

Uz priopćenje nema vremenskih rasporeda isporuke niti mjerljivih akcijskih planova. Čelnici G8 složili su se uspostaviti mehanizam praćenja, ali detalji ostaju nejasni. Bez financiranja, rasporeda i mehanizama praćenja, zabrinutost čelnika G8 o globalnom zdravlju bit će prazne geste.

Prema Globalnoj kampanji za obrazovanje, obećano je 1 milijardu dolara za obrazovanje, no to je manje od 10% onoga što je potrebno za ostvarivanje ljudskih prava svakog djeteta.

Pre početka summita uhićeno je više od 40 disidenata [12], a devetnaest ili dvadeset Korejaca koji su kritizirali vodstvo G8 bili su zatočeni u zračnoj luci New Chitose najmanje 24 sata. [13] [14] Tijekom "nenasilnih demonstracija u kojima se nisu dogodila djela protiv imovine ili ljudi" prema pravnom promatraču, uhićene su najmanje četiri osobe, uključujući snimatelja Reutersa. [15]

Prosvjednici i demonstracije Uredi

Nisu sve demonstracije bile agitirajuće protivno nekom pitanju. Na samitu u Škotskoj 2005. prvi put je nekoliko desetaka tisuća ljudi koji su prosvjedovali vani podržalo plan samita o afričkoj pomoći [3], a neki su aktivisti otputovali u Hokkaido u istu svrhu. Britanski glumac i aktivist Oxfama Bill Nighy u Sapporu sažeto je objasnio: "Želimo postići upravo ono što smo htjeli postići prošli put [u Heiligendammu u Njemačkoj], a to je držati čelnike G8 i njihove vlade do ispunjenja obećanja. ispunili bi Milenijske razvojne ciljeve: osnovnoškolsko obrazovanje za sve Lijekovi protiv HIV -a za sve ljude kojima je potrebno održivo okruženje za zdravlje majki. Jednostavno želimo da ne odustaju od tih obećanja i da ih drže prema rasporedu. Trenutno, katastrofalno kasne. Stoga ih želimo podsjetiti na to. " [93]

Neke prosvjedne organizacije u Sapporu tijekom samita G8 pokušale su iskoristiti duh Japanaca Tanabata festivala kako bi usmjerili pozornost na ono što se nadaju da će ovaj summit postići. [57] U večernjim satima 7. srpnja, vođe G8 pozvane su da stvore vlastite tanzaku, a skupinu je fotograf s vrha uhvatio ispred bambusa na kojem su bile vezane njihove privatne želje. Istu su temu iskoristile nevladine organizacije poput Oxfama i CARE Internationala u postavljanju internetske kampanje za podnošenje želja koja se podudara sa samitom G8 i Tanabata. [94]

Iranska međunarodna informativna mreža, koja emitira program na engleskom jeziku non-stop, izvijestila je o aktivistima na ulicama Saporoa koji su pozivali G8 da obrati više pažnje na proizvođače hrane i brzo rastuće cijene hrane. [95]

Kršenja ljudskih prava i granične kontrole Uredi

Dan prije nego što je u Osaki počeo sastanak ministara financija G8 uz vrlo veliko prisustvo policije, policiju je navodno mučio nadničar u Kamagasakiju. Kao odgovor, mnogi nadničari i drugi lokalni građani izveli su višednevne ulične prosvjede. [ potreban je citat ]

Mjesec dana prije početka 34. samita G8, "više od 40 ljudi uhićeno je u preventivnim potezima širokih lijevih i anarhističkih skupina". [12]

Neposredno prije summita, Via Campesina žalila se na zadržavanje više od 24 sata 19 (ili 20) korejskih poljoprivrednika u zračnoj luci New Chitose i njihovu vjerojatnu deportaciju iz Japana, navodeći da su poljoprivrednici putovali sa službenim pozivnim pismom iz Nouminrena (japanska obitelj Pokret poljoprivrednika) i cjeloviti program njihovih planiranih aktivnosti prema zahtjevu vlasti. Via Campesina ustvrdila je "pravo na upoznavanje, demonstriranje i predlaganje rješenja problema s kojima se suočavaju čovječanstvo i okoliš" i zahtijevala da se "svim poljoprivrednicima, radnicima i drugim aktivistima koji su zatočeni u zračnoj luci Sapporo omogući uključivanje u aktivnosti civilnog društva paralelno s Summit G8. " [13] [14]

Tijekom "nenasilnih demonstracija u kojima se nije dogodilo nikakvo djelovanje protiv imovine ili ljudi, ili se čak činilo da će se dogoditi", prema zakonskom promatraču Ko Watari, uhićene su najmanje četiri osobe, uključujući snimatelja Reutersa. Prema "Pravnom timu Ne! G8", uhićenima se potencijalno prijeti "godine zatvora". [15]

Građansko novinarstvo Edit

Grupe građana organizirale su nekoliko centara za građansko novinarstvo kako bi neovisni mediji izvještavali o očekivanim prosvjedima. [96] U određenom smislu, ovaj je tekst proizvod rada nečega poput građanskog novinarstva, stvarajući ovaj članak kao dio "prvog grubog nacrta povijesti". [97]

