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Osobne priče USS Langley - povijest

Osobne priče USS Langley - povijest


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Navyhistory.com posvećen je pričanju priče o mornarici. Stranica je prvenstveno posvećena priči o američkoj mornarici, ali će sadržavati informacije o drugim mornaricama. Povijest pojedinih brodova na tom mjestu potječe iz Rječnika pomorskih borbenih plovila koji je izdalo Ministarstvo mornarice od 1959. do 1993. godine. Vjerujemo da se svaki dan gubi bogata povijest jer gubimo one ljude koji nikada nisu zabilježili njihove priče. MultiEducator Inc proizvodi web stranicu Navalhistory.com.


Skromni vjesnik: USS Langley CV-1

Prošli tjedan najnoviji nosač zrakoplova američke mornarice USS Gerald R Ford je pokrenut i kršten. Gledajući behemota teško je povjerovati da je prije devet desetljeća američka mornarica eksperimentirala sa svojim prvim nosačem aviona USS Langley.

Sada Langley nije bio prvi nosač zrakoplova. Ta je čast pripala Kraljevskoj mornarici HMS Bijesan. The HMS Argus, preuređeni putnički brod bio je usporediviji s Langleyjem i služio je mnogim istim svrhama za Kraljevsku mornaricu.

Langley nije bilo puno za pogledati, njezin nadimak u floti bio je "Natkriveni vagon". Nije građena kao nosač. Umjesto toga, kao i većina ranih nosača zrakoplova u američkoj, kraljevskoj, francuskoj i japanskoj mornarici, pretvorena je iz broda izgrađenog za drugu svrhu. Langley isprva uzeo u vodu kao USS Jupiter, AC-3 a Collier ili brod s ugljenom u danima prije nego što je nafta zamijenila ugljen kao gorivo za ratne brodove. Njen zloglasniji sestrinski brod, zlosretni USS Kiklop nestao svim rukama u takozvanom Bermudskom trokutu u ožujku 1918. godine.

Pretvorena je u prijevoznika 1920. godine i ponovno se pridružila floti kao Langley 22. ožujka 1922. Sa 542 metra duljine i 65 stopa u snopu, mogla bi se nekoliko puta smjestiti na letjelicu bilo kojeg sadašnjeg nosača američke mornarice. Njena spora brzina od 15 čvorova značila je da će biti prebačena na obuku pilota, sudjelovanje u vježbama flote i testiranje novih zrakoplova.

Zapovjednik poručnika Godfrey DeCourcelles Chevalier

Prvo polijetanje iz Langley bilo je 17. listopada 1922. kada je poručnik Virgil Griffin izletio s pramca Vought VE-7. Bio je to početak zrakoplovstva u američkoj mornarici. Lijepih dana kasnije, zapovjednik poručnika Godfrey DeCourcelles Chevalier prvi je put sletio na Langley slijetanje trenera Aeromarine 39B na palubu opremljenu eksperimentalnom opremom za zaustavljanje. Chevalier je umro manje od mjesec dana kasnije kada se njegov Vought VE-7 srušio na letu iz Norfolka za Yorktown Virginia. Langley bila prvi nosač bilo koje ratne mornarice opremljene katapultom, a 18. studenog 1922. njezin zapovjednik, zapovjednik Kenneth Whiting bio je prvi avijatičar koji je katapultiran s broda.

Zapovjednik Kenneth Whiting

Neki smatraju da je Whiting "otac nosača zrakoplova" i bio je ključan u izboru Jupiter za prenamjenu, proces pretvorbe i nastavak razvoja zrakoplovnog prijevoznika prema njegovu zapovjedništvu Langley.

Langley ’s Hangar Deck

Langley ostala je primarni nosač obuke za mornaricu do 1936. kada je pretvorena u natječaj za hidroavione. U deset i pol desetljeća koje je provela u ovoj ulozi korišteno je za testiranje različitih sustava za katapult i hapšenje, a stečeno je znanje bilo korisno u razvoju novih nosača. Slično, avijatičari obučeni na njoj i dalje će pomagati u razvoju zrakoplovstva američkih mornaričkih prijevoznika prije i tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata.

Langley služio je u jugozapadnom Pacifiku tijekom prvih mjeseci rata, a potopljen je 27. veljače 1942. nakon napada japanskih bombardera u blizini Tjilatjap Jave.

Kada Gerald R Ford stupa u službu 2016. nastavit će tradiciju započetu skromnima USS Langley, slavni natkriveni vagon.


Prvi nosači aviona Prvi dio: Prvi američki plosnati lanci- Langley, Lexington i Saratoga

Zrakoplov iznad Saratoge

Napomena: Ovo je prvi u nizu o ranim nosačima zrakoplova. Slijede još dva britanska i japanska prijevoznika. Moj tata je bio glavni podoficir u pomorskom zrakoplovstvu. Kao takav odrastao sam u blizini pomorskih zračnih stanica, eskadrila i naravno nosača aviona. Moj se tata povukao s USS Hancock CVA-19 1974. Proveo sam dva tjedna na USS Coral Sea CV-43 kao kadet NJROTC-a u ljeto 1976. To je iskustvo koje nikada neću zaboraviti. Dok smo bili na Cruiseru USS Hue City CG-66, angažirali smo se s USS-om John F Kennedy CV-67 za operaciju Trajna sloboda. Postoji nešto u snazi ​​i veličanstvenosti modernih nosača, u isto vrijeme postoji osjećaj bezvremenosti u prvim nosačima zrakoplova. Tri od prva četiri američka broda prenamijenjena su s drugih platformi. Kao klinac, mlada odrasla osoba, pa čak i sada sam fasciniran svime što je mornarica, posebno brodovima koji su ušli u povijest. Evo mog pogleda na prve američke nosače aviona.

Sjedinjene Države nisu izmislile nosač zrakoplova iako je Eugene Ely letio zrakoplovom na oklopnu krstaricu i izvan nje USS Pennsylvania 18. siječnja 1911. Britanska kraljevska mornarica prva je izgradila i upravljala nosačima zrakoplova počevši od HMS Bijesan koji je bio pretvoren iz lakog Battle Cruisera. Kraljevska mornarica prikrivala bi sestrinske brodove Žestok, Slavno i Hrabro kao i pomoćni brod the Argus prije izgradnje svog prvog nosača koji je projektiran od kobilice, HMS Hermes. S britanskim građevinskim prijevoznicima i Japancima koji slijede njihov primjer, Sjedinjene Države započele su program proizvodnje i rada nosača zrakoplova bez premca u povijesti.

USS Langley CV-1 Pokriveni vagon “ ”

Prvi američki prijevoznik bio je USS Langley, CV-1. Langley je od srpnja 1919. preuređen iz kolijera USS Jupiter. Bila je naručena kao USS Langley CV-1 21. travnja 1920. Potisnuvši 15.150 tona potpuno napunjenog Langley ukrcao je 34 zrakoplova i imao najveću brzinu od 15,5 čvorova. Langley bio primitivan, ali revolucionaran. Ona je bila prvi nosač opremljen katapultima i 18. studenog 1922. postigao je prvo uzlijetanje katapulta zrakoplovom. Služila je kao neprocjenjiva platforma za obuku mornaričkih avijatičara i pomagala je floti osigurati visokostručne letačke posade koje bi djelovale od USS Lexington i USS Saratoga.

