Povijesti Podcasti

Daniel Defoe

Daniel Defoe



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Daniel Defoe, sin mesara, rođen je u Londonu 1660. Pohađao je Mortonovu akademiju, školu za disidente na Newington Greenu s namjerom da postane ministar, ali se predomislio i umjesto toga postao trgovac čarapama.

Godine 1685. Defoe je sudjelovao u Monmouth pobuni i pridružio se Williamu III i njegovoj napredujućoj vojsci. Defoe je postao popularan kod kralja nakon objavljivanja njegove pjesme, Istinski rođeni Englez (1701). Pjesma je napala one koji su imali predrasude da imaju kralja stranca.

Objavljivanje Defoeova Najkraći put s neistomišljenicima (1702) uzrujao veliki broj moćnih ljudi. U pamfletu je Defoe, disident, ironično zahtijevao surovo suzbijanje neslaganja. Procijenjeno je da je pamflet kritičan prema Anglikanskoj crkvi, a Defoe je kažnjen, stavljen u stub Charing Cross i poslan u zatvor Newgate.

1703. Robert Harley, grof od Oxforda, dužnosnik torijevske vlade, zaposlio je Defoea kao špijuna. Uz podršku vlade, Defoe je pokrenuo novine, Pregled. Novine su izlazile između 1704. i 1713. godine, a izlazile su tri puta tjedno. Kao i nošenje komercijalnog oglašavanja Pregled izvještavali o političkim i društvenim pitanjima. Defoe je također napisao nekoliko brošura u kojima Harley napada političku oporbu. Whigovi su se obratili sudu Defoe, što je rezultiralo time da je odslužio novu zatvorsku kaznu.

1719. Defoe se okrenuo pisanju beletristike. Njegovi romani uključuju: Robinson Crusoe (1719), Kapetan Singleton (1720), Glasnik godine kuge (1722), Kapetan Jack (1722), Moll Flanders (1722.) i Roxanda (1724).

Defoe je također napisao knjigu s tri sveska, Obilazak cijelog otoka Velike Britanije (1724-27) koji je iz prve ruke pružio živopisan prikaz stanja u zemlji. Ostale znanstvene knjige uključuju Potpuni trgovac engleskim jezikom (1726.) i London najcvjetaniji grad u svemiru (1728). Defoe je objavio više od 560 knjiga i brošura te se smatra utemeljiteljem britanskog novinarstva. Daniel Defoe umro je 1731.


Daniel Defoe Put in the Pillory

Nakon objavljivanja Najkraći put s neistomišljenicima, Defoe je optužen za pobunjeničku klevetu i stavljen u stup posljednja tri dana u srpnju 1703. godine.

Krajem 1702. Daniel Defoe bio je u ranim četrdesetima, rođen i odgojen londonski disident, oženjen čovjek s osmero djece, vlasnik ciglane u Tilburyju i vladin liječnik, plaćen da napiše hvalospjeve o politici uprave - aktivnost koja je tada izazivala isti prezir kao i sada. Napisao je i traktate koji zagovaraju veću toleranciju prema neistomišljenicima i u ovom je trenutku napravio ozbiljnu pogrešku. Napisao je anonimni pamflet tzv Najkraći put s neistomišljenicima .

Napisano kao da se pjenio visoko anglikanski revnitelj najzagriženijeg pečata i uvelike se oslanjao na visoke crkvene propovijedi, pamflet je tvrdio da je najbolji način postupanja s neistomišljenicima protjerati ih u inozemstvo i poslati njihove propovjednike do vješala. Rečeno je da je engleska crkva poput Krista razapetog između dva lopova, papista s jedne strane i nekonformističkih sektaša s druge. Dobro, razapnimo lopove. I dalje ih tolerirati je kao dopustiti da se kuga nastavi bez liječničkog liječenja. Defoeova je namjera bila izrugivati ​​se visoko anglikanskom položaju dovodeći ga do krajnosti, ali nekoliko uglednih visokih crkvenjaka, nespretno ili možda sa smislom za humor, dali su mu podršku.

Vlasti sigurno nisu bile zabavljene, kao ni neistomišljenici. Identitet osobe koja je odnijela tekst tiskaru brzo je otkriven, pa je i identitet autora i ponuđena značajna nagrada za njegovo uhićenje. Defoe se sakrio i objavio Kratko objašnjenje kasnog pamfleta reći da je pogrešno shvaćen. U veljači je Donji dom imao Najkraći put spalio obični vješalac. Izdani zbog nagrade, Defoe je u svibnju uhvaćen u Spitalfieldsu i zatočen u zatvor Newgate gdje je imao relativno ugodan smještaj o svom trošku. Pušten je uz jamčevinu u lipnju, a njegovo suđenje za pobunjeničku klevetu počelo je početkom sljedećeg mjeseca i brzo je završilo. Izjašnjavajući se o krivici, koliko je tehnički bio, i tražeći milost zbog toga što nije mislio da ga se shvaća ozbiljno, osuđen je da tri puta stane u stub, plati visoku kaznu i ostane u zatvoru dok ne može dati jamstva za njegovo lijepo ponašanje sedam godina.

Stub je korišten za kažnjavanje maloljetnih počinitelja, uključujući varalice, lažljivce, izgrednike i homoseksualce, sramotivši ih u javnosti. Gomila ih je mogla zasipati pokvarenim jajima i voćem, mrtvim mačkama i psima, blatom i svim vrstama prljavštine, a u ekstremnim slučajevima kamenjem, loncima i drugim projektilima koji su nanijeli ozbiljne ozljede. Neki su ubijeni ili osakaćeni doživotno. Defoe je stavljen u stup posljednja tri dana srpnja, svaki sat po sat na tri najprometnija mjesta u Londonu - izvan Kraljevske burze u Cornhillu (u blizini njegove kuće), u blizini kanala u Cheapsideu i na kraju u Floti Ulica uz Temple Bar. Čini se da je većinu vremena stalno padala kiša, što bi, iako neugodno, spriječilo gužvu, a iskustvo se pokazalo više kao trijumf nego kao iskušenje. Na njega su bacali samo cvijeće dok su njegovi prijatelji gledateljima prodavali kopije Najkraći put i Himna stubovima koje je za tu priliku sastavio.

Defoe je poslan natrag u Newgate. Njegova ciglana je bankrotirala, nije mogao platiti kaznu i počeo se osjećati potpuno depresivno. Vlada je u međuvremenu počela razmatrati ima li možda njegove koristi. U studenom je Defoeova kazna plaćena iz sredstava tajnih službi i pušten je iz Newgatea. Nazvao je to čudom. U roku od godinu dana zaposlio se za izdavanje redovitih novina koje su pokazale ministarstvo u povoljnom svjetlu i za vladinog špijuna, a 1706. poslan je u Škotsku radi prikupljanja političkih obavještajnih podataka i dalje planirane unije s Engleskom. Nastavio je s propagandom za uzastopna ministarstva. Tek mnogo kasnije okrenuo se otvorenom pisanju beletristike i proizveo djelo po kojemu je ostao upamćen, Robinson Crusoe 1719. godine.


Priznati pisac

Budući da se oduvijek zanimao za politiku, Defoe je 1683. objavio svoj prvi književni rad, politički pamflet. Nastavio je pisati politička djela, radeći kao novinar, sve do početka 1700 -ih. Mnoga djela Defoea i apossa tijekom tog razdoblja ciljano su podržavala kralja Williama III., Također poznatog i kao "William William of Orange." Neka od njegovih najpopularnijih djela uključuju Istinski rođen Englez, koji su rasvijetlili rasne predrasude u Engleskoj nakon napada na Williama jer je bio stranac i Pregled, časopis koji je izlazio od 1704. do 1713. godine, za vrijeme vladavine kraljice Ane, kralja Williama II i nasljednika apossa. Politički protivnici Defoea i apossa više su ga puta zatvarali zbog svog pisanja 1713.