Sastav samita G8 nije točka dnevnog reda, ali se željelo vidjeti kako će se grupa proširiti na Kinu, Meksiko, Indiju, Brazil i druga velika gospodarstva poput Australije, Južne Koreje i Španjolske. Summit G8 međunarodni je događaj koji promatraju i izvještavaju mediji, ali stalna važnost G8 nakon više od 30 godina pomalo je nejasna. [98] Više analitičara sugerira da samit G-8 nije mjesto za iznošenje detalja o bilo kojem teškom ili kontroverznom pitanju politike u kontekstu trodnevnog događaja. [99] Radije, sastanak nudi priliku za donošenje niza složenih, a ponekad i međusobno povezanih pitanja. Summit G8 okuplja lidere "ne da bi mogli smisliti brze popravke, već da zajedno razgovaraju i razmišljaju o njima". [100]

Analitičari predviđaju da ovo neće biti summit na kojem će se zacrtati ambiciozni novi dnevni red, već onaj koji će biti oprezno fokusiran na pokušaj da se zaustavi rastuće globalno nezadovoljstvo. [18] 1976., prve godine u kojoj je Kanada prisustvovala, nacije su izdale izjavu od 1.600 riječi u kojoj se preuzelo sedam obveza, od kojih članice nikada nisu u potpunosti ispunile. Nacije su 2007. preuzele 329 obveza, od kojih se oko trećina pretvara u stvarnost. Branitelji G8 kažu da je to dokaz trajne učinkovitosti samita: G8 općenito rade bolje nego ikad prije u ispunjavanju obećanja danih na tim godišnjim sastancima na vrhu. [3]

Predviđena evaluacija ovog summita G8 može se ocijeniti ili mjeriti u kontekstu koji obuhvaća najnovije samite G8. Na summitu 2004. godine na Sea Islandu u Sjedinjenim Državama, čelnici G8 složili su se produljiti programe oslobađanja duga za siromašne zemlje, ali nisu ispunili zahtjeve za potpuni otpis kredita koje su afričke zemlje dugovale multilateralnim kreditnim agencijama. Čelnici G8 rekli su da će produljiti mandat inicijative visoko zaduženih siromašnih zemalja, prema kojoj siromašne države mogu otpisati dio svog duga. Sažetak postignuća s tri posljednja samita G8 uključivao bi: [101]

Samit 2005. U Gleneaglesu u Škotskoj, čelnici G8 pristali su na više nego dvostruku pomoć Africi do 2010. godine, ali su agencije za pomoć tvrdile da je u obećanju malo novog novca. Također su obećali da će zemlje G8 i drugi donatori povećati ukupnu pomoć za sve zemlje u razvoju za oko 50 milijardi dolara godišnje do 2010. Pomoć Africi stavio je na vrh summita 2005. britanski premijer Tony Blair [102], ali oni koji -namjerni planovi osujećeni su jer je Blair bio prisiljen vratiti se u London nakon što su eksplozije terorističkih bombi poremetile londonski javni prijevoz. Rasprava o afričkim pitanjima nije bila toliko plodna kao redovite sjednice G8 i imala je "fragmentirani" karakter. Vjerodostojna analiza summita sugerira da se Gleneagles razlikuje od ostalih vrhova G8.

Bio bi to redoviti summit da nije bilo terorističkih napada na London, koliko god to na prvi pogled izgledalo čudno. Iako je tragedija oduzela znatan dio pažnje koja bi inače bila usmjerena na najbogatije i najmoćnije zemlje svijeta. napadi su osigurali relativni uspjeh summita. zbog potrebe demonstriranja jedinstvenog fronta protiv terorizma i postizanja donekle opipljivih rezultata koje teroristi nisu mogli spriječiti. [103]

Summit 2006. U Sankt Peterburgu u Rusiji, čelnici G8 složili su se oko formalnog programa energetske sigurnosti, borbe protiv zaraznih bolesti i promicanja obrazovanja - sve teme nisu imale mnogo kontroverzi i nisu zahtijevale nikakvu financijsku obvezu članova G8. Pomoć Africi s dnevnog reda sastanka na vrhu 2005. ponovno se pojavila na dnevnom redu 2006. [102], ali nisu došle do opipljivih radnji. [101]

Summit 2007. U Heiligendammu u Njemačkoj, čelnici G8 složili su se razmotriti globalni cilj smanjenja emisije stakleničkih plinova i pregovarati o novom globalnom klimatskom paktu koji bi proširio i proširio Kyoto protokole. [104] Za Afriku je G8 obećao 60 milijardi dolara za borbu protiv AIDS -a, malarije i tuberkuloze [102], ali deklaracija nije utvrdila nikakav određeni vremenski raspored, niti je analizirala doprinose pojedinih zemalja ili navela koliko je ukupnih sredstava bilo prethodno obećano. [101]

Konzorcij za infrastrukturu za Afriku Edit

Konzorcij za infrastrukturu za Afriku (ICA) osnovan je na 31. summitu G8 u Gleneaglesu, Škotska u Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu 2005. Od tada je godišnji sastanak ICA -e tradicionalno domaćin zemlje koja predsjeda G8. Sastanak 2008. održan je u Tokiju u ožujku 2008. [105]