Langley nakon konverzije u AV-3

Nadimak "natkriveni vagon", u početku je služila na Atlantiku do studenog 1924. kada je prebačena u Pacifičke bojne snage. Služila je kao nosač na Pacifiku do 1936. godine kada je pretvorena u hidroavionski natječaj AV-3 i dodijeljena Pacifiku u rujnu 1939. sa sjedištem u Manili. Bila je na Filipinima kada su Japanci napali i poslana je na jug u Australiju. Bila je dodijeljena snagama ABDA -e koje su branile Nizozemsku Istočnu Indiju, a njezina pratnja potopila ju je nakon što su je bombardirali i onesposobili japanski zrakoplovi dok je isporučivala borbene zrakoplove na Javu sa gubitkom 16 mornara.

USS Lexington CV-2

Druga dva američka nosača zrakoplova također su bila konverzije. Za razliku od Langley the Lexington i Saratoga pretvorene su iz nove klase velikih i moćnih krstarica čija je izgradnja otkazana ograničenjima Washingtonskog pomorskog ugovora. Pušten u rad 14. prosinca 1927. Lexington je bio dug 880 stopa i istisnuo 38.746 tona. Saratoga je puštena u rad 16. studenog iste godine i sličnih je dimenzija i istisnina. Oba ova broda mogla su pariti pri 33,25+ čvorova i imala su dopunu od 90 zrakoplova. Bili su naoružani s osam topova od 8 ”postavljenih u 4 kupole po nalogu tradicionalno nastrojenih časnika koji su smatrali da bi naoružanje moglo biti potrebno za površinske akcije.

USS Saratoga CV-3

Oni su bili najveći američki prijevoznici izgrađeni do Midway klasa pojavila se krajem 1945. i početkom 1946. Od drugih nacija prijeratni nosači samo japanske mornarice Akagi i Kaga, pretvorena iz bojnog kruzera i bojnog broda iz istog razloga kao i a Lexingtonova bili usporedivi po veličini, kapacitetu zračne grupe, zaštiti i brzini. Saratoga Bateriju od 8 ”zamijenit će dvostruki nosači od 5” 38 kalibra 1942. godine.

Lexington gori i tone

Oba su broda korištena za razvoj doktrine prijevoznika i koncepta radne skupine nosača. Budući čelnici pomorskog zrakoplovstva, uključujući Marca A. Mitschera, trenirali su se ili letjeli s ovih brodova. Posebno je važno istaknuti da je tijekom Problema flote XIX 1938 Saratoga pokrenuo je iznenadni zračni napad na Pearl Harbor s točke 100 milja od Oahua, postavljajući obrazac koji su Japanci kopirali u prosincu 1941. godine.

Saratoga 1945

Tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata oboje su zajedno pomogli održati liniju nakon Pearl Harbora Enterprise, Yorktown i Stršljen. Lexington je bio vodeći brod TF-11 tijekom niza napada na japanske ispostave u Solomonu. TF-11 pridružio se TF-17 admirala Franka "Jacka" Fletchera u bitci za Koraljno more, prvoj pomorskoj bitci koja se vodila izvan vida odgovarajućih snaga. Lexingtonov zrakoplov pomogao je potonuti japanski nosač svjetla Shoho 7. svibnja 1942. i teško oštetili nosač flote Shokaku sljedeći dan. Međutim zrakoplovi iz Shokaku i Zuikaku pogoditi Lexington s dva torpeda i 3 pogotka bombe za koje se činilo da su njezine stranke za kontrolu štete imale pod kontrolom kada su se zapalile pare iz puknutih zrakoplovnih linija za gorivo što je rezultiralo nizom eksplozija koje su zapalile nekontrolirane požare. Njena posada evakuirana je u pratnji, a razarač ju je torpedirao USS Phelps.

Saratoga je služio tijekom cijelog rata. Započela je ophodnje nakon Pearl Harbora i dok je išla na put da se pridruži Poduzeće pogođen torpedom s japanske podmornice I-16. Nakon popravka hitno je odvezena na Havaje kako bi se pridružila američkim radnim snagama na Midwayu, ali je stigla na Havaje dan nakon bitke. Slijedeći ovo Saratoga djelovao u središnjem Pacifiku u prvoj ofenzivi na Guadalcanal. Sudjelovala je u iskrcavanju kao vodeći brod admirala Fletchera, a zatim je u bitci kod istočnog Solomona potopila japanski laki nosač Ryujo i oštetio nosač hidroaviona Chitose. Nakon ove bitke pogodilo ju je torpedo iz I-26. Nakon popravka ponovno je otišla do Solomona kojem se pridružio nosač svjetla USS Princeton. Dana 5. studenog dva su nosača izvršila briljantan udar na japanske brodove i zrakoplovne objekte u Rabaulu koji su prijetili iskrcavanju u Bougainvilleu.

Saratoga, rujan 1943

Nakon ovih operacija Saratoga djelovao u Gilbertsu, a zatim s Britancima u Indijskom oceanu. Zatim je korištena kao nosač za obuku novih pilota i posada u Pearl Harboru, prije nego što je dovedena u Iwo Jimu kako bi upravljala noćnim lovcima protiv napada Kamikaze. Tijekom izvođenja ovih operacija napali su je japanski zrakoplovi u kojima je 6 japanskih zrakoplova postiglo 5 pogodaka u 3 minute. Njezina prednja letna paluba je razbijena i pretrpjela je velika oštećenja ispod palube te je izgubila 123 mornara.

Saratoga gori nakon udara Kamikaze 1945. godine

Nakon popravaka nastavila je s trenažnim zadacima, a nakon poraza Japana sudjelovala je u Operacija Čarobni tepih za vraćanje vojnika iz inozemstva. Višak za potrebe mornarice na kraju rata Saratoga bio utopljen Operacija Raskrsnica na atolu Bikini podvodnom atomskom eksplozijom u testu bombe “Baker ” samo 500 metara od njenog položaja. Potonula je 7 sati kasnije.

Kraj jedne ere- Saratoga se spušta u bikini


#4. Gotovo je minirao predsjednički brod s dubinskom naplatom.

Dvadeset četiri sata nakon incidenta sa sidrenjem, Porter je krotko zauzeo svoje mjesto uz ostatak konvoja, bez sumnje s obješenom metaforičnom glavom i naočalama za sramotu. Putovanje preko Atlantika trajalo bi osam dana, a brodovi bi tijekom rata prolazili kroz vode zaražene podmornicama, pa je bilo kritično da brodovi prate obuku i manevre na putovanju. Na primjer, u stvarnoj životnoj borbenoj situaciji, ako se podmornica previše približila, zadatak razarača bio je ispustiti dubinske naboje (samo ogromne bombe koje potonu i razlete se pored potopljene podmornice). Dakle, jedna od vježbi koje je imao zadatak Porter je slanje lažni dubinske naknade za praksu.

Možete znati kuda vodi ova olupina vlaka, zar ne?

spaink
"Napisali smo 'void' sa strane, pa bi trebalo biti mrtvo. Bombe su poput čekova, zar ne?"

Da, geniji na Willieju Deeju nisu uspjeli razoružati svoje protupodmorničko oružje. A 12. studenog, dubinsko punjenje upravo pao s palube. Pao. Kao da se otkotrljao u ocean, nadomak ubojite udaljenosti predsjednika Sjedinjenih Država. I eksplodiralo je. I tada je sranje postalo stvarno.

Kao što možete zamisliti, sonar na svakom brodu u konvoju počeo je zvoniti kao da je svijet na izmaku, jer je očito bio neprijateljski čamac na streljani. Osim što su pokušali pronaći fantomske naciste, brodovi su također počeli izvoditi manevre izbjegavanja, što znači da su imali zadatak izvući pakao s linije vatre. Zasigurno su sile Osovine imale obavještajne podatke o tajnoj misiji i bile su za njima, znajući da je na brodu zastrašujući FDR.

nbbd
"Sakrij se u moju kabinu? Ne kad se nacističkim ubojicama treba rugati."