Defoe je novim književnim putem krenuo 1719., oko 59. godine, kada je objavio Robinson Crusoe, igrani roman temeljen na nekoliko kratkih eseja koje je godinama skladao. Nekoliko romana uslijedilo je ubrzo nakon —često s lupežima i kriminalcima kao glavnim likovima — uključujući Moll Flanders, Pukovnik Jack, Kapetan Singleton, Glasnik godine kuge i njegovo posljednje veliko igrano djelo, Roksana (1724).

Sredinom 1720-ih, Defoe se vratio pisanju uredničkih članaka, usredotočujući se na teme poput morala, politike i sloma društvenog poretka u Engleskoj. Neki od njegovih kasnijih djela uključuju Posao za sve i apose nije posao za nikoga i aposa (1725) esej o književnosti & quot; Konjugalska razvratnost: ili, Bračna bludnica & quot (1727) i nastavak eseja & quot; Konjugalska razvratnost & quot; Rasprava o upotrebi i zlouporabi bračne postelje. & Quot


Sadržaj

Crusoe (prezime oštećeno od njemačkog imena "Kreutznaer") otplovilo je iz Kingstona na Hull na morsko putovanje u kolovozu 1651., protivno željama njegovih roditelja, koji su htjeli da se bavi odvjetništvom. Nakon burnog putovanja na kojem mu je brod stradao u oluji, želja za morem ostaje toliko snažna da ponovno kreće na more. I ovo putovanje završava katastrofom, jer brod preuzimaju gusari Salé (Salé Rovers), a Crusoe porobljava Mavar. Dvije godine kasnije bježi u čamcu s dječakom po imenu Xury koji ga spašava kapetan portugalskog broda kod zapadne obale Afrike. Brod je na putu u Brazil. Crusoe prodaje Xuryja kapetanu. Uz kapetanovu pomoć, Crusoe nabavlja plantažu.

Godinama kasnije, Crusoe se pridružuje ekspediciji koja dovodi robove iz Afrike, ali je doživio brodolom u oluji udaljenoj oko 40 milja do mora na otoku u blizini venecuelanske obale (koju naziva Otok očaja) u blizini ušća rijeke Orinoco 30. rujna 1659. [1] (Poglavlje 23) Promatra geografsku širinu kao 9 stupnjeva i 22 minute sjeverno. Na svom otoku vidi pingvine i tuljane. Što se tiče njegova dolaska tamo, samo su on i tri životinje, kapetanov pas i dvije mačke, preživjele brodolom. Svladavši očaj, on donosi brodove s oružja, alata i drugih potrepština prije nego što se on raspadne i potone. On gradi ograđeno stanište u blizini špilje koju iskopava. Pravljenjem oznaka u drvenom križu izrađuje kalendar. Koristeći alate spašene s broda, a neke koje i sam napravi, lovi, uzgaja ječam i rižu, suši grožđe za izradu grožđica, uči izrađivati ​​posuđe i uzgaja koze. Usvaja i malu papigu. Čita Bibliju i postaje religiozan, zahvaljujući Bogu na svojoj sudbini u kojoj ništa ne nedostaje osim ljudskog društva.

Prolazi više godina i Crusoe otkriva domaće kanibale, koji povremeno posjećuju otok kako bi ubili i pojeli zatvorenike. U početku ih planira ubiti jer su počinili grozotu, ali kasnije shvaća da na to nema pravo, jer kanibali svjesno ne čine zločin. Sanja o tome da dobije jednog ili dva slugu oslobodivši neke zatvorenike kad zatvorenik pobjegne, Crusoe mu pomaže, nazvavši svog novog suputnika "Petkom" po danu u tjednu kada se pojavio. Crusoe ga zatim uči engleski i obraća ga na kršćanstvo.

Nakon što je više domorodaca došlo na gozbu kanibala, Crusoe i petak ubijaju većinu domorodaca i spašavaju dva zatvorenika. Jedan je petakin otac, a drugi je Španjolac, koji Crusoea obavještava o drugim Španjolcima koji su doživjeli brodolom na kopnu. Smišlja se plan u kojem bi se Španjolac s Petkovim ocem vratio na kopno i vratio ostale, izgradio brod i otplovio u španjolsku luku.

Prije nego što se Španjolci vrate, čini se da se engleski brod pojavio kao pobunjenici koji su zapovijedali brodom i namjeravaju iskrcati svog kapetana na otoku. Crusoe i kapetan broda postižu dogovor u kojem Crusoe pomaže kapetanu i vjernim mornarima da preuzmu brod. Dok je njihov zapovjednik pogubljen od strane kapetana, pobunjenici prihvaćaju Crusoejevu ponudu da budu maronizirani na otoku, umjesto da budu vraćeni u Englesku kao zarobljenici na vješanje. Prije nego što je krenuo u Englesku, Crusoe pokazuje pobunjenicima kako je preživio na otoku i navodi da će doći još muškaraca.

Crusoe napušta otok 19. prosinca 1686. i stiže u Englesku 11. lipnja 1687. Doznaje da je njegova obitelj zbog toga vjerovala da je mrtav, pa mu ništa nije ostalo u oporuci oca. Crusoe odlazi u Lisabon kako bi povratio dobit od svog imanja u Brazilu, koje mu je darovalo veliko bogatstvo. Zaključno, on prenosi svoje bogatstvo kopnom u Englesku iz Portugala kako bi izbjegao putovanje morem. Prati ga petak i, na putu, zajedno podnose posljednju avanturu dok se bore s gladnim vukovima dok prelaze Pirineje. [5]

  • Robinson Crusoe: Pripovjedač romana koji je doživio brodolom.
  • Petak: Sluga Robinsona Crusoea.
  • Xury: Bivši sluga Crusoeu. Kasnije se daje portugalskom pomorskom kapetanu kao sluga u zakupu.
  • Udovica: Prijatelj Robinsona Crusoea. Ona pregledava njegovu imovinu dok ga nema.
  • Portugalski kapetan mora: Pomaže spasiti Robinsona Crusoea iz ropstva. Vrlo je velikodušan i blizak s Crusoeom pomaže mu oko njegova novca i plantaže.
  • Španjolac: Spasio ga je Robinson Crusoe i pomogao mu pobjeći s otoka.
  • Otac Robinsona Crusoea: Trgovac po imenu Kreutznaer.

Robinson Crusoe objavljen je 1719. u razdoblju prosvjetiteljstva 18. stoljeća. U romanu Crusoe baca svjetlo na različite aspekte kršćanstva i njegova vjerovanja. Knjiga se može smatrati duhovnom autobiografijom jer se Crusoejevi pogledi na religiju drastično mijenjaju od početka priče pa do kraja.

Na početku knjige Crusoe se bavi otplovljavanjem od kuće, nakon čega na moru susreće snažne oluje. Obećava Bogu da će, ako preživi tu oluju, biti poslušan kršćanin i krenuti kući prema željama svojih roditelja. Međutim, kad Crusoe preživi oluju, odlučuje nastaviti plovidbu i napominje da nije mogao ispuniti obećanja koja je dao tijekom svojih previranja. [1] (p6)

Nakon što je Robinson doživio brodolom na svom otoku, počinje patiti od krajnje izolacije. Okreće se svojim životinjama za razgovor, poput svoje papige, ali mu nedostaje ljudski kontakt. Obraća se Bogu za vrijeme nemira u potrazi za utjehom i vodstvom. Uzima Bibliju s broda koji je bio ispran uz obalu i počinje učiti napamet stihove. U nevolji bi otvorio Bibliju nasumičnoj stranici na kojoj bi čitao stih za koji vjeruje da ga je Bog natjerao da ga otvori i pročita, a to bi mu olakšalo um. Stoga je tijekom vremena u kojem je Crusoe doživio brodolom postao vrlo religiozan i često se obraćao Bogu za pomoć.