Japan je potrošio neviđeno mnogo novca na održavanje sastanka na vrhu G-8. [106] Iako nije objavljeno potpuno računovodstvo, procijenjeni ukupni proračun iznosio je više od 60 milijardi ¥:

  • 30 milijardi ¥ (283 milijuna £ 561 milijuna USD) koje je Nacionalna policijska agencija upotrijebila za patroliranje na mjestima, uključujući poduzimanje protuterorističkih mjera. [107] Kad trodnevni sastanak završi, japanski porezni obveznici suočit će se s računom koji premašuje procijenjenih 1,3 milijuna funti koje je Britanija zapela u Gleneaglesu prije tri godine. Glasnogovornik ministarstva vanjskih poslova sugerirao je da je "broj stranaka koje prisustvuju ove godine bez presedana, što je doduše zakompliciralo aranžmane, i jednostavno nije pošteno uspoređivati ​​ga s prethodnim samitima". [108]
  • Ministarstvo vanjskih poslova potrošit će 25,5 milijardi ¥ [106]
    1. otprilike 9 milijardi ¥ za komunikacijsku infrastrukturu između mjesta sastanka na vrhu u Toyaku i Rusutsu, gdje će se nalaziti međunarodni medijski centar.
    2. otprilike 5 milijardi funti za medijski centar, koji je izgrađen na parkiralištu u skijalištu i primit će oko 3.000 ljudi iz tiska i vlada. Inside and outside the center, cutting-edge environmental technology, including fuel cells and heat pumps, will be exhibited. The center itself boasts eco-friendly features, including solar panels, "green" walls and a snow cooling system. Once the summit is over, however, the building will be demolished.
  • ¥1 billion each for The Defense Ministry and Japan Coast Guard for transporting the leaders and patrolling sea areas near the venue and monitoring the 46 km no-fly zone surrounding the summit site. [107]

Vrijeme reports that the estimated cost of the Hokkaidō summit topped $285 million. [109]


KEEP WORD ON AFRICA

Obama said Africa had enough arable land but lacked seeds, irrigation and mechanisms for farmers to get a fair price for their produce -- issues that the summit promised to tackle.

Africa told the wealthy powers they must honor their commitments, old and new -- mindful that some in the G8 had fallen well short of their 2005 promise to increase annual aid by $50 billion by 2010, half of which was meant for Africa.

South African President Jacob Zuma said the new funding will “go a long way” to helping Africa, adding: “We can’t say it’s enough, but at least it begins to do very concrete things.”

Nigerian Agriculture Minister Abba Ruma said the new pledge was “very commendable in view of the current global recession.”

But he cautioned that it must be “disbursed expeditiously. It is only then we will know that the G8 is living up to its commitment and not just making a pledge and going to sleep.”

The United Nations says the number of malnourished people has risen in the past two years and is expected to top 1.02 billion this year, reversing decades of declines. The global recession is expected to make 103 million more go hungry.

Aid bodies like the World Food Program said a last-minute surge of generosity at the summit in L’Aquila resulting in the $20 billion pledge was “greeted with great happiness.”

That amount over three years may compare unfavorably with the $13.4 billion the G8 says it disbursed between January 2008 and July 2009, but aid groups said the new pledge in Italy was more clearly focused.

Japan and the European Union were also championing a code of conduct for responsible investment after growing farmland acquisition or “land grabs” in emerging nations.


G-8 Countries Pledge Aid to Skeptical Africa

Activists were disappointed in African aid packages proposed this week by the Group of Eight industrialized nations meeting in Japan, Agence France-Presse (AFP) reports (afp.google.com 7/8).

World leaders on Tuesday, July 8, set a five-year deadline to provide $60 billion to fight disease in Africa, but similar, unfulfilled promises were made three years ago. Aid workers said the pledge meant little to the continent&rsquos poor.

&ldquoOnly when they come through with the $25 billion for Africa will we have cause to celebrate,&rdquo said Charles Abani, Southern Africa regional director for Oxfam International. &ldquoThe money is a pittance for the G-8, but for poor Africans it could mean a future with lifesaving medicines and the chance to learn to read and write.&rdquo

The G-8 said that aid from &ldquothe G-8 and other donors to Africa should be reassessed and may need to be increased for the period after 2010, beyond our current commitments.&rdquo

This year&rsquos meeting comes at the halfway point of the United Nations-backed Millennium Development Goals, which set the target of eradicating the world&rsquos worst poverty by 2015. Japan called for the current summit to focus on health and development.

&ldquoI&rsquom disappointed although I must say we didn&rsquot expect much from this G-8,&rdquo said Bob Geldof, founder of the Live Aid concert for Africa in 1985. Aid pledges were meaningless unless individual governments allocated funds in their budgets, he said.

For UNAIDS/Kaiser Family Foundation&rsquos complete analysis of available HIV/AIDS funding from the G-8, the European Commission and other donor governments in 2007, click here.


How Lasting Is the Legacy of the Live 8 Charity Concert?

A voyage to the bottom of a T-shirt drawer prompts a look back at a major event in the history of celebrity charity concerts, 2005's Live 8, Philadelphia.

The other day, needing something to break up the rotation of my T-shirt wardrobe, I reached for a souvenir I hadn’t worn in years.