Baš kao što se kapetan vjerojatno spremao upravljati FDR -om preko palube ubijajući milost, svi su dobili poruku od Portera. Uspjeli su. Willie Dee je zapravo imao sreću što je bomba potonula prije nego što je eksplodirala, inače bi im cijela krma eksplodirala. No, pretpostavit ćemo nešto i pretpostaviti da nitko nije brojao njihove sretne zvijezde u trenutku kad su morali obaviti taj poziv.

arwen
"Znate kad vam je toliko neugodno da želite da brod eksplodira i da vam gelerom ukloni glavu? To."

A onda, budući da se svaki čovjek na Willie Dee -u dogovorio s vragom i izgubio, nastrani val udario je u čamac, srušivši jednog momka s broda (nikada nije pronađen) i poplavio kotlovnicu. To je rezultiralo gubitkom snage, što je William D. Failure još više zaostalo za ostatkom konvoja. Da smo to bili mi, samo bismo tiho okrenuli rep i kliznuli natrag u Sjedinjene Države. Ali nisu. Iako je admiral Ernest King, koji je bio zadužen za konvoj (i razbolio se od problema i izvješća o šteti po satu od Willieja Deea), osobno je javio kapetanu Walteru, rekavši mu da prestane s tim i počne se ponašati kako treba.

isječci
"Ova stvar proizvodi čudne zvukove. Netko bi se trebao pobrinuti za to."

Walter zavjetovao kako bi "poboljšao performanse svog broda". No, naravno da nije, inače ovaj popis ne bi postojao.


Tajanstvena svjetla. Zloslutni tanjurići. Otmice vanzemaljaca. Između 1947. i 1969., na vrhuncu Hladnog rata, više od 12.000 viđenja NLO-a prijavljeno je Project Blue Book-u, malom, tajnom timu zračnih snaga. Njihova misija? Znanstveno istražiti incidente i utvrditi predstavljaju li neki prijetnju nacionalnoj sigurnosti. Evo nekoliko njihovih najfascinantnijih slučajeva.

Nevidljivo zrakoplovstvo. Opsesivna sigurnost. Tajne A-bombe. Koliko znate o stvarnoj povijesti područja 51?


Osobne priče USS Langley - povijest

Napisala Joan Hunt

13.000 tona Nezavisnost-nosač aviona klase USS Princeton, koja je naručena 25. veljače 1943., brzo je postala poznata kao "borbena dama". Proslavila se podržavajući okupaciju otoka Baker u kolovozu iste godine, nakon čega je u rujnu uslijedila racija protiv japanskih instalacija na atolima Makin i Tarawa na Gilbertovim otocima, te užurban studeni podržavajući iskrcavanje Bougainvillea te racija u Rabaulu i Nauruu i koji su istog mjeseca sudjelovali u invaziji na Tarawu i Makin. Nakon brzog remonta u pomorskom dvorištu Puget Sound, nastavila je djelovati tijekom osvajanja Maršalovih otoka u siječnju i veljači 1944.
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Princeton uskoro je trebao postati žrtvom najveće pomorske bitke u povijesti, zaljeva Leyte, koja je zapravo bila niz povezanih pomorskih angažmana. Nosač je izgubljen u moru Sibuyan u zaljevu Leyte dok je služio pod zapovjedništvom admirala Williama F. (Bull) Halseyja. Dodijeljeno Radnoj skupini 38.3, Princeton (CVL-23) bio je u društvu s tri druga nosača, USS Lexington, USS Essex, i USS Langley, zajedno s četiri bojna broda, četiri laka krstarica i 17 probijajućih razarača.

Bitka kod zaljeva Leyte dogodila se zajedno s američkom invazijom na Filipine u listopadu 1944., a značajna komponenta američke zračne snage koja je podržavala iskrcavanje i osiguravala zračni pokrivač za pomorska plovila koja su djelovala na moru bila je ogromna sposobnost Grumman F6F Paklena mačka. Hellcat je stupio u službu sredinom 1943. sa šest mitraljeza postavljenih na krilima .50 kalibra, svaki sa 400 metaka streljiva. Neke su varijante uključivale top od 20 mm s 200 metaka koji su zamijenili najunutarnji mitraljez u svakom krilu. Hellcat je mogao nositi do dvije bombe od 1.000 funti, kao i šest zrakoplovnih raketa velike brzine 5 inča.

Na brodu USS Princeton, posao zrakoplovnog strojara Mate 3. klase Franka L. Heinemana bio je zadržati svoj novi borbeni avion F6F-5 Grumman u zraku. F6F-5 nalikovao je ranijoj varijanti F6F-3, ali je imao dodatni oklop, jače noge glavnog stajnog trapa i opružne jezičke na krilima za bolje manevriranje, većina je imala motore s ubrizgavanjem vode. Obje su verzije imale kapacitet goriva od 250 litara u unutarnjim spremnicima i spremnik za ulijevanje trbuha od 150 litara.

Sada sa 87 godina i životom u Buena Parku u Kaliforniji, Heineman, poznat svojim kolegama s broda kao "Heine", dodijeljen je Princetonu odmah nakon obuke, a on se na kobnom danu 24. listopada 1944. godine ukrcao na Borbenu damu.

U zoru su se elementi japanske mornarice približavali Filipinima sa sjevera i zapada, a Operativna skupina 38.3 bila je suočena s prijetnjom američkog iskrcavanja koje se izvodi na plažama otoka Leyte. Nakon nekoliko dana zračnih operacija koje su neprijateljske ciljeve izbacile na obalu u znak podrške Leyte invaziji, nosači su tog jutra lansirali Hellcats u borbenu zračnu ophodnju i druge avione u misijama pretraživanja. Na palubi je bilo više zrakoplova, spremnih za napadne misije.

Oko 10 sati usamljeni japanski bombaš Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" bacio je jednu bombu između dizala nosača. Bomba je prodrla u letjelicu i hangar prije nego što je eksplodirala. Razarač USS Irwin i krstarica USS Birmingham ipak je u pomoć posrnulom prijevozniku priskočila u pomoć, negdje nakon 15 sati, velike sekundarne eksplozije prostrujale su brodom i ozbiljno oštećene Birmingham. USS Princeton bio osuđen na propast.

Američki Hellcat protiv japanske nule

Joan Hunt: Koja je bila vaša odgovornost na brodu USS Princeton?

Frank Heineman: Morao sam se uvjeriti da je avion pravilno napunjen gorivom i spreman za polijetanje u jednom trenutku, održavajući sustav aviona s kisikom i ubrizgavanjem vode, pazeći da je avion sigurno pričvršćen kada nije u upotrebi. Svi smo morali obrisati uljne mrlje koje se nakupljaju tijekom zraka. Oni nižu podvozje trupa, dopuštajući neprijatelju veću priliku da ih uoči iznad glave tijekom bitke. Pomogao sam pilotu dok se pripremao za let i dao mu signal "sve je jasno" da pokrene motor. To je postignuto pokretačem patrone i dovodi do okretanja propelera za oko četiri okretaja. To je dovoljno da magneto pošalje potrebnu električnu energiju za paljenje motora. Sve što smo sada trebali učiniti je povući klinove za kotače, a pilot je mogao slobodno letjeti u zraku.

JH: Kako su se borbeni avioni F6F-5 složili u bitci?