Kad Crusoe u petak sretne svog slugu, počinje ga poučavati svetim spisima i o kršćanstvu. Pokušava petkom poučiti najbolje što može o Bogu i o tome što su raj i pakao. Njegova je svrha pretvoriti petak u kršćanina i u njegove vrijednosti i uvjerenja. "Tijekom dugog vremena u koji je petak bio sa mnom, i kada je počeo razgovarati sa mnom i razumjeti me, nisam želio postaviti temelje vjerskog znanja u njegov um, posebno sam ga jednom pitao tko je mu?" [1] (str. 158)

Lynne W. Hinojosa tvrdila je da u cijelom romanu Crusoe tumači sveto pismo na način da "[s] kriptura nikada nema posljedice izvan vlastitih potreba i situacija" (651). Za Hinojosu, Crusoe smješta biblijsku priču u sebe za razliku od ranijih tumačenja svetog pisma u kojima je pojedinac podvrgnut biblijskom pričom. Iz tog razloga, Hinojosa tvrdi da "Crusoe ne pokazuje želju ... da izvrši misiju crkve ili da se ponovno sjedini s društvom kako bi sudjelovao u Božjem planu za ljudsku povijest" (652). [6]

U Defoevo vrijeme bilo je mnogo priča o ulomcima iz stvarnog života. Najpoznatije je to što se Defoe nadahnuo za Robinson Crusoe smatra se škotskim pomorcem Aleksandrom Selkirkom, koji je četiri godine proveo na nenaseljenom otoku Más a Tierra (preimenovan 1966. u otok Robinson Crusoe) [3] (str. 23–24) na otocima Juan Fernández kraj čileanske obale. Selkirka je 1709. spasio Woodes Rogers tijekom engleske ekspedicije koja je dovela do objavljivanja Selkirkovih avantura u oba Putovanje do Južnog mora i oko svijeta i Krstarenje oko svijeta 1712. Prema Timu Severinu, "Daniel Defoe, tajanstven čovjek, nije ni potvrdio ni porekao da je Selkirk uzor junaku njegove knjige. Očigledno napisana za šest mjeseci ili manje, Robinson Crusoe bio izdavački fenomen. "[7]

Autor knjige Crusoeov otok, Andrew Lambert navodi, "ideje da je jedan, pravi Crusoe 'lažna premisa' jer je Crusoeova priča složeni spoj svih ostalih priča o preživljavanju buccaneera." [8] (p nije citirano) [ potreban je potpuni citat ] Međutim, Robinson Crusoe daleko je od kopije Rogersovog izvještaja: Becky Little tvrdi tri događaja koji razlikuju dvije priče:

  1. Robinson Crusoe doživio je brodolom dok je Selkirk odlučio napustiti svoj brod i tako se maronizirati
  2. otok Crusoe na kojemu je došlo do brodoloma već je bio naseljen, za razliku od osamljene prirode Selkirkovih avantura.
  3. Posljednja i najvažnija razlika između dviju priča je to što je Selkirk bio privatnik koji je pljačkao i pljačkao priobalne gradove tijekom Rata za španjolsko nasljedstvo.

"Ekonomski i dinamički značaj knjige potpuno je stran onome što rade buccaneeri", kaže Lambert. "Buccaneers samo žele uloviti malo plijena i doći kući popiti sve, a Crusoe to uopće ne radi. On je ekonomski imperijalist: on stvara svijet trgovine i profita." [8] (p nije citirano) [ potreban je potpuni citat ]

Drugi mogući izvori pripovijesti uključuju Ibn Tufailov Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, i španjolski pomorac iz šesnaestog stoljeća Pedro Serrano. Ibn Tufailov Hayy ibn Yaqdhan je filozofski roman iz dvanaestog stoljeća koji je također smješten na pustom otoku, a preveden je s arapskog na latinski i engleski nekoliko puta u pola stoljeća koje je prethodilo Defoeovom romanu. [9] [10] [11] [12]

Pedro Luis Serrano bio je španjolski pomorac koji je sedam do osam godina bio nasukan na malom pustom otoku nakon brodoloma 1520 -ih godina na malom otoku na Karibima kraj obale Nikaragve. Nije imao pristup slatkoj vodi i živio je od krvi i mesa morskih kornjača i ptica. Bio je prilično slavna osoba kad se vratio u Europu prije nego što je preminuo, zabilježio je patnje pretrpljene u dokumentima koji pokazuju beskrajnu tjeskobu i patnju, proizvod apsolutnog prepuštanja sudbini, koji se sada čuvaju u Općem arhivu Indije u Sevilli . Vrlo je vjerojatno da je Defoe čuo svoju priču u jednom od svojih posjeta Španjolskoj prije nego što je postao pisac do tada je priča bila stara 200 godina, ali još uvijek vrlo popularna.

Još jedan izvor za Defoeov roman mogao je biti izvještaj Roberta Knoxa o njegovoj otmici od strane kralja Ceylona Rajasinhe II od Kandije 1659. godine. Povijesni odnos otočkog Cejlona. [13] [14]

Severin (2002) [3] otkriva mnogo širi i vjerojatniji raspon potencijalnih izvora nadahnuća te zaključuje identificirajući kirurga koji je ubio Henry Henry Pitmana kao najvjerojatnije:

Zaposlenik vojvode od Monmoutha, Pitman je igrao ulogu u Monmouth pobuni. Njegovu kratku knjigu o očajničkom bijegu iz karipske zatvorske kolonije, nakon koje je uslijedilo njegovo brodolomstvo i kasnije avanture na pustim otocima, objavio je John Taylor iz Paternoster Rowa u Londonu, čiji je sin William Taylor kasnije objavio Defoeov roman.

Severin tvrdi da je, budući da je izgledalo da je Pitman živio u konacima iznad očeve izdavačke kuće i da je sam Defoe u to vrijeme bio trgovac na tom području, Defoe je možda upoznao Pitmana osobno i iz prve ruke saznao za njegova iskustva, a možda i putem podnošenje nacrta. [3] Severin također raspravlja o drugom objavljenom slučaju iscrpljenog čovjeka koji se zvao samo Will, Miskito naroda u Srednjoj Americi, koji je možda doveo do prikaza petka. [15]

Secord (1963) [16] analizira sastav Robinson Crusoe te daje popis mogućih izvora priče, odbacujući uobičajenu teoriju da je priča o Selkirku jedini Defoeov izvor.

Knjiga je objavljena 25. travnja 1719. Prije kraja godine ovaj je prvi svezak prošao kroz četiri izdanja.

Do kraja devetnaestog stoljeća nijedna knjiga u povijesti zapadne književnosti nije imala više izdanja, izdvajanja i prijevoda (čak ni na jezike kao što su Inuktitut, koptski i malteški) od Robinson Crusoe, s više od 700 takvih alternativnih verzija, uključujući dječje verzije sa slikama i bez teksta. [17]

Izraz "Robinsonada" smišljen je za opisivanje žanra priča sličnih Robinson Crusoe.