It’s a tie-die shirt commemorating the Live 8 concerts, a series of performances by pop stars big and small across the globe, aiming to pressure governments and multinational corporations to enact debt relief for struggling African countries in advance of the upcoming Group of 8 (G8) conference. It was quite a massive undertaking, spearheaded by rocker-turned-activist
Bob Geldof, who’d taken on using rock celebrity to shine a light on global issues as his calling. It fell almost 20 years to the day after Geldof staged Live Aid, a day of concerts in Philadelphia and London to help alleviate famine in Ethiopia. This was a cause Geldof first engaged by producing the charity single “Do They Know It’s Christmas?” the previous year.

My T-shirt lists the acts performing at Philadelphia on the front and the acts performing at Paris London Berlin Rome Edinburgh, Scotland (the site of the G8 conference) and Barrie, Canada (north of Toronto) on the back. Concerts were added in Japan, Moscow, and Johannesburg either this happened after the shirts were printed or organizers didn’t try to include all those other lineups on one back.

Destiny’s Child at Live 8 Philadelphia in 2005. (CC BY-SA 2.0 / Wikimedia Commons)

Overall, the lineups were heavy on global rock superstars like Paul McCartney and U2, with popular national favorites filling out the slates. That was the better — or so it was thought — to attract global attention to an issue only global economic policy wonks, and Africans thought much about. Among those performing throughout the world that day were:

  • Pink Floyd (in a one-time-only reunion of the classic quartet lineup) and Elton John in London
  • Andrea Bocelli and the Cure in Paris (my shirt lists Jamiroquai as the headliner there, but they canceled, claiming they had no idea they’d been booked for the performance)
  • Bryan Adams, Celine Dion, and DMC (without Run, but with the less-famous half of Aerosmith for “Walk This Way”) in Canada (Tegan and Sara canceled due to illness Neil Young closed the show with “O Canada”)
  • Brian Wilson, Roxy Music, and Green Day in Berlin (Crosby, Stills & Nash and not-yet-Ms. Lauryn Hill are listed on my shirt, but both acts canceled)
  • Annie Lennox, Travis and James Brown (!) in Edinburgh
  • Bjork and Good Charlotte in Japan
  • The Pet Shop Boys in Moscow and
  • Duran Duran and Faith Hill & Tim McGraw in, of all places, Rome (Hill and McGraw were listed on the shirt as headliners but performed towards the middle of the show Duran Duran didn’t make it to the shirt).

At the bottom of the shirt is the concert date: July 2, 2005. How convenient of me to excavate it just as the event is approaching its 15th anniversary.

I bought the shirt at the Philadelphia show, where I was living at the time. I wrote about the show, and the complicated local run-up, for this very magazine (“When I Say ‘Debt’ You Say ‘Relief‘: Live 8 in Philadelphia”, 6 July 2005) if I remembered more about that day I’d add it here, but I don’t. You can check out the Wikipedia page for a basic history of the global event there are also several videos of performances from the concerts on YouTube.

Now 15 years on, Live 8 is pretty much a memory that lives on, most likely, in the bottom of T-shirt drawers across the world. Many of the performers that day are still doing their things (Keith Urban, Madonna, Coldplay), others are stuck in your 󈧄s time capsule (Dido, Robbie Williams, the Kaiser Chiefs). Destiny’s Child is no longer a regularly working group, but its lead singer has done okay for herself in the years since. South Africa’s Lucky Dube, Canada’s Gordon Downie, and France’s Johnny Hallyday are among those who have passed. You might be able to name Willow Smith’s last record more quickly than her dad’s.

The most glaring thing about the lineups is that only one Africa-based act, Senegal legend Youssou N’Dour, was scheduled at the time of that T-shirt’s printing to perform at any of the shows. (The shirt said he’d be in Edinburgh, but he ended up closing out the Paris show with his international hit 𔄟 Seconds”.)

Otherwise, the African presence on Live 8 stages that day was scant. Among the meager number were South Africa’s Mahotella Queens in Edinburgh the African Guitar Summit, a group of nine African expats living in Canada Cote D’Ivoire’s Alpha Blondy in Paris and the African Children’s Choir, who backed up Mariah Carey on one song in London.

Considering the concert was supposed to focus on making life better in Africa, Geldof and other organizers were rightly called out for the absence of performers from the continent, or anywhere else in the African diaspora for that matter (outside of the Philly show, all the headliners on the initial bills were white). That’s how Snoop Dogg and British rapper Ms. Dynamite got tacked onto the London show, and why they added the Johannesburg concert. It’s also why Peter Gabriel, a champion of African issues and musicians for longer than Geldof had been and with far more street cred, organized a counter-concert in England with an all-African lineup (hosted, it seems, by Gabriel and Angelina Jolie), Africa Calling.

Was Live 8 a success? Depends on whom you ask. Geldof was proud of the G8’s pledge to increase aid to Africa by $25 billion. Still, there does not seem to have been any lasting effort from any Live 8-related entity to ensure that money happened. But they did sell an awful lot of CDs, DVDs, and T-shirts it’s not immediately clear to what specific ends that money went, since no one much bothered to independently track that revenue. Ten years after the event, Forbes magazine concluded the results were decidedly mixed.