FH: Imali su definitivnu prednost u odnosu na avione svojih neprijatelja. Lakše japanske nule bile su vrlo upravljive i u nekim bi prilikama našim pilotima zadavale probleme. Naši su avioni bili opremljeni oklopnom pločom od pola inča iza pilotove glave i leđa. Vidio sam kako se moj pilot vraća s poleta s rupom u baldahinu iza glave. Kad sam pregledao unutrašnjost trupa, bilo je veliko udubljenje u oklopnoj ploči iza njegove glave. Ovo je vrsta pogotka koji bi ubio mog pilota da je upravljao japanskim avionom, jer nisu imali oklop ili samozaptivajuće spremnike goriva potrebne za vraćanje borbenih aviona na sigurno slijetanje na njihove nosače.

Američki piloti imali su značajnu prednost u borbi jer su njihovi motori Pratt & amp Whitney bili opremljeni sustavom ubrizgavanja vodenog goriva, koji bi im, kada su pozvani tijekom žarišta bitke, dao priliku da pregaze, nadmudre i eventualno dovrše neprijatelj.

“Mariana ’s Turkey Shoot ”

JH: Kako je bilo s USS -om Princeton izvedeno budući da ste u proljeće prebačeni na brod
iz 1944?

FH: Već je prikupila sedam borbenih zvijezda i sada je bila spremna postići više napadajući japanske ciljeve u središnjem Pacifiku. Nastavili smo podržavati iskrcavanje amfibija u Nizozemskoj, Nova Gvineja. U lipnju je Princeton sudjelovao u invaziji na Saipan, Tinian, Guam i Rota, svi ti otoci čine lanac Marijane. Ovo je bila prilično kampanja, prepuna neprijateljskih akcija. Naši su avioni zaista imali dan na terenu, jer je cijela naša grupa nosača oborila oko 400 neprijateljskih zrakoplova. To je također uključivalo iznos pogođen rafalom s naših brodova koji su bili napadnuti. Ovaj incident je ono što je stvorilo naziv "Marijanin puran puran", predstavljajući ono što se dogodilo tog dana.

JH: Kako je USS PrincetonProlaze li avioni u ovom angažmanu?

FH: Tama se brzo približavala, a naši su se zrakoplovi vraćali u flotu. Dok su se približavali odredištu, shvativši da im nedostaje goriva i da se mrak brzo približava, admiralu je postalo jasno da će morati poduzeti neke drastične mjere. Nakon što je malo razmislio, znajući da će njegova odluka dovesti flotu u opasnost od napada japanske podmornice, naredio je svim kapetanima nosača da osvijetle svoje letjelice i pripreme se za noćno slijetanje.

Fotografija USS-a izbliza Princeton u popodnevnim satima 24. listopada 1944. otkriva razmjere štete na nosaču zrakoplova. Nešto poslije 15 sati, snažna unutarnja eksplozija izazvala je požar na brodu i raspršila obližnju krstaricu USS Birmingham sa gelerom.

Dolazećim avionima, s malo goriva, pilotima umornim od jednodnevne bitke sa stotinama japanskih zrakoplova svih vrsta, ostavljeno je vrlo malo prostora za greške. Većina njih morala bi se ukrcati u prvom pokušaju, bez odmahivanja ili pokušaja drugog slijetanja. Naš nosač imao je veliku sreću jer smo bez greške dohvatili našu eskadrilu, iako smo morali mahnuti japanskoj nuli koja se pokušala ukrcati na brod bez kuke za hapšenje kako bi ga sigurno zaustavili. Nikad ga više nisam vidjela.

Napuštanje Princeton

JH: Gdje ste bili kad je bomba pogodila USS Princeton to jutro?

FH: Nakon što su naši borbeni zrakoplovi otputovali oko 06:00 sati s misijom napada na aerodrome Luzon u znak potpore desantnim postrojbama generala Douglasa MacArthura, zrakoplovi su se počeli vraćati oko 09:00 sati, a ja sam upravo osigurao svoj zrakoplov F6F-5 Grumman. Temeljito sam ga provjerio radi otkrivanja problema i ustanovio da spremnik kisika treba zamijeniti. Nakon što sam pričvrstio novi, izvukao sam se iz trupa i učvršćivao otvor kad se sav pakao oslobodio. Ustao sam na vrijeme da čujem akk-akk paljbu iz topova marinaca na prednjem nosaču topa od 40 mm.

Još uvijek mogu zamisliti veliko bijelo središte njegova [japanskog pilota] propelera, ne više od 100 stopa iznad mene, dok je puštao svoju smrtonosnu bombu koja je pogodila usred brodova između prednjeg i poslije dizala. Probio se u palubu za let, stvarajući rupu od 15 inča, a zatim je nastavio dalje niz palubu hangara u područje kuhinje, gdje je eksplodirao, ubivši kuhare, pekare i druge članove posade u blizini eksplozije. Plamen je buknuo kroz rupe koje je stvorio, pa je paluba hangara bila zapaljena.

JH: Što je bio neposredni rezultat štrajka?

FH: Dok je vatrogasna posada bila zauzeta na pilotskoj palubi pokušavajući ugasiti plamen s neodgovarajućom opskrbom vodom zbog oštećenja koja su pretrpjela ispod, paluba hangara s 10 bombi bombardera Avenger Torpedo koja se pripremala za novi napad na neprijatelja bila je u plamenu sa 100 oktansko gorivo za visoko ispitivanje kao izvor. Bomba je, kad je eksplodirala, proizvela toliko snažan potres mozga da su naši TBM -i spustili svoje dodatne spremnike goriva na palubu pa su se pri udarcu otvorili i prolili gorivo na sve strane. Vatrogasci nisu mogli obuzdati ovu vatru, koja se brzo proširila palubom hangara s gladnim plamenom probijajući se do torpeda osiguranih u bombaškim odjeljcima TBM -a.

JH: Što ste sljedeće učinili?

FH: Kako se požar nastavio smanjivati, mi koji smo se nalazili na vrhu pokušali smo pružiti pomoć koliko smo mogli. Doživjeli smo učinak nekoliko torpeda koja su se raznijela na palubi hangara. Eksplozije bi nas, u redovitim intervalima, podigle oko šest centimetara iznad letačke palube. Kapetan je preko naših zvučnika najavio kako bi svi mogli čuti naredbu "napustite brod, napustite brod!" Ovo je naredba koju mornar nikada ne želi čuti.

JH: Jesu li bili čamci za spašavanje ili ste samo preskočili?

FH: Pod vodstvom sam imao mladog člana posade koji je radio za kapetana aviona. Bio je vrlo željan da to bude i pokazao je dobro obećanje, kada je testiran. Zvao se James (Jimmie) Jarrell iz Louisvillea, Kentucky. Ovdje smo na prednjoj palubi za let i oko 400 stopa od ormara s opremom, jer je vatra izmakla kontroli i spriječila nas da izvadimo prsluke za spašavanje. Iz kokpita mog aviona pronašli smo splav za spašavanje. Kako je Jimmie tek učio plivati, mislio sam da bi bilo dobro da se spusti u vodu preko užeta bačenog sa strane u tu svrhu. Ispustio sam mu napuhani splav za spašavanje i rekao da ću mu se uskoro pridružiti. Problem je bio u tome što kad sam udario u vodu nije me čekao Jimmie koji je sjedio na splavu za spašavanje. Plivao sam uokolo tražeći na sve strane trag od njega ili splava. To je posljednje što sam vidio uistinu finog mladića, punog energije i snage.

JH: Kako ste preživjeli bez splavi za spašavanje?

FH: Nakon par sati plivanja, naišao sam na limenku s vrećicom praha od 5 inča koju je zauzeo pomorac koji je bio kuhar. Bilo je dovoljno uzgona da nas je mogao podržati sve dok nas [razarač] USS nije izvukao iz vode Morrison.