Defoe je napisao manje poznati nastavak, Daljnje avanture Robinzona Crusoea (1719). To je trebao biti posljednji dio njegovih priča, prema izvornoj naslovnoj stranici prvog izdanja nastavka, ali je objavljena treća knjiga (1720.) Ozbiljna razmišljanja tijekom života i iznenađujuće avanture Robinsona Crusoea: s njegovom vizijom svijeta Angelick.

Roman je od objavljivanja podvrgnut brojnim analizama i tumačenjima. U određenom smislu, Crusoe pokušava replicirati svoje društvo na otoku. To se postiže korištenjem europske tehnologije, poljoprivrede, pa čak i rudimentarne političke hijerarhije. Nekoliko puta u romanu Crusoe sebe naziva "kraljem" otoka, dok ga kapetan pobunjenicima opisuje kao "guvernera". Na samom kraju romana otok se naziva "kolonijom". Idealizirani odnos gospodar-sluga koji Defoe prikazuje između Crusoea i petka također se može promatrati u smislu kulturne asimilacije, pri čemu Crusoe predstavlja "prosvijetljenog" Europljanina, dok je petak "divljak" koji se može otkupiti samo od svojih kulturnih manira asimilacijom u Crusoeov Kultura. Bez obzira na to, Defoe je petak iskoristio da kritizira španjolsku kolonizaciju Amerike. [19]

Prema J.P. Hunteru, Robinson nije heroj, već svaki čovjek. Počinje kao lutalica, bez cilja na moru koje ne razumije, a završava kao hodočasnik, prelazeći posljednju planinu kako bi ušao u obećanu zemlju. Knjiga priča priču o tome kako se Robinson približava Bogu, ne kroz slušanje propovijedi u crkvi, već kroz provođenje vremena samog među prirodom sa samo Biblijom za čitanje.

Nasuprot tome, kulturni kritičar i književni znanstvenik Michael Gurnow na roman gleda iz Rousseauijeve perspektive: Kretanje središnjeg lika iz primitivnog stanja u civiliziranije tumači se kao Crusoeovo poricanje ljudskog prirodnog stanja. [20]

Robinson Crusoe ispunjen je vjerskim aspektima. Defoe je bio puritanski moralist i normalno je radio u tradiciji vodiča, pišući knjige o tome kako biti dobar puritanski kršćanin, kao što je Instruktor nove obitelji (1727.) i Vjersko udvaranje (1722). Dok Robinson Crusoe daleko je više od vodiča, dijeli mnoge teme i teološka i moralna gledišta.

"Crusoe" je možda preuzet od Timothyja Crusa, Defoeova kolege iz razreda koji je napisao vodiče, uključujući Bog vodič mladeži (1695), prije nego što je umro u ranoj dobi - samo osam godina prije nego što je Defoe napisao Robinson Crusoe. Suvremenike bi se Cruso sjećali, a povezanost s vodičima jasna je. Čak se nagađalo da se Bog vodič mladeži nadahnuto Robinson Crusoe zbog niza odlomaka u tom djelu koji su usko vezani uz roman. [21] Lajtmotiv romana je kršćanski pojam providnosti, pokore i otkupljenja. [22] Crusoe se pokajao zbog ludosti svoje mladosti. Defoe također naglašava ovu temu dogovarajući vrlo značajne događaje u romanu koji će se dogoditi na Crusoein rođendan. Rasplet kulminira ne samo Crusoejevim oslobođenjem s otoka, već i njegovim duhovnim izbavljenjem, prihvaćanjem kršćanske doktrine i intuicijom vlastitog spasenja.

Kad se suoči s kanibalima, Crusoe se bori s problemom kulturnog relativizma. Unatoč gađenju, osjeća se neopravdano držati domoroce moralno odgovornima za praksu tako duboko ukorijenjenu u njihovu kulturu. Ipak, on zadržava svoje uvjerenje u apsolutni standard morala, smatra kanibalizam "nacionalnim zločinom" i zabranjuje petak da ga prakticira.

U klasičnoj, neoklasičnoj i austrijskoj ekonomiji Crusoe se redovito koristi za ilustriranje teorije proizvodnje i izbora u odsutnosti trgovine, novca i cijena. [23] Crusoe mora rasporediti trud između proizvodnje i razonode te mora birati između alternativnih mogućnosti proizvodnje kako bi zadovoljio svoje potrebe. Dolazak petka tada se koristi za ilustraciju mogućnosti trgovine i dobitaka koji su rezultat toga.

Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, 1719

Djelo je različito čitano kao alegorija za razvoj civilizacije kao manifest ekonomskog individualizma i kao izraz europskih kolonijalnih želja. Značajno je to što također pokazuje važnost pokajanja i ilustrira snagu Defoeovih vjerskih uvjerenja. Kritičar M.E. Novak podržava vezu između religijskih i ekonomskih tema Robinson Crusoe, navodeći Defoeovu vjersku ideologiju kao utjecaj na njegovo prikazivanje Crusoeovih ekonomskih ideala i njegovu podršku pojedincu. Novak citira opsežno istraživanje Iana Watta [24] koje istražuje utjecaj koji je nekoliko romana iz doba romantizma imalo protiv ekonomskog individualizma, te preokret onih ideala koji se događa unutar Robinson Crusoe. [25]

U osvrtu Tess Lewis, "Heroji koje zaslužujemo", članka Iana Watta, ona nadopunjuje Wattov argument razvojem Defoejeve namjere kao autora, "upotrijebiti individualizam za označavanje neskladnosti u religiji i vrijednih osobina oslanjanja na sebe". [26] (p678) To dodatno podupire uvjerenje da je Defoe koristio aspekte duhovne autobiografije kako bi u jednu potpuno uvjerenu vjersku zajednicu predstavio prednosti individualizma. [26] J. Paul Hunter opsežno je pisao na temu Robinson Crusoe kao prividna duhovna autobiografija, koja prati utjecaj Defoeove puritanske ideologije kroz Crusoeovu priču, i njegovo priznanje ljudske nesavršenosti u potrazi za smislenim duhovnim angažmanima - ciklusom "pokajanja [i] izbavljenja". [27]

Taj duhovni obrazac i njegova epizodna priroda, kao i ponovno otkriće ranijih ženskih spisateljica, zadržali su se Robinson Crusoe od toga da se ne klasificira kao roman, a kamoli prvi roman napisan na engleskom jeziku - unatoč naljepnicama na koricama nekih knjiga. Rani kritičari, poput Roberta Louisa Stevensona, divili su se tome, rekavši da je scena s otiskom stopala u Crusoe bio jedan od četiri najveća u engleskoj književnosti i nezaboravno više prozaično, Wesley Vernon je u ovoj epizodi vidio podrijetlo forenzičke podijatrije. [28] Nadahnuo je novi žanr, Robinzonada, kao djela poput Johanna Davida Wyssa Švicarska obitelj Robinson (1812) prilagodio svoju premisu i izazvao moderne postkolonijalne reakcije, uključujući J. M. Coetzeeja Neprijatelj (1986.) i Michela Tourniera Vendredi ou les Limbes du Pacifique (na engleskom, Petak ili Drugi otok) (1967.). Uslijedila su dva nastavka: Defoeov Daljnje avanture Robinzona Crusoea (1719.) i njegova Ozbiljna razmišljanja tijekom života i iznenađujuće avanture Robinzona Crusoea: s njegovom Vizijom anđeoskog svijeta (1720). Jonathana Swifta Gulliverova putovanja (1726) dijelom je parodija na Defoeov pustolovni roman.