Its greatest legacy might be as a signature event in the long history of music celebrity charity efforts. It contains multitudes, starting in earnest with The Concert for Bangladesh, produced by George Harrison in 1971. There’s the epic “check your egos at the door” recording session Quincy Jones convened to make ” We Are the World” the Farm Aid concerts spearheaded by Willie Nelson, John Mellencamp and Neil Young high-profile events after the 9/11 attacks a 2010 telethon after earthquakes ravaged Haiti concerts after the 2015 Paris nightclub bombing the One Love Manchester concert in 2017 and even more than I can quickly list here. It also includes numerous charity albums, including the series of Red Hot albums produced in the fight against AIDS.

“Live 8s” Today

Of course, we’ve seen a new round of such efforts lately, responding to the COVID-19 pandemic and protests against police brutality and racial inequality. They’ve ranged from the inspired to the tone-deaf (the aforementioned “Do They Know It’s Christmas?” still ranks high on that dishonor roll), as has much celebrity activism in recent years, especially on social media. The ubiquitous presence of celebrities weighing in on the issues of the day, to whatever good it accomplishes (or not), is a theme of Dave Chappelle’s most recent Netflix special, 8:46 and was amplified by Allison Herman at The Ringer.

Have all these high-profile events made a difference? Probably for the better, if the money raised went properly to agencies best disposed to use it effectively. Have they shifted the level of awareness about their causes? Yes, at least in the moment of the event, but what happens after everyone leaves is anyone’s guess. Do they move the needle towards lasting change, and if so, how far? The cynic in me says “not much, if at all”, but I wouldn’t know how to quantify that. The larger question might be: what kind of shape are we in to begin with, if we need a mega-star to tell us Africa is suffering, or to wear a mask in the middle of a pandemic, or that Black lives really do matter?

Interestingly, Geldof himself thinks the moment for such large-scale, live charity concerts has passed. “…That instrument of change is no longer plausible. Rock and roll was the central spine of our culture for 50 years. The web has broken down the world into individualism and that’s easy for authoritarians to use,” he lamented to the Dnevna pošta back in March 2020, just before the pandemic took hold in America.

Although live concerts by worldwide stars may no longer be the best way to generate mass support for a cause (whenever such concerts could conceivably happen again post-pandemic), the practice of musicians raising their voices isn’t ending anytime soon. Recently was “Black Power Live”, an online benefit concert this past weekend for organizations supporting the Movement for Black Lives, featuring progressive young Black artists such as Miguel, Blood Orange and Doja Cat. Again, it might be worth some curious journalist’s time to follow the money from these current efforts to gauge their true effectiveness, if the organizers themselves don’t provide such disclosure.

As it happened, Live 8 — and the urgency of African debt relief — faded from the American limelight as soon as Philly picked up the trash. Eight weeks later, it was superseded by a catastrophe far closer to home: Hurricane Katrina, and the devastation it brought upon both New Orleans’ already-fragile infrastructure and its people (and yes, that devastation lingers on, 15 years later). You might remember there was a celebrity concert then too. This one had the good sense to feature actual Big Easy performers singing about their hometown. Still, it’s probably best known as the first time Kanye West decided he had something to say.

But while the world of celebrity charity concerts has changed markedly since July 2, 2005, one thing hasn’t changed: a Stevie Wonder performance is still a resplendent, beatific event.

And with that, happy 15th anniversary, Live 8. Keep up the struggle. And thanks for the shirt.

Navedena djela

Chapelle, Dave. 8:46 . Promotional. YouTube. Accessed 29 June 2020.

D’Agostino, Ryan. We Are the World: Inside Pop Music’s Most Famous All-Nighter”. Esquire. 24 June 2020.

Edmunds, Chantalle. “Bob Geldof claims Live Aid wouldn’t happen again today because the internet has made the world ‘too individualistic'”. Dnevna pošta. 10 March 2020.

Forrest, Adam. “Did Live 8 Work? 10 Years On, The Debt Burden Returns”. Forbes. 13 July 2015

Kantor, Jacqueline. “Gun Violence Is Devastating New Orleans. Big Freedia Wants to End It”. The Ringer. 25 June 2020.

Spangler, Todd. “Beyoncé Visual Album ‘Black Is King’ Coming to Disney Plus”. Raznolikost. 28 June 2020.

West, Kanya. “Kanye West Hurricane Katrina”. YouTube. 3 March 2006.


Large Pledge of aid by G8 to Arica - History

German Chancellor Angela Merkel said on Friday that aid promises made by the G8 nations to Africa will be delivered.

"We are aware of our responsibilities and our obligations will be fulfilled," Merkel said during a meeting with African leaders at an outreach session of the G8 summit in the northern German Baltic resort.

The G8 leaders agreed on an aid package of US$60 billion to fight AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other killer diseases in Africa .

About US$30 billion from the aid package have been pledged by the United States , and Germany has also announced an offer of 4 billion euros (US$5.5 billion) to fight diseases in Africa .

International activists, however, said they were disappointed by the inaction of the developed countries.

Meanwhile, the G8 leaders urged Iran to suspend all enrichment-related and reprocessing activities, and to fully cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

In a statement issued at the conclusion of the three-day summit, the G8 said it is still committed to resolving the Iranian nuclear issue by diplomatic means.