JH: Gdje je bio USS Morrison na čelu?

“Cijela krma od Princeton Puhalo visoko visoko ”

FH: Sada kada japanski zrakoplovi više nisu dolazili na nas, Morrison povukao uz lučku stranu Princeton, koja je do tog trenutka razvila popis od 10 stupnjeva za pristanak. Kad smo stigli, dočekala nas je hrpa krhotina i dva avionska traktora koji su sišli s letačke palube. Srećom, nitko nije pogođen, ali tada su se radarske antene našeg broda uspjele spojiti s PrincetonAntene. Kad smo joj se konačno otrgnuli iz ruke, Morrisonova sposobnost da iskoristi naš radarski sustav za ciljanje i ispaljivanje naših 5-inčnih topova bila je poništena.

JH: Jesu li drugi brodovi davali pomoć u pokušaju spašavanja USS -a Princeton?

FH: Laka krstarica USS Birmingham bila s desne strane broda, dajući sve od sebe da joj ugasi vatru. Svi su se okrenuli stavljanju vatre pod kontrolu, kada je admiral naredio svim brodovima u tom području da prekinu pomoć za Princeton i krenu jer su japanski zrakoplovi bili viđeni i krenuli su prema nama. Naši patrolni Hellcatsi vodili su borbe s njima, a uskoro i USS Birmingham, [krstarica]Reno, i [razarač] Ward vratio nakon par sati odsutnosti. Po povratku ih je dočekao snažan požar [na brodu Princeton] izgaranje kontroli.

Preživjeli potonuli USS Princeton bob u vodi dok su čekali spas 24. listopada 1944. Deset časnika i 98 regrutiranih muškaraca ubijeno je od kompleksa od 1.361 mornara. Više je žrtava pretrpljeno na kruzeru USS Birmingham kao posljedica sekundarne eksplozije. Osamdeset pet Birmingham mornari su poginuli, a 300 je ranjeno.

JH: S toliko goriva i streljiva na brodu Princeton, nije li bilo rizično biti blizu nje u vodi?

FH: Kako se ispostavilo, bilo je. USS Morrison sa sobom i našom preživjelom posadom putovali smo na daljinu promatrajući sve veći plamen i dim na brodu Princeton, napominjući da je USS Birmingham bio jedini brod koji je prskao vodu po njemu, kada je odjednom došlo do strašne eksplozije na mahuni. Cijeli krmeni kraj Princeton raznio je visoko nebo, tuširajući se Birmingham s beskrajnom količinom smrtonosnih gelera. U trenutku je ova eksplozija ubila i ranila 600 ljudi Birmingham i Princeton.

JH: Što ste vidjeli sa svoje tačke gledišta na Morrison?

FH: [Bio je to] užasan prizor najgore vrste, članovi posade koji su pomagali ozlijeđenima i umirali jer su izgubili noge zbog krvavih paluba, ljestava i prolaza. Brzo su posipali pijesak posvuda kako bi povratili vuču svojih palubnih cipela. Sada na brodu Princeton, naš novi kapetan, John Hoskins, izgubio je stopalo jer je kapetan William H. Buracker pružio pomoć da zaustavi krvarenje. Zapovjednik Roland Sala, naš viši medicinski časnik, iako ozlijeđen, davao je morfij i sulfa u prahu, nožem za košulju odsjekao dio noge koji je visio. Ubrzo nakon toga i sam je dr. Sala morao biti na liječenju svojih rana. Svi brodovi koji su pomagali i u blizini Princeton dobili su naređenje da se povuku i udalje se dobro, jer nije bilo šanse da je spasimo, a mi ćemo je potopiti.

Potapanje Princeton

JH: Kako je bilo Princeton potonuo?

FH: Laka krstarica USS Reno je dobio nalog da preuzme i dovrši USS Princeton [nakon gotovo promašaja USS -a Irwin, čije su lansirne cijevi bile oštećene]. The Reno lansirao dva torpeda u bočni dio njezina trupa, a oba su je udarila oko područja časopisa. Eksplozija je bila toliko silovita da je podigla stup dima, dostižući visinu od 1500 stopa. Kad se dim razišao, Borilačka dama, kako je bila poznata, nestala je ispod oceanskih valova, pronašavši novi dom nekih 20.000 stopa niže, odnijevši sa sobom devet borbenih zvijezda za koje se hrabro borila i zaradila, koliko god to bilo skupo .

JH: Gdje ste otišli vi i ostali preživjeli?

FH: Svi mi koji smo preživjeli završili smo u Ulithiju, našoj najudaljenijoj opskrbnoj bazi u sjevernom Pacifiku. Ovdje nam je izdana prijeko potrebna i potrebna odjeća, oprema i potrepštine za izdržavanje. Ukrcali su nas na prijevoz trupa i krenuli na dugo putovanje kući. Završili smo u San Diegu u Kaliforniji, dok su oni radili na našoj evidenciji i dovršili potrebne papire kako bismo mogli otići na dopust preživjelih i vratiti se na sljedeću dužnost.

JH: Koliko je poginulo na brodu USS -a Princeton?

FH: Sto i petnaest života je izgubljeno.

JH: Što je bio rezultat akcije u Leyteu?

FH: Treća i Sedma flota uništile su carsku japansku mornaricu. Dovršili smo četiri nosača aviona, tri bojna broda, 10 krstarica i devet razarača, oštetivši još mnogo drugih. Bitka za zaljev Leyte bila je snažan trijumf američke mornarice protiv gubitaka.

Poslije bitke kod zaljeva Leyte

Sjedinjene Američke Države izgubile su nosač svjetla Princeton, dva pratitelja - USS Sveti Lo i USS Zaljev Gambier, two destroyers—the USS Johnston and USS Hoel, and one destroyer escort—the USS Samuel B. Roberts and a few lesser craft (these in the battle off Samar on October 25).

The Battle of Leyte Gulf left the U.S. Navy in command of the eastern approaches to the Philippines, providing support for General MacArthur’s invading forces and maintaining the seaborne supply lines pouring men and munitions into the combat area.

Two months after Heineman’s experience at Leyte Gulf, he escorted Priscilla, his sweetheart from Lakeview High School, down the aisle. Stationed later at Brown Field in California and living in Chula Vista, he repaired the same type of airplanes that were aboard the Princeton, and the following year the Heinemans’ first child was born, “a real beauty, a blond baby girl, we named Diana Lynn,” he said. He was discharged from the service on December 7, 1945, Pearl Harbor Day.

Heineman refers to his loving wife of 65 years—mother of two daughters, grandmother of five, and great grandmother of five—who passed away in April 2009, as “missing in action.”


USS Langley Personal Stories - History

The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the BRONZE STAR MEDAL to ELZIE VERNON STUCKER, SEAMAN FIRST CLASS UNITED STATES NAVAL RESERVE for service as set forth in the following: "For meritorious achievement as a Member of a 20-mm. Gun crew on board the U.S.S. LOUISVILLE, During operations against enemy Japanese forces at Luzon, Philippine Islands, January 6, 1945. Skillfully directing the fire of his gun at an approaching enemy suicide plane, STUCKER succeeded in destroying the hostile aircraft, thereby preventing the enemy from crashing onto his ship. His devotion to duty throughout was in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service." STUCKER is authorized to wear the Combat "V". For the President, James Forrestal Secretary of the Navy.

Upon separation from U. S. Naval Service Seaman 1class Stucker had received Phillippines Liberation Ribbon-2 stars, Bronze Star Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Area Ribbon 8 Stars, American Area Ribbon, and Victory Ribbon.