Utjecaj na jezik Edit

Knjiga se pokazala toliko popularnom da su imena dvojice glavnih protagonista ušla u jezik. Tijekom Drugoga svjetskog rata, ljudi koji su odlučili ostati i sakriti se u ruševinama grada Varšave pod njemačkom okupacijom u razdoblju od tri zimska mjeseca, od listopada do siječnja 1945., kada ih je spasila Crvena armija, kasnije su nazvani Robinson Krusovi Varšave (Robinsonowie warszawscy). [29] Robinson Crusoe je svog slugu obično nazivao "moj čovjek petak", odakle je potekao izraz "muški petak" (ili "djevojački petak").

Utjecaj na književnost Uredi

Robinson Crusoe označio je početak realističke fantastike kao književne vrste. [30] Njegov uspjeh doveo je do mnogih imitatora, a odbačeni romani, koje su napisali Ambrose Evans, Penelope Aubin i drugi, postali su prilično popularni u Europi u 18. i početkom 19. stoljeća. [31] Većina njih je pala u zamku, ali neki su se etablirali, uključujući Švicarska obitelj Robinson, koji je posudio Crusoevo prvo ime za svoju titulu.

Jonathana Swifta Gulliverova putovanja, objavljeno sedam godina poslije Robinson Crusoe, može se čitati kao sustavno pobijanje Defoeova optimističnog prikaza ljudskih sposobnosti. U Nezamislivi Swift: Spontana filozofija čovjeka engleske crkve, Warren Montag tvrdi da je Swift bio zabrinut zbog pobijanja shvaćanja da pojedinac prethodi društvu, kako izgleda sugerira Defoeov roman. U Otok s blagom, autor Robert Louis Stevenson parodira Crusoea s likom Bena Gunna, prijateljskog razbojnika koji je dugo bio nasukan, ima divlji izgled, odijeva se potpuno u kozju kožu i stalno govori o providnosti.

U raspravi o obrazovanju Jean-Jacquesa Rousseaua, Emile, ili o obrazovanju, jedna knjiga koju protagonist smije pročitati prije dvanaeste godine Robinson Crusoe. Rousseau želi da se Emile identificira kao Crusoe kako bi se mogao osloniti na sebe za sve svoje potrebe. Prema Rousseauovu mišljenju, Emile mora oponašati Crusoeovo iskustvo, dopuštajući nužnost da se odredi što treba naučiti i postići. Ovo je jedna od glavnih tema Rousseauova obrazovnog modela.

U Priča o malom svinju Robinsonu, Beatrix Potter upućuje čitatelja na Robinson Crusoe za detaljan opis otoka (zemlje stabla Bong) na koji se seli njezin istoimeni junak. U najpopularnijem romanu Wilkie Collinsa, Mjesečev kamen, jedan od glavnih likova i pripovjedača, Gabriel Betteredge, vjeruje u sve što Robinson Crusoe kaže i koristi knjigu za neku vrstu proricanja. On smatra Avanture Robinsona Crusoea najbolja knjiga ikad napisana, čita je uvijek iznova i smatra čovjekom, ali slabo pročitanim da je slučajno ne pročitao knjigu.

Francuski romanopisac Michel Tournier objavio je Petak ili Drugi otok (Francuski Vendredi ou les Limbes du Pacifique) 1967. Njegov roman istražuje teme uključujući civilizaciju nasuprot prirodi, psihologiju samoće, kao i smrt i seksualnost u prepričavanju Defoeova Robinson Crusoe priča. Tournier -ov Robinson odlučuje ostati na otoku, odbacujući civilizaciju kada mu se pruži prilika za bijeg 28 godina nakon brodoloma. Slično, 1963. J. M. G. Le Clézio, dobitnik Nobelove nagrade za književnost 2008., objavio je roman Le Proces-Verbal. Epigraf knjige je citat iz Robinson Crusoe, i poput Crusoea, protagonist romana Adam Pollo pati od dugih razdoblja usamljenosti.

"Crusoe in England", pjesma Elizabeth Bishop iz 183 retka, zamišlja Crusoea pred kraj života, prisjećajući se svog vremena progonstva s mješavinom zbunjenosti i žaljenja.

Roman J. M. Coetzeeja iz 1986. godine Neprijatelj prepričava priču o Robinsonu Crusoeu iz perspektive žene po imenu Susan Barton.

Roman J. G. Ballarda iz 2001. godine Betonski otok moderno je prepisivanje Robinson Crusoe.

Stripovske adaptacije Uređivanje

Priču je također ilustrirao i objavio u obliku stripa Ilustrirani klasici 1943. i 1957. Mnogo poboljšanu verziju iz 1957. olovkom je napisao / napisao Sam Citron, koji je najpoznatiji po svojim doprinosima ranijim izdanjima časopisa Nadčovjek. [32] Britanski ilustrator Reginald Ben Davis nacrtao je žensku verziju priče pod naslovom Jill Crusoe, Castaway (1950–1959). [33]

Scenske adaptacije Uredi

Pantomimska verzija Robinson Crusoe postavljen je u Kraljevskom kazalištu, Drury Lane 1796., s Josephom Grimaldijem kao Pierrotom u harlekinadi. Komad je ponovno proizveden 1798., ovaj put u Grimaldiju u ulozi Klauna. 1815. Grimaldi je svirao petak u drugoj verziji Robinson Crusoe. [34]

Jacques Offenbach napisao je opéra strip pod nazivom Robinson Crusoe, koji je prvi put izveden u Opéra-Comiqueu u Parizu 23. studenoga 1867. To se temeljilo na britanskoj verziji pantomime, a ne na samom romanu. Libreto su napisali Eugène Cormon i Hector-Jonathan Crémieux.

Bilo je tu i niz drugih scenskih adaptacija, uključujući one Isaaca Pococka, Jima Helsingera i Stevea Shawa te mjuzikl Victora Princea.

Filmske adaptacije Montaža

Postoji nijemi film iz 1927. godine pod naslovom Robinson Crusoe. Sovjetski 3D film Robinson Crusoe produciran je 1947. Režirao Luis Buñuel Avanture Robinsona Crusoea s Danom O'Herlihyjem u glavnoj ulozi, objavljen 1954. Walt Disney kasnije je komizirao roman s Poručnik Robin Crusoe, U.S.N., s Dick Van Dykeom. U ovoj je verziji petak postala lijepa žena, ali umjesto toga dobila je ime 'srijeda'.

Peter O'Toole and Richard Roundtree co-starred in a 1975 film Man Friday which sardonically portrayed Crusoe as incapable of seeing his dark-skinned companion as anything but an inferior creature, while Friday is more enlightened and sympathetic. In 1988, Aidan Quinn portrayed Robinson Crusoe in the film Crusoe. A 1997 movie entitled Robinson Crusoe starred Pierce Brosnan and received limited commercial success.

Variations on the theme include the 1954 Miss Robin Crusoe, with a female castaway, played by Amanda Blake, and a female Friday, and the 1964 film Robinson Crusoe on Mars, starring Paul Mantee, with an alien Friday portrayed by Victor Lundin and an added character played by Adam West. The 2000 film Cast Away, with Tom Hanks as a FedEx employee stranded on an island for many years, also borrows much from the Robinson Crusoe story.

In 1964 a French film production crew made a 13 part serial of The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. It starred Robert Hoffmann. The black and white series was dubbed into English and German. In the UK, the BBC broadcast it on numerous occasions between 1965 and 1977. In 1981 Czechoslovakian director and animator Stanislav Látal made a version of the story under the name Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, a Sailor from York combining traditional and stop-motion animation. The movie was coproduced by regional West Germany broadcaster Südwestfunk Baden-Baden. [ potreban je citat ]

Animated adaptations Edit

In 1988, an animated cartoon for children called Classic Adventure Stories Robinson Crusoe je pušten. Crusoe's early sea travels are simplified, as his ship outruns the Salé Rovers pirates but then gets wrecked in a storm. [35]

TV adaptations Edit

Two 2000s reality television series, Expedition Robinson i Preživio, have their contestants try to survive on an isolated location, usually an island. The concept is influenced by Robinson Crusoe.