The G8 leaders also voiced their support for the six-party talks through which the international community is making efforts to solve the nuclear issue on the Korea Peninsula.

The leaders urged the Sudanese government to accept an international peace mission designed to solve the humanitarian crisis in the Darfur region. They underlined that "there is no military solution" to the conflict in Darfur .

The leaders also called for a prompt conclusion of the deadlocked Doha Round trade talks.

We "call on all WTO members to demonstrate constructive flexibility to bring these negotiations to a prompt successful conclusion," the G8 leaders said in a statement.

On Thursday, the G8 leaders sealed a compromise on climate change which Merkel described as a "real turning point."

Merkel told reporters that the leaders have agreed to "substantially" cut greenhouse gases in the fight against climate change, which is a "great success."

Still, environmental organization Green Peace said it was disappointed by the G8 agreement.

"This is too little," said Green Peace, noting that the G8 leaders have finally failed to agree on binding targets.

Germany , which holds the rotating G8 presidency, has called for actions to limit the rise in global temperatures to two degrees Celsius this century, which experts say requires a global reduction in emissions of 50 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.

However, the United States , the world's biggest greenhouse gas producer, had voiced "fundamental opposition" to mandatory targets, making climate change one of the most controversial issues during the upcoming G8 summit.

Chinese President Hu Jintao on Friday highlighted the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities" in tackling climate change.

"We should adhere to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities established in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change," he told the outreach session between the G8 nations and five major developing countries.

This principle, which recognizes differences among countries in the level of economic development, historical responsibility and current per capita emissions, forms the basis for maintaining and promoting future international cooperation, said Hu.

"Climate change is an environmental issue, but it is, in essence, a development issue," he said, adding that it occurred in the course of development and should be resolved in the context of sustainable development.

On another contentious issue concerning the US plan of a missile defense system in Central Europe, Russian President Vladimir Putin made a surprise offer to his US counterpart George W. Bush.

Putin told Bush that Moscow would not oppose a US plan of a radar-based missile defense system in Europe if it was deployed in Azerbaijan instead of Central Europe .

According to US National Security Adviser Steve Hadley, defense experts from the two sides will discuss the possibility of Putin's initiative.

Putin said he was satisfied with talks with Bush and explained that an Azerbaijan-based US missile defense shield would alleviate Russia 's concerns about it, which would cover all of Europe rather part of it.

Reports said that the two leaders also agreed to a strategic dialogue involving military and diplomacy.

The meeting between the two on the sidelines of the G8 summit was aimed to reduce high tension between the two sides over the US plan of deploying the missile defense shield in the Czech Republic and Poland .

Meanwhile, G8 leaders called for more efforts to adjust global imbalances in the world economy, although they appeared upbeat about the world economy.

They also pledged to intensify anti-corruption efforts, both at the national and international levels, terming the fight against corruption as "one of the most important tasks of the G8."


G-8 $60B AIDS Pledge Misses Target with 'Vague Rhetoric'

Group of Eight leaders were criticized Friday for failing to lay out specifics for their $60 billion package to fight AIDS and other diseases ravaging Africa.

Humanitarian and development organizations shook their head in dismay at the missing timetable for the disbursement of the funds as G8 leaders congratulated one another on their achievements on the final day of the summit.

"The G-8 has failed in its response to the global HIV and AIDS crisis by missing the mark on funding and offering vague rhetoric to the millions of men, women and children living with the virus and at risk in the developing world," lamented Christian relief and development group World Vision in a statement.

On Friday, G-8 nations reaffirmed their 2005 Gleneagles summit promises to double aid to Africa by the end of the decade and ensure universal access to prevention, treatment and care of people affected with HIV and AIDS, according to Reuters. In 2005 leaders pledged to raise annual aid level by $50 billion by 2010, $25 billion of which is for Africa.

In addition, G-8 leaders said Friday they would provide at least $60 billion to fight AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, but gave no specific time for the completion of the disbursement nor the contribution of individual countries.

"I am exasperated," Irish rock star and anti-poverty campaigner Bono told Reuters. "I think it is deliberately the language of obfuscation. It is deliberately misleading."

Others are concern that the lack of specificity in the agreement will lead to the G-8 nations failing to reach their goals.

"If these governments fail to lay out the details of their strategies for success, then how can they hope to achieve their 2010 and 2015 targets," questioned Marwin Meier, WV's HIV and AIDS specialist in Germany.

World Vision is one of the world's largest aid and relief agencies and has worked for decades with development in Africa. It has also provides prevention, treatment and care in HIV and AIDS affected communities since the pandemic started.

Meier, like others, called for a concrete plan to ensure the implementation of the G-8 pledges – such as each G-8 government setting up a year-by-year plan to meet their commitments.

The G-8 leaders did, however, lay out specific figures for prevention of mother-to-child transmission and pediatric treatment. More than a third of all children born to HIV-positive mothers in developing nations develop HIV because their mothers have no access to medicine or information to prevent the child's infection.

President Bush said the United States will take responsibility for $30 billion or half the total G-8 pledge amount. Last week Bush had announced plans to double the U.S. AIDS commitment from $15 to $30 billion over the course of five years. His announcement drew praises from religious leaders and aid organizations.