Elzie Stucker died August 20,1999. I would appreciate hearing from anyone who
remembers or served with him. Felita Stucker Giles


2. The USS Nimitz Encounter (2004)

On November 14, 2004, the USS Princeton, part of the USS Nimitz carrier strike group, noted an unknown craft on radar 100 miles off the coast of San Diego. For two weeks, the crew had been tracking objects that appeared at 80,000 feet and then plummeted to hover right above the Pacific Ocean. 

When two FA-18F fighter jets from the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz arrived in the area, they first saw what appeared to be churning water, with a shadow of an oval shape underneath the surface. Then, in a few moments, a white Tic Tac-shaped object appeared above the water. It had no visible markings to indicate an engine, wings or windows, and infrared monitors didn&apost reveal any exhaust. Black Aces Commander David Fravor and Lt. Commander Jim Slaight of Strike Fighter Squadron 41 attempted to intercept the craft, but it accelerated away, reappearing on radar 60 miles away. It moved three times the speed of sound and more than twice the speed of the fighter jets. 


Sadržaj

Indianapolis was the second of two ships in the Portland class, the third class of "treaty cruisers" constructed by the United States Navy following the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, after the two vessels of the Pensacola class, ordered in 1926, and the six of the Northampton class, ordered in 1927. [7] Ordered for the US Navy in fiscal year 1930, Indianapolis was originally designated as a light cruiser because of her thin armor and given the hull classification symbol CL-35. She was reclassified a heavy cruiser, because of her 8-inch (203 mm) guns, with the symbol CA-35 on 1 July 1931, in accordance with the London Naval Treaty. [8]

As built, the Portland-class cruisers were designed for a standard displacement of 10,258 long tons (10,423 t), and a full-load displacement of 12,755 long tons (12,960 t). [9] However, when completed, Indianapolis did not reach this weight, displacing 9,950 long tons (10,110 t). [10] The ship had two distinctive raked funnels, a tripod foremast, and a small tower and pole mast aft. In 1943, light tripods were added forward of the second funnel on each ship, and a prominent Naval director was installed aft. [10]

The ship had four propeller shafts and four Parsons GT geared turbines and eight White-Forster boilers. The 107,000 shp (80,000 kW) gave a design speed of 32.7 kn (60.6 km/h 37.6 mph). She was designed for a range of 10,000 nmi (19,000 km 12,000 mi) at 15 kn (28 km/h 17 mph). [10] She rolled badly until fitted with a bilge keel. [8]

The cruiser had nine 8-inch/55 caliber Mark 9 guns in three triple mounts, a superfiring pair fore and one aft. For anti-aircraft defense, she had eight 5-inch/25 caliber guns and two QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss guns. In 1945, she received twenty-four 40 mm (1.57 in) Bofors guns, arrayed in six quad mounts. Both ships were upgraded with nineteen 20 mm (0.79 in) Oerlikon cannons. [3] The ship did not have torpedo tubes. [11]

The Portland-class cruisers originally had 1-inch (25 mm) armor for deck and side protection, but in construction [8] they were given belt armor between 5 in (127 mm) (around the magazines) and 3.25 in (83 mm) in thickness. [11] Armor on the bulkheads was between 2 in (51 mm) and 5.75 in (146 mm) that on the deck was 2.5 in (64 mm), the barbettes 1.5 in (38 mm), the gunhouses 2.5 in, and the conning tower 1.25 in (32 mm). [10]

Portland-class cruisers were outfitted as fleet flagships, with space for a flag officer and his staff. The class also had two aircraft catapults amidships. [10] They could carry four aircraft. The total crew varied, with a regular designed complement of 807 [9] and a wartime complement of 952, which could increase to 1,229 when the cruiser was a fleet flagship. [10]

Indianapolis was laid down by New York Shipbuilding Corporation on 31 March 1930. [10] The hull and machinery were provided by the builder. [8] Indianapolis was launched on 7 November 1931, and commissioned on 15 November 1932. [10] She was the second ship named for the city of Indianapolis, following the cargo ship of the same name in 1918. She was sponsored by Lucy M. Taggart, daughter of former Mayor of Indianapolis Thomas Taggart. [12]

Under Captain John M. Smeallie, Indianapolis undertook her shakedown cruise through the Atlantic and into Guantánamo Bay, until 23 February 1932. Indianapolis then transited the Panama Canal for training off the Chilean coast. After overhaul at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, she sailed to Maine to embark President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at Campobello Island, New Brunswick, on 1 July 1933. [12] Getting underway the same day, Indianapolis arrived at Annapolis, Maryland, on 3 July. She hosted six members of the Cabinet, along with Roosevelt, during her stay there. After disembarking Roosevelt, she departed Annapolis on 4 July, and steamed for Philadelphia Navy Yard. [13]

On 6 September, she embarked Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson, for an inspection of the Navy in the Pacific. Indianapolis toured the Canal Zone, Hawaii, and installations in San Pedro and San Diego. Swanson disembarked on 27 October. On 1 November 1933, she became flagship of Scouting Force 1, and maneuvered with the force off Long Beach, California. She departed on 9 April 1934, and arrived at New York City, embarking Roosevelt, a second time, for a naval review. She returned to Long Beach on 9 November 1934 for more training with the Scouting Force. She remained flagship of Scouting Force 1 until 1941. On 18 November 1936, she embarked Roosevelt a third time at Charleston, South Carolina, and conducted a goodwill cruise to South America with him. She visited Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Montevideo, Uruguay, for state visits before returning to Charleston and disembarking Roosevelt's party on 15 December. [13] President Roosevelt underwent his crossing the line ceremony on this cruise on 26 November: an "intensive initiation lasting two days, but we have all survived and are now full-fledged Shellbacks". [14]

On 7 December 1941, Indianapolis, leading Task Force 3, (Indianapolis and destroyer-minesweepers Dorsey, Elliot, i Lamberton from MineDiv 6, and Southard i Long from MineDiv 5 [15] ) was conducting a mock bombardment at Johnston Atoll during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Indianapolis was absorbed into Task Force 12 and searched for the Japanese carriers responsible for the attack, though the force did not locate them. She returned to Pearl Harbor on 13 December and joined Task Force 11. [13]

New Guinea campaign Edit

With the task force, she steamed to the South Pacific, to 350 mi (560 km) south of Rabaul, New Britain, escorting the aircraft carrier Lexington. Late in the afternoon of 20 February 1942, the American ships were attacked by 18 Japanese aircraft. Of these, 16 were shot down by aircraft from Lexington and the other two were destroyed by anti-aircraft fire from the ships. [13]

On 10 March, the task force, reinforced by another force centered on the carrier Yorktown, attacked Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea, where the Japanese were marshaling amphibious forces. Attacking from the south through the Owen Stanley mountain range, the US air forces surprised and inflicted heavy damage on Japanese warships and transports, losing few aircraft. Indianapolis returned to the Mare Island Naval Shipyard for a refit before escorting a convoy to Australia. [13]

Aleutian Islands campaign Edit

Indianapolis then headed for the North Pacific to support American units in the Battle of the Aleutian Islands. On 7 August, Indianapolis and the task force attacked Kiska Island, a Japanese staging area. Although fog hindered observation, Indianapolis and other ships fired their main guns into the bay. Floatplanes from the cruisers reported Japanese ships sunk in the harbor and damage to shore installations. After 15 minutes, Japanese shore batteries returned fire before being destroyed by the ships' main guns. Japanese submarines approaching the force were depth-charged by American destroyers and Japanese seaplanes made an ineffective bombing attack. In spite of a lack of information on the Japanese forces, the operation was considered a success. US forces later occupied Adak Island, providing a naval base farther from Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island.