Inverted Crusoeism Edit

The term inverted Crusoeism is coined by J. G. Ballard. The paradigm of Robinson Crusoe has been a recurring topic in Ballard's work. [36] Whereas the original Robinson Crusoe became a castaway against his own will, Ballard's protagonists often choose to maroon themselves hence inverted Crusoeism (e.g., Concrete Island). The concept provides a reason as to why people would deliberately maroon themselves on a remote island in Ballard's work, becoming a castaway is as much a healing and empowering process as an entrapping one, enabling people to discover a more meaningful and vital existence. [37]

Musical references Edit

Musician Dean briefly mentions Crusoe in one of his music videos. In the official music video for Instagram, there is a part when viewers hear Dean's distorted voice "Sometimes, I feel alone . I feel like I'm Robinson Crusoe . "

Robinson Crusoe is also mentioned in the song "I'm a Dog" by Canadian band Crash Test Dummies. [38] Written from the perspective of a dog puzzling over human philosophy, the song has this stanza:

There's some debate about whether instincts should be held in check Well, I suppose that I'm a liberal in this respect I can't say I liked Robinson Crusoe But at least he didn't tie his dogs up at night


Daniel Defoe - History

Introductory Note

Daniel Defoe (c. 1661-1731) was the son of a London butcher called Foe, a name which Daniel bore for more than forty years. He early gave up the idea of becoming a dissenting minister, and went into business. One of his earlier writings was an "Essay upon Projects," remarkable for the number of schemes suggested in it which have since been carried into practise. He won the approval of King William by his "True-born Englishman," a rough verse satire repelling the attacks on William as a foreigner. His "Shortest-Way with Dissenters," on the other hand, brought down on him the wrath of the Tories he was fined, imprisoned, and exposed in the pillory, with the result that he became for the time a popular hero. While in prison he started a newspaper, the "Review" (1704-1713), which may in certain respects be regarded as a forerunner of the "Tatler" and "Spectator." From this time for about fourteen years he was chiefly engaged in political journalism, not always of the most reputable kind and in 1719 he published the first volume of "Robinson Crusoe," his greatest triumph in a kind of realistic fiction in which he had already made several short essays. This was followed by a number of novels, dealing for the most part with the lives of rogues and criminals, and including "Moll Flanders," "Colonel Jack," "Roxana," and "Captain Singleton." Notable as a specially effective example of fiction disguised as truth was his "Journal of the Plague Year."

In the latter part of his career Defoe became thoroughly discredited as a politician, and was regarded as a mere hireling journalist. He wrote with almost unparalleled fluency, and a complete list of his hundreds of publications will never be made out. The specimen of his work given here show him writing vigorously and sincerely, and belong to a period when he had not yet become a government tool.

The Education Of Women

I have often thought of it as one of the most barbarous customs in the world, considering us as a civilized and a Christian country, that we deny the advantages of learning to women. We reproach the sex every day with folly and impertinence while I am confident, had they the advantages of education equal to us, they would be guilty of less than ourselves.

One would wonder, indeed, how it should happen that women are conversible at all since they are only beholden to natural parts, for all their knowledge. Their youth is spent to teach them to stitch and sew or make baubles. They are taught to read, indeed, and perhaps to write their names, or so and that is the height of a woman's education. And I would but ask any who slight the sex for their understanding, what is a man (a gentleman, I mean) good for, that is taught no more? I need not give instances, or examine the character of a gentleman, with a good estate, or a good family, and with tolerable parts and examine what figure he makes for want of education.

The soul is placed in the body like a rough diamond and must be polished, or the lustre of it will never appear. And 'tis manifest, that as the rational soul distinguishes us from brutes so education carries on the distinction, and makes some less brutish than others. This is too evident to need any demonstration. But why then should women be denied the benefit of instruction? If knowledge and understanding had been useless additions to the sex, God Almighty would never have given them capacities for he made nothing needless. Besides, I would ask such, What they can see in ignorance, that they should think it a necessary ornament to a woman? or how much worse is a wise woman than a fool? or what has the woman done to forfeit the privilege of being taught? Does she plague us with her pride and impertinence? Why did we not let her learn, that she might have had more wit? Shall we upbraid women with folly, when 'tis only the error of this inhuman custom, that hindered them from being made wiser?

The capacities of women are supposed to be greater, and their senses quicker than those of the men and what they might be capable of being bred to, is plain from some instances of female wit, which this age is not without. Which upbraids us with Injustice, and looks as if we denied women the advantages of education, for fear they should vie with the men in their improvements. . . .

[They] should be taught all sorts of breeding suitable both to their genius and quality. And in particular, Music and Dancing which it would be cruelty to bar the sex of, because they are their darlings. But besides this, they should be taught languages, as particularly French and Italian: and I would venture the injury of giving a woman more tongues than one. They should, as a particular study, be taught all the graces of speech, and all the necessary air of conversation which our common education is so defective in, that I need not expose it. They should be brought to read books, and especially history and so to read as to make them understand the world, and be able to know and judge of things when they hear of them.

To such whose genius would lead them to it, I would deny no sort of learning but the chief thing, in general, is to cultivate the understandings of the sex, that they may be capable of all sorts of conversation that their parts and judgements being improved, they may be as profitable in their conversation as they are pleasant.

Women, in my observation, have little or no difference in them, but as they are or are not distinguished by education. Tempers, indeed, may in some degree influence them, but the main distinguishing part is their Breeding.

The whole sex are generally quick and sharp. I believe, I may be allowed to say, generally so: for you rarely see them lumpish and heavy, when they are children as boys will often be. If a woman be well bred, and taught the proper management of her natural wit, she proves generally very sensible and retentive.

And, without partiality, a woman of sense and manners is the finest and most delicate part of God's Creation, the glory of Her Maker, and the great instance of His singular regard to man, His darling creature: to whom He gave the best gift either God could bestow or man receive. And 'tis the sordidest piece of folly and ingratitude in the world, to withhold from the sex the due lustre which the advantages of education gives to the natural beauty of their minds.

A woman well bred and well taught, furnished with the additional accomplishments of knowledge and behaviour, is a creature without comparison. Her society is the emblem of sublimer enjoyments, her person is angelic, and her conversation heavenly. She is all softness and sweetness, peace, love, wit, and delight. She is every way suitable to the sublimest wish, and the man that has such a one to his portion, has nothing to do but to rejoice in her, and be thankful.

On the other hand, Suppose her to be the very same woman, and rob her of the benefit of education, and it follows

If her temper be good, want of education makes her soft and easy.

Her wit, for want of teaching, makes her impertinent and talkative.

Her knowledge, for want of judgement and experience, makes her fanciful and whimsical.

If her temper be bad, want of breeding makes her worse and she grows haughty, insolent, and loud.

If she be passionate, want of manners makes her a termagant and a scold, which is much at one with Lunatic.

If she be proud, want of discretion (which still is breeding) makes her conceited, fantastic, and ridiculous.

And from these she degenerates to be turbulent, clamorous, noisy, nasty, the devil! . . .

The great distinguishing difference, which is seen in the world between men and women, is in their education and this is manifested by comparing it with the difference between one man or woman, and another.