Large Pledge of aid by G8 to Arica - History

Officials said half of that amount would come from the United States.

On the final day of their summit, they repeated a commitment made at the 2005 Gleneagles summit to double aid for Africa by the end of the decade.

But anti-poverty campaigners expressed disappointment, with Bob Geldof saying the outcome was a "total farce".

The pledge followed a deal to seek "substantial" cuts in greenhouse gas emissions in an effort to tackle climate change.

US President George Bush missed the first few hours of business on Friday, suffering from a stomach complaint.

At the close of the summit, the G8 issued a number of statements on other topics, saying:

    It supported "further measures" against Iran if Tehran failed to stop its uranium enrichment programme

Mr Bush announced last month that the US would dedicate $30bn to the fight against Aids, and diplomats confirmed that would make up half of the funding announced on Friday.

The BBC's James Robbins, who is at the summit, says the pledge follows acknowledgement that the G8 members had not met their 2005 commitments.

They have now agreed to a declaration stressing their firm resolve to implement those commitments, and to keep Africa at the top of the agenda in Japan next year.

Specifically, after much wrangling, the eight agreed to make up the $500m shortfall in this year's spending for education in Africa, our correspondent says.

But anti-poverty campaigners were unimpressed by the moves.

"This wasn't serious, this was a total farce. I won't have it spun as anything else except a farce," Bob Geldof said.

He added that instead of re-committing to the promises made two years ago, the G8 leaders had to get serious and deliver.

But he praised UK Prime Minister Tony Blair for pursuing the anti-poverty campaign "to the point of exhaustion".

Oxfam said only $3bn of the money was new.

UK development agency Tearfund said there was nothing in the G8 communique which could benefit trade in Africa, and the key issues of water and sanitation were not mentioned at all.

The Aids package was also criticised as inadequate.

"While lives will be saved with more money for Aids, this represents a cap on ambition that will ultimately cost millions more lives," said Steve Cockburn of the Stop Aids Campaign.


Large Pledge of aid by G8 to Arica - History

Foreign Aid and Debt to Africa: The Debate Continues

ActionAid International, an international development agency whose aim is to fight poverty worldwide, has long indicated that the world s richest nations greatly exaggerate the amount they spend on aid to poor countries especially to Africa. In the same token, Professor Jeffrey Sachs in his book titled: The End of Poverty: How We Can Make it Happen in Our Lifetime gave a vivid vindication to this assertion. David Sogge (a veteran aid worker) in Give and Take: What is the Matter With Foreign Aid said that aid is ambiguous and that its public image is one of Western beneficence and non-Western beggary. The ambiguity in this aid-debt debate is the fact that the donors take more than they give in the overall equation. A few years back, a UN report noted that between 1970 and 2002, African countries received some $540 billion in loans, paid back close to $550 billion in principal and interest, and still held debt of $295 billion at the end of 2002. A sympathetic aid indeed! Although these figures could vary according to regions, most discussions on this theme can assume some modicum of homogeneity. Michael Maren, a former USAID worker (by any means an insider) concluded that foreign aid to Africa could be positively evil . This is probably what prompted Colonel Moammar Ghaddafi to alert fellow Africans to reject aid or as he put it begging , at the opening of the 5 th Ordinary Session of the African Union in Tripoli on the eve of the G8 Summit. In a paraphrase, Ghaddafi urged fellow Africans not to go begging, reject conditional aid and embrace self reliance. Although this sounds commendable, it is off course expected that he will have a hard task selling this tune. And so was the outcome.

Aid is often used loosely to cover all forms of resources transfer from governments, official institutions or NGOs to governments or people of developing countries or where such is needed. Unfortunately, this has not been the case. While the concept of aid (to give to the needy) has been enshrined in the context of human existence, in contemporary times, it has been used to promote certain objectives. To this end, donors perceive and define aid to suit their strategic motives. Where aid has been provided, it is often tied to foreign policy objectives and regardless of how it is defined it has never been an unconditional transfer of resources and it will not be even as the current debate unravels.

Over the past few decades in post independent Africa, the debate on aid has been ripe with contradictions as to whom, when and how aid should be given. The debate with donors has often centred on the amount available, the economic, social and even political conditions that must be met before being disbursed. And this nagging mostly continues at the expense of the real poor who the aid package is meant for. Most of the aid has indeed been driven by geopolitical and commercial interests rather than by efforts to protect and enhance human rights. In the 1980s and sometime thereafter, donor conditions and their stringent requirements have sometimes forced governments to cut essential services including health, education, infrastructure and even agricultural subsidy. Although estimates of the financing needs of African countries vary, it all points to the fact that the current efforts by donors are grossly inadequate.

When the former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Paul O Neil lamented that the US had spent trillions of dollars with nothing to show for it, Jeffrey Sachs indicated that it is no surprise because there has infact been so little aid to Africa. In the same book mentioned above, Sachs graphically mentioned that the amount of aid per year is just $30 per sub-Saharan African in 2002 from the entire world. Further breakdown of this amount shows that $5 goes to the various consultants from donor countries more than $3 went to food and emergency aid, $4 for servicing debts and another $5 for debt relief operations. Finally, indeed, it is only $12 that went to Africa in the name of aid. The reader is hereby left alone to ponder and complete the arithmetic on how $12 or so can help in eradicating poverty or even add to the quality of life that is being talked about.