1943 operations Edit

In January 1943, Indianapolis supported a landing and occupation on Amchitka, part of an Allied island hopping strategy in the Aleutian Islands. [13]

On the evening of 19 February, Indianapolis led two destroyers on a patrol southwest of Attu Island, searching for Japanese ships trying to reinforce Kiska and Attu. She intercepted the Japanese 3,100-long-ton (3,150 t) cargo ship, Akagane Maru laden with troops, munitions, and supplies. The cargo ship tried to reply to the radio challenge but was shelled by Indianapolis. Akagane Maru exploded and sank with all hands. Through mid-1943, Indianapolis remained near the Aleutian Islands, escorting American convoys and providing shore bombardments supporting amphibious assaults. In May, the Allies captured Attu, then turned on Kiska, thought to be the final Japanese holdout in the Aleutians. Allied landings there began on 15 August, but the Japanese had already abandoned the Aleutian Islands, unbeknownst to the Allies. [13]

After refitting at Mare Island, Indianapolis moved to Hawaii as flagship of Vice Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, commanding the 5th Fleet. She sortied from Pearl Harbor on 10 November, with the main body of the Southern Attack Force for Operation Galvanic, the invasion of the Gilbert Islands. On 19 November, Indianapolis bombarded Tarawa Atoll, and next day pounded Makin (see Battle of Makin). The ship then returned to Tarawa as fire-support for the landings. Her guns shot down an enemy plane and shelled enemy strongpoints as landing parties fought Japanese defenders in the Battle of Tarawa. She continued this role until the island was secure three days later. The conquest of the Marshall Islands followed victory in the Gilberts. Indianapolis was again 5th Fleet flagship.

1944 Edit

The cruiser met other ships of her task force at Tarawa, and on D-Day minus 1, 31 January 1944, she was one of the cruisers that bombarded the islands of Kwajalein Atoll. The shelling continued on D-Day, with Indianapolis suppressing two enemy shore batteries. Next day, she destroyed a blockhouse and other shore installations and supported advancing troops with a creeping barrage. The ship entered Kwajalein Lagoon, on 4 February, and remained until resistance disappeared (see Battle of Kwajalein).

In March and April, Indianapolis, still flagship of the 5th Fleet, attacked the Western Carolines. Carrier planes at the Palau Islands on 30–31 March, sank three destroyers, 17 freighters, five oilers and damaged 17 other ships. Airfields were bombed and surrounding water mined. Yap and Ulithi were struck on 31 March, and Woleai on 1 April. Japanese planes attacked but were driven off without damaging the American ships. Indianapolis shot down her second plane, a torpedo bomber, and the Japanese lost 160 planes, including 46 on the ground. These attacks prevented Japanese forces stationed in the Carolines from interfering with the US landings on New Guinea.

In June, the 5th Fleet was busy with the assault on the Mariana Islands. Raids on Saipan began with carrier-based planes on 11 June, followed by surface bombardment, in which Indianapolis had a major role, from 13 June (see Battle of Saipan). On D-Day, 15 June, Admiral Spruance heard that battleships, carriers, cruisers, and destroyers were headed south to relieve threatened garrisons in the Marianas. Since amphibious operations at Saipan had to be protected, Spruance could not withdraw too far. Consequently, a fast carrier force was sent to meet this threat while another force attacked Japanese air bases on Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima, in the Bonin and Volcano Islands, bases for potential enemy air attacks.

A combined US fleet fought the Japanese on 19 June in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Japanese carrier planes, which planned to use the airfields of Guam and Tinian to refuel and rearm, were met by carrier planes and the guns of the Allied escorting ships. That day, the US Navy destroyed a reported 426 Japanese planes while losing 29. [16] Indianapolis shot down one torpedo plane. This day of aerial combat became known as the "Marianas Turkey Shoot". With Japanese air opposition wiped out, the US carrier planes sank Hiyō, two destroyers, and one tanker and damaged others. Two other carriers, Taihō i Shōkaku, were sunk by submarines.

Indianapolis returned to Saipan on 23 June to resume fire support and six days later moved to Tinian to attack shore installations (see Battle of Tinian). Meanwhile, Guam had been taken, and Indianapolis became the first ship to enter Apra Harbor since early in the war. The ship operated in the Marianas for the next few weeks, then moved to the Western Carolines, where further landings were planned. From 12 to 29 September, she bombarded Peleliu, in the Palau Group, before and after the landings (see Battle of Peleliu). She then sailed to Manus Island, in the Admiralty Islands, where she operated for 10 days before returning to the Mare Island Naval Shipyard in California for refitting.

1945 Edit

Overhauled, Indianapolis joined Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's fast carrier task force on 14 February 1945. Two days later, the task force launched an attack on Tokyo to cover the landings on Iwo Jima, scheduled for 19 February. This was the first carrier attack on mainland Japan since the Doolittle Raid. The mission was to destroy Japanese air facilities and other installations in the Home Islands. The fleet achieved complete tactical surprise by approaching the Japanese coast under cover of bad weather. The attacks were pressed home for two days. The US Navy lost 49 carrier planes while claiming 499 enemy planes, a 10-to-1 kill/loss ratio. The task force also sank a carrier, nine coastal ships, a destroyer, two destroyer escorts, and a cargo ship. They destroyed hangars, shops, aircraft installations, factories, and other industrial targets.

Immediately after the strikes, the task force raced to the Bonin Islands to support the landings on Iwo Jima. The ship remained there until 1 March, protecting the invasion ships and bombarding targets in support of the landings. Indianapolis returned to VADM Mitscher's task force in time to strike Tokyo, again on 25 February, and Hachijō, off the southern coast of Honshū, the following day. Although weather was extremely bad, the American force destroyed 158 planes and sank five small ships while pounding ground installations and destroying trains.

The next target for the US forces was Okinawa, in the Ryukyu Islands, which were in range of aircraft from the Japanese mainland. The fast carrier force was tasked with attacking airfields in southern Japan until they were incapable of launching effective airborne opposition to the impending invasion. The fast carrier force departed for Japan from Ulithi on 14 March. On 18 March, she launched an attack from a position 100 mi (160 km) southeast of the island of Kyūshū. The attack targeted airfields on Kyūshū, as well as ships of the Japanese fleet in the harbors of Kobe and Kure, on southern Honshū. The Japanese located the American task force on 21 March, sending 48 planes to attack the ships. Twenty-four fighters from the task force intercepted and shot down all the Japanese aircraft.

Indianapolis was assigned to Task Force 54 (TF 54) for the invasion of Okinawa. When TF 54 began pre-invasion bombardment of Okinawa on 24 March, Indianapolis spent 7 days pouring 8-inch shells into the beach defenses. During this time, enemy aircraft repeatedly attacked the American ships. Indianapolis shot down six planes and damaged two others. On 31 March, the day before the Tenth Army (combined U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps) started its assault landings, the Indianapolis lookouts spotted a Japanese Nakajima Ki-43 "Oscar" fighter as it emerged from the morning twilight and dived vertically towards the bridge. The ship's 20 mm guns opened fire, but within 15 seconds the plane was over the ship. Tracers converged on it, causing it to swerve, but the pilot managed to release his bomb from a height of 25 ft (7.6 m), then crashing his plane into the sea near the port stern. The bomb plummeted through the deck, into the crew's mess hall, down through the berthing compartment, and through the fuel tanks before crashing through the keel and exploding in the water underneath. The concussion blew two gaping holes in the keel which flooded nearby compartments, killing nine crewmen. The ship's bulkheads prevented any progressive flooding. Indianapolis, settling slightly by the stern and listing to port, steamed to a salvage ship for emergency repairs. Here, inspection revealed that her propeller shafts were damaged, her fuel tanks ruptured, and her water-distilling equipment ruined. But Indianapolis commenced the long trip across the Pacific, under her own power, to the Mare Island Navy Yard for repairs.