And herein it is that I take upon me to make such a bold assertion, That all the world are mistaken in their practice about women. For I cannot think that God Almighty ever made them so delicate, so glorious creatures and furnished them with such charms, so agreeable and so delightful to mankind with souls capable of the same accomplishments with men: and all, to be only Stewards of our Houses, Cooks, and Slaves.

Not that I am for exalting the female government in the least: but, in short, I would have men take women for companions, and educate them to be fit for it. A woman of sense and breeding will scorn as much to encroach upon the prerogative of man, as a man of sense will scorn to oppress the weakness of the woman. But if the women's souls were refined and improved by teaching, that word would be lost. To say, the weakness of the sex, as to judgment, would be nonsense for ignorance and folly would be no more to be found among women than men.

I remember a passage, which I heard from a very fine woman. She had wit and capacity enough, an extraordinary shape and face, and a great fortune: but had been cloistered up all her time and for fear of being stolen, had not had the liberty of being taught the common necessary knowledge of women's affairs. And when she came to converse in the world, her natural wit made her so sensible of the want of education, that she gave this short reflection on herself: "I am ashamed to talk with my very maids," says she, "for I don't know when they do right or wrong. I had more need go to school, than be married."

I need not enlarge on the loss the defect of education is to the sex nor argue the benefit of the contrary practice. 'Tis a thing will be more easily granted than remedied. This chapter is but an Essay at the thing: and I refer the Practice to those Happy Days (if ever they shall be) when men shall be wise enough to mend it.

Izvor:

English essays from Sir Philip Sidney to Macaulay. With introductions and notes. New York, Collier [c1910], The Harvard classics v. 27.

Ovaj je tekst dio izvornika Internet Modern History History. Izvornik je zbirka tekstova s ​​javnom domenom i dopuštenih kopija za uvodnu nastavu u modernoj europskoj i svjetskoj povijesti.

Osim ako nije drugačije naznačeno, određeni elektronički oblik dokumenta zaštićen je autorskim pravima. Dopušteno je elektroničko kopiranje, distribucija u tiskanom obliku u obrazovne svrhe i za osobnu uporabu. Ako dokument ponovite, navedite izvor. Ne daje se dopuštenje za komercijalnu upotrebu izvornika.

© Paul Halsall, August 1998

The Projekt izvornih knjiga internetske povijesti nalazi se na Odsjeku za povijest Sveučilišta Fordham u New Yorku. Internet Medieval Sourcebook i ostale srednjovjekovne komponente projekta nalaze se u Sveučilištu za srednjovjekovne studije Sveučilišta Fordham. IHSP prepoznaje doprinos Sveučilišta Fordham, Povijesnog odjela Sveučilišta Fordham i Centra za srednjovjekovne studije Fordham u pružanju web prostora i poslužiteljska podrška za projekt. IHSP je projekt neovisan o Sveučilištu Fordham. Iako IHSP nastoji slijediti sve važeće zakone o autorskim pravima, Sveučilište Fordham nije institucionalni vlasnik i ne snosi odgovornost kao rezultat bilo koje pravne radnje.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [CV]


The novels and miscellaneous works of Daniel De Foe : with a biographical memoir . literary prefaces to the various pieces, illustrative notes, etc. including all contained in the edition attributed to the late Sir Walter Scott, with considerable additions

v. 1-2. Robinson Crusoe -- v. 3. Captain Singleton -- v. 4. Moll Flanders -- v. 5. Colonel Jack. Apparition of Mrs. Veal -- v. 6. Memoirs of a cavalier -- v. 7. New voyage round the world -- v. 8. Memoirs of Captain Carleton. Life and adventures of Mrs. Christian Davies -- v. 9. History of the plague in London. The consolidator -- v. 10. Political history of the devil --

v. 11. Roxana -- v. 12. A system of magic -- v. 13. The history and reality of apparitions -- v. 14. Religious courtship -- v. 15-16. The family instructor -- v. 17-18. The complete English tradesman -- v. 19. The life of Mr. Duncan Campbell. The dumb philosopher. Everybody's business in nobody's business -- v. 20. The life of Daniel Defoe / by George Chalmers. List of Defoe's works. Appeal to honor and justice. Seasonable warning and caution. Reasons against the succession of the House of Hanover. And what if the pretender should come? Answer to a question. The true-born Englishman


Daniel Defoe biography

Daniel Defoe was born in 1660 to James Foe (note the spelling), a chandler in St. Giles, Cripplegate, London. In 1695 the younger Foe adopted the more aristocratic sounding "Defoe" as his surname.

Defoe trained for the ministry at Morton's Academy for Dissenters, but he never followed through on this plan, and instead worked briefly as a hosiery merchant before serving as a soldier for the king during Monmouth's Rebellion.

After that short-lived revolt was speedily put down, Defoe returned to hosiery, and built a successful company. He travelled widely on the continent in the course of his business, and was recruited by the government to act as a spy, a role in which he seems to have delighted.

Defoe was a prolific writer, and the first publication we know of appeared in 1688, but it was his The True Born Englishman (1701) which propelled him into the limelight. This poem attacked those who thought England should not have a foreign-born king, and not surprisingly, King William became a firm supporter of Defoe and his work.

His subsequent publications, including The Review newspaper, were not so well received by those in positions of power. Defoe managed to anger the Anglican Church and the Whig Party in turn, and each had him thrown into prison for a time.

Perhaps these experiences made him wary of the dangers inherent in political commentary, for in 1719 Defoe turned to fiction, writing Robinson Crusoe, based on the true account of a shipwrecked mariner. He followed the success of Crusoe s Captain Singleton (1720), Journal of the Plague Year (1722), Captain Jack (1722), Moll Flanders (1722), and Roxanda (1724).

Defoe did not confine himself to fiction he also wrote several popular travel books, including the vivid Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain (1724-27). Before his death in 1731, Daniel Defoe published over 500 books and pamphlets.

Defoe is regarded as one of the founders of the English novel. Before his time fiction was primarily written in verse or in the form of plays, but Defoe and, to a lesser extent, Samuel Richardson, developed a new form of storytelling - one which remains with us today. He can also be credited with being one of the founding fathers of English journalism (whether that is a positive thing is open to debate).


Daniel Defoe (1660 &ndash 1731)

Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest practitioners of the novel and helped popularize the genre in England. He is also a pioneer of economic journalism.

He was born Daniel Foe, probably in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate, London. Both the date and the place of his birth are uncertain. His father, James Foe, though a member of the Butchers' Company was a tallow chandler. Daniel later added the aristocratic sounding "De" to his name and on occasion claimed descent from the family of De Beau Faux. His parents were Presbyterian dissenters, and he was educated in a Dissenting Academy at Stoke Newington run by Charles Morton (later vice-president of Harvard University).

After leaving school and deciding not to become a dissenting minister, Defoe entered the world of business as a general merchant, dealing at different times in hosiery, general woollen goods, and wine. Though his ambitions were great and he bought both a country estate and a ship (as well as civet cats to make perfume), he was rarely free from debt. In 1692, Defoe was arrested for payments of £700 (and his cats were seized), though his total debts may have amounted to £17,000. His laments were loud, and he always defended unfortunate debtors, but there is evidence that his financial dealings were not always honest.

Following his release, he probably travelled in Europe and Scotland, and it may have been at this time that he traded in wine to Cadiz, Porto, and Lisbon. By 1695 he was back in England, using the name "Defoe", and serving as a "commissioner of the glass duty", responsible for collecting the tax on bottles. In 1696, he was operating a tile and brick factory in Tilbury, Essex.