In contemporary development discourse and indeed recently, singing in concert that says, Make Poverty History , the issue of foreign aid and debt in Africa has re-emerged with added puissance (especially after the launching of the Blair Commission for Africa in 2004). Before the current pre-G8 razzmatazz and the brouhaha that was started by Tony Blair on the eve of his EU presidency, a large number of fronts have been opened to debate this issue and seek for solutions. In addition to the Commission for Africa, one can mention the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Bono s DATA (Debt, Aid, Trade for Africa), Actionaid International, Oxfam, and many other reputable NGOs that have committed themselves to fighting foreign aid and injustices in and to Africa. It is therefore no surprise to scholars and political observers when we saw the erudite and once charismatic Tony Blair took over the political operative that facilitated the current intense hype on African aid and debt debate.

While these activities continue to be relevant, it should be noted that simply increasing aid alone is not enough! In order to achieve success in this whole process, complete debt forgiveness is probably the first step. Furthermore, there is the need to escalate growth and put in place building blocks that could be used to achieve the targets set for the Millennium Development Goals. For these goals to be met either, by the year 2015 or anytime sooner anyway, a concert of frameworks that will produce results will include policies of good governance, transparency and debt management. Others will include the diversification of the economy and a sustainable economic growth. Some of these frameworks cannot be put in place as there are priorities that will have to be addressed and the accessibility to markets is to some extent beyond the reach of most African producers. For example, the farm bill that George Bush signed early in the first term of his presidency gave American farmers about $20 billion a year in subsidies. The question is how can we turn this around or at least use this moment to the benefit of the whole of Africa?

Secondly, there is the need to target aid posts where it is mostly needed. At the moment, aid mismanagement is rampant all over Africa. This mismanagement and the lack of effectiveness leads to spending on overpriced technical assistance on international consultants tying aid to purchases from donor countries, lack of monitoring and reporting excessive administrative costs, etc. Consequently, recipient governments have now realized that they have to engage in reforms leading to democracy, accountability, transparency etc. Some of these are already enshrined in the NEPAD framework. But in addition to the much talked about monitoring and peer review process, for which by the end of the year 2004 only 16 countries have signed, there has to be a framework of performance pledge. Performance pledge can be carved in such a way that it will tally well with the targets of the MDGs.

Finally, this article is written on the premise that unless a drastic change occurs on the part of the developed world with regard to how Africa is viewed, treated and assisted, the notion of aid will continuously fail to achieve its aim. Unless also, utilization of such aid and institutional frameworks undergo drastic changes in Africa, no positive outcome will emerge.

Dr. Lawal M. Marafa Teaches at The Chinese University of Hong Kong


G8 pledges AIDS help for Africa

The G8 declared today its support for universal access to anti-HIV drugs in Africa by 2010 and for African children orphaned by AIDS, in an initiative that campaigners hailed as one of the summit's successes.

The Group of Eight said it would back the goal of an "AIDS-free generation" in Africa, the continent whose plight dominated the three day summit in the Scottish golf resort.

Working with UN health agencies and African governments, the G8 will "develop and implement a package for HIV prevention, treatment and care, with the aim of as close as possible to universal access to treatment for all in need of it by 2010," a declaration said.

"We will also work with them to ensure that all children left orphaned or vulnerable by AIDS and other pandemics are given proper support.

"We will work to meet the financing needs for HIV/AIDS, including through the replenishment this year of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria."

Of the 39.4 million people in the world living with AIDS or the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), nearly two-thirds - 25.4 million - live south of the Sahara.

Around 4.2 million of them face a death sentence for they lack of access to antiretroviral drugs, the lifeline for an HIV-infected person.

So far, only 500,000 needy Africans are receiving these treatments, according to figures released on June 29 by the World Health Organisation (WHO).

AIDS campaigners paid tribute to the summit's pledge, although they cautioned they would scrutinise the follow-up.

G8 leaders "have produced one of the summit's success by responding courageously to the scale of the AIDS emergency," said the campaign group Make Poverty History.

"(They) have started to restore hope to the 40 million people currently living - and dying - with HIV."

But it said donors would be closely monitored to see they replenished the Global Fund's coffers at a conference in London this September.

"Without adequate financing, this bold and visionary target could become another of the broken promises that litter the history of the pandemic."

Simon Wright of the British NGO Action AID said he was "quite pleased" with promise of helping to get universal access, a goal for which his group had been fighting for two years.

The G8's textual nuance of getting "as close as possible" to universal access was understandable, as this goal was hard to define, he told AFP.

"The question is delivering on the promise," he said.

In the worst-hit countries of southern Africa, the life expectancy of someone born between 1995 and 2000 is now just 49. Without AIDS, it would have been 62.

Last year, 2.3 million Africans died of AIDS, inflicting a devastating economic and social cost, in lost skills, wasted capital and orphaned children.


Gledaj video: Povijest Cetvrtkom - 1948 godina 1 dio (Svibanj 2022).


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