Secret mission Edit

After major repairs and an overhaul, Indianapolis received orders to undertake a top-secret mission of the utmost significance to national security: to proceed to Tinian island carrying the enriched uranium [17] (about half of the world's supply of uranium-235 at the time) and other parts required for the assembly of the atomic bomb codenamed "Little Boy", which would be dropped on Hiroshima a few weeks later. [18]

Indianapolis was then sent to Guam, where a number of the crew who had completed their tours of duty were relieved by other sailors. Leaving Guam on 28 July, she began sailing toward Leyte, where her crew was to receive training before continuing on to Okinawa to join Vice Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf's Task Force 95. [ potreban je citat ]

At 00:15 on 30 July, Indianapolis was struck on her starboard side by two Type 95 torpedoes, one in the bow and one amidships, from the Japanese submarine I-58, [21] captained by Commander Mochitsura Hashimoto, who initially thought he had spotted the Novi Meksiko-class battleship Idaho. [23] The explosions caused massive damage. Indianapolis took on a heavy list (the ship had had a great deal of armament and gun-firing directors added as the war went on, and was therefore top-heavy) [24] and settled by the bow. Twelve minutes later, she rolled completely over, then her stern rose into the air and she sank. Some 300 of the 1,195 crewmen aboard went down with the ship. [4] With few lifeboats and many without life jackets, the remainder of the crew was set adrift. [25]

Rescue Edit

Navy command did not know of the ship's sinking until survivors were spotted in the open ocean three and a half days later. At 10:25 on 2 August, a PV-1 Ventura flown by Lieutenant Wilbur "Chuck" Gwinn and his copilot, Lieutenant Warren Colwell, and a PBY 2 piloted by Bill Kitchen spotted the men adrift while on a routine patrol flight. [26] Gwinn immediately dropped a life raft and radio transmitter. All air and surface units capable of rescue operations were dispatched to the scene at once.

First to arrive was an amphibious PBY-5A Catalina patrol plane flown by Lieutenant Commander (USN) Robert Adrian Marks. Marks and his flight crew spotted the survivors and dropped life rafts one raft was destroyed by the drop while others were too far away from the exhausted crew. Against standing orders not to land in open ocean, Marks took a vote of his crew and decided to land the aircraft in twelve-foot (3.7 m) swells. He was able to maneuver his craft to pick up 56 survivors. Space in the plane was limited, so Marks had men lashed to the wing with parachute cord. His actions rendered the aircraft unflyable. After nightfall, the destroyer escort USS Cecil J. Doyle, the first of seven rescue ships, used its search light as a beacon and instilled hope in those still in the water. Cecil J. Doyle and six other ships picked up the remaining survivors. After the rescue, Marks' plane was sunk by Cecil J. Doyle as it could not be recovered. [27]

Many of the survivors were injured, and all suffered from lack of food and water (leading to dehydration and hypernatremia some found rations, such as Spam and crackers, among the debris of the Indianapolis), exposure to the elements (dehydration from the hot sun during the day and hypothermia at night, as well as severe desquamation due to continued exposure to salt water and bunker oil), and shark attacks, while some killed themselves or other survivors in various states of delirium and hallucinations. [28] [29] Only 316 of the nearly 900 men set adrift after the sinking survived. [4] Two of the rescued survivors, Robert Lee Shipman and Frederick Harrison, died in August 1945.

"Ocean of Fear", a 2007 episode of the Discovery Channel TV documentary series Shark Week, states that the sinking of Indianapolis resulted in the most shark attacks on humans in history, and attributes the attacks to the oceanic whitetip shark species. Tiger sharks may also have killed some sailors. The same show attributed most of the deaths on Indianapolis to exposure, salt poisoning, and thirst/dehydration, with the dead being dragged off by sharks. [30]

Navy failure to learn of the sinking Edit

The Headquarters of Commander Marianas on Guam and of the Commander Philippine Sea Frontier on Leyte kept Operations plotting boards on which were plotted the positions of all vessels with which the headquarters were concerned. However, it was assumed that ships as large as Indianapolis would reach their destinations on time, unless reported otherwise. Therefore, their positions were based on predictions and not on reports. On 31 July, when she should have arrived at Leyte, Indianapolis was removed from the board in the headquarters of Commander Marianas. She was also recorded as having arrived at Leyte by the headquarters of Commander Philippine Sea Frontier. Lieutenant Stuart B. Gibson, the operations officer under the Port Director, Tacloban, was the officer responsible for tracking the movements of Indianapolis. The vessel's failure to arrive on schedule was known at once to Gibson, who failed to investigate the matter and made no immediate report of the fact to his superiors. Gibson received a letter of reprimand in connection with the incident. The acting commander and operations officer of the Philippine Sea Frontier also received reprimands, while Gibson's immediate superior received a letter of admonition. [31]

In the first official statement, the Navy said that distress calls "were keyed by radio operators and possibly were actually transmitted" but that "no evidence has been developed that any distress message from the ship was received by any ship, aircraft or shore station". [31] Declassified records later showed that three stations received the signals but none acted upon the call. One commander was drunk, another had ordered his men not to disturb him, and a third thought it was a Japanese trap. [32]

Immediately prior to the attack, the seas had been moderate, the visibility fluctuating but poor in general, and Indianapolis had been steaming at 17 kn (20 mph 31 km/h). When the ship failed to reach Leyte on 31 July, as scheduled, no report was made that she was overdue. The Navy then created the Movement Report System to prevent such disasters in the future. [33]

Court-martial of Captain McVay Edit

Captain Charles B. McVay III, who had commanded Indianapolis since November 1944 through several battles, survived the sinking, though he was one of the last to abandon ship, and was among those rescued days later. In November 1945, he was court-martialed on two charges: failing to order his men to abandon ship and hazarding the ship. Cleared of the charge of failing to order abandon ship, McVay was convicted of "hazarding his ship by failing to zigzag". Several aspects of the court-martial were controversial. There was evidence that the Navy itself had placed the ship in harm's way. McVay's orders were to "zigzag at his discretion, weather permitting" however, McVay was not informed that a Japanese submarine was operating in the vicinity of his route from Guam to Leyte. Further, Mochitsura Hashimoto, commander of I-58, testified that zigzagging would have made no difference. [34] Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz remitted McVay's sentence and restored him to active duty. McVay retired in 1949 as a rear admiral. [35]

While many of Indianapolis 's survivors said McVay was not to blame for the sinking, the families of some of the men who died thought otherwise: "Merry Christmas! Our family's holiday would be a lot merrier if you hadn't killed my son", read one piece of mail. [36] The guilt that was placed on his shoulders mounted until he committed suicide in 1968, using his Navy-issued revolver. McVay was discovered on his front lawn by his gardener with a toy sailor in one hand, and a revolver in the other. [37] He was 70 years old.

McVay's record cleared Edit

In 1996, sixth-grade student Hunter Scott began his research on the sinking of Indianapolis for a class history project. Scott's effort led to an increase in national publicity, which got the attention of retired Congressional lobbyist Michael Monroney, who had been scheduled to be assigned to Indianapolis before she shipped out on her final voyage. Around the same time, Captain William J. Toti, USN, final commanding officer of the fast attack nuclear submarine USS Indianapolis (SSN-697) received an appeal from several Indianapolis survivors to assist with the exoneration effort. Toti then demonstrated through analysis that the tactic of zigzagging would not have spared the Indianapolis from at least one torpedo hit by the I-58. [38] Monroney, whose son