Defoe's pamphleteering and political activities resulted in his arrest and placement in a pillory on July 31, 1703, principally on account of a pamphlet entitled "Hymn to the Pillory, however, caused his audience at the pillory to throw flowers instead of the customary harmful and noxious objects, and to drink to his health.

After his three days in the pillory Defoe went into Newgate Prison. Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Mortimer, brokered his release in exchange for Defoe's co-operation as an intelligence agent. He set up his periodical A Review of the Affairs of France in 1704, supporting the Harley ministry. The Review ran without interruption until 1713. When Harley lost power in 1708 Defoe continued writing it to support Godolphin, then again to support Harley and the Tories in the Tory ministry of 1710 to 1714. After the Tories fell from power with the death of Queen Anne, Defoe continued doing intelligence work for the Whig government.

Defoe's famous novel Robinson Crusoe (1719), tells of a man's shipwreck on a desert island and his subsequent adventures. The author may have based his narrative on the true story of the shipwreck of the Scottish sailor Alexander Selkirk.

Defoe's next novel was Captain Singleton (1720), amazing for its portrayal of the redemptive power of one man's love for another. Hans Turley has recently shown how Quaker William's love turns Captain Singleton away from the murderous life of a pirate, and the two make a solemn vow to live as a male couple happily ever after in London, disguised as Greeks and never speaking English in public, with Singleton married to William's sister as a ruse.

Defoe wrote an account of the Great Plague of 1665: A Journal Of the Plague Year.

He also wrote Roxana: The Fortunate Mistress (1724) offer remarkable examples of the way in which Defoe seems to inhabit his fictional (yet "drawn from life") characters, not least in that they are women.

Daniel Defoe died on April 24 or 25, 1731 and was interred in Bunhill Fields, London.


Daniel Defoe - History

Bibliography of Selected Primary Materials

Defoe, Daniel. The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. A new and improved edition, interspersed with reflections, religious and moral. Adorned with engravings . London: J. Harris, 1818.

Defoe, Daniel. The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, Written by Himself . Illustrated by Thomas Stothard engraving by C. Heath. London: Bliss, Sands, and Foster, 1820.

Defoe, Daniel. The Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner, with introductory verses by Bernard Barton, and illustrated with numerous engravings from drawings by George Cruikshank expressly designed for this edition . 2 sv. London: Printed at the Shakespeare Press, by W. Nichol, for John Major, Fleet Street, 1831.

Defoe, Daniel. The Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner: who lived eight and twenty years, all alone in an un-inhabited island on the coast of America, near the mouth of the great river of Oroonoque, having been cast on shore by shipwreck, wherein all the men perished but himself: with an account how he was at last as strangely deliver'd by pyrates, written by himself . Introduction by J.M. Coetzee. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe . Ed. Thomas Keymer with notes by Thomas Keymer and James Kelly. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Bibliography of Selected Secondary Materials

[See Defoe’s biography for biographical studies.]

Allen, Walter. "The Beginnings." The English Novel: A Short Critical History . Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1954. Pp. 21-42.

Bell, Bill. “A Castaway among Cannibals: 300 Years of Robinson Crusoe.” Times Literary Supplement (31 May 2019): 7-9.

An important survey of the ways Defoe’s novel has been interpreted and misinterpreted since its publication.

Brantlinger, Patrick. Taming cannibals: Race and the Victorians . Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2011.

Critical Essays on Daniel Defoe . Ed. Roger D. Lund. New York: G.K. Hall & London: Prentice Hall International, c1997.

The Cambridge companion to Daniel Defoe . Ed. John Richetti. Cambridge, U.K.& New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Frank, Catherine. Crusoe, Daniel DeFore. Robert Know, and the Creation of a Myth. Pegasus, 2012.

Green, Martin. The Robinson Crusoe story . University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, c1990.

Michals, Teresa. Books for Children, Books for Adults: Age and the Novel from Defoe to James . Cambridge, United Kingdom& New York: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Pearl, Jason H. Utopian geographies & the early English novel . Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2014.

Schonhorn, Manuel. Defoe's politics: Parliament, Power, Kingship, and “Robinson Crusoe” . Cambridge [England] & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Watt, Ian. The rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding> . 2nd American ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, c2001,


Daniel Defoe

/media/bl/global/dl%20restoration%20and%2018th%20century/people%20page%20images/engraving-of-daniel-defoe-rb_23_a_24563_fp-people-page.jpg?crop=1&cropX=0&cropY=184&cropW=1226&cropH=689&cropcachekey=101841226689&w=608&h=342&dispW=608&dispH=342&hash=1180F0054AFADCC9B7E3BCFCE7DB4008" /> Engraving of Daniel Defoe from British Library RB.23.a.24563

Biography

During his lifetime Daniel Defoe produced, at a conservative estimate, 318 publications in many formats and on an extraordinary range of topics. Perhaps best known today as the author of Robinson Crusoe, Defoe is considered to have fundamentally shaped the novel as an emerging genre of English literature.

Rani život

Defoe was born in London in 1660 to a family of Presbyterian Dissenters, and educated at a dissenting academy in Newington Green. He became a merchant, dealing in different commodities including hosiery. In 1684 he married Mary Tuffley (1665&ndash1732) six of their eight children lived into adulthood.

After expanding into the import-export business for goods such as tobacco and alcohol, Defoe made some unwise investments and in 1692 declared bankruptcy. He was twice briefly imprisoned for his debts, negotiating his freedom with the aid of recognisants (guarantors) and becoming an accountant and investment advisor to the government and private business owners.

During this time he began writing political pamphlets and, later, poetry, such as The Pacificator (1700), a satirical comment on the literary criticism of the age. The True-Born Englishman (1701) defends King William III, who was Dutch, against xenophobia with the reminder that there was no such thing as a purely English person: &lsquofrom a mixture of all kinds began / That het&rsquorogeneous thing, an Englishman&rsquo.

Defoe as religious dissenter and journalist

Throughout his lifetime Defoe was a vocal supporter of freedom of religion and the press. He played an important part in the &lsquooccasional conformity&rsquo conflict in England in the late 1690s and early 1700s this called attention to Dissenters&rsquo occasional participation in ceremonies of the official Church of England, which they did so that they would still be eligible for office. Defoe&rsquos pamphlet An Enquiry into Occasional Conformity (1698) was followed by the satirical Shortest Way With the Dissenters (1703), which led to his arrest for seditious libel in May 1703. He was in Newgate Prison for six months and pilloried three times. Though he went on to a successful career as a journalist and novelist, he was never entirely free of the stigma of sedition and imprisonment.

In 1704 Defoe founded The Review, a periodical discussing international and domestic politics. This brought him to the attention of the government, for whom he became a secret agent working for peace with France and towards union with Scotland, where he lived on and off until 1712.

Fiction writing

Scholar Maximillian Novak calls the years 1715&ndash24 &lsquothe great creative period&rsquo of Defoe&rsquos life. Now in his fifties and sixties, Defoe wrote a wide variety of fiction, bringing verisimilitude and dramatic realism to the traditional genre of the domestic conduct book, and producing the novels for which he is now most famous: Robinson Crusoe (1719), Moll Flanders (1722) and Roxana (1724) &ndash the last two being notable for their morally ambiguous female heroines. In his later years he turned his attention once more to &lsquostate of the nation&rsquo writings about British trade and foreign policy.

Before his death in April 1731, Defoe was plagued by debts and restlessly moved between several different lodgings. He is buried in Bunhill Fields, the cemetery for Nonconformists.

Further information about the life of Daniel Defoe can be found via the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.


Gledaj video: Daniel Defoe. Inglese (Kolovoz 2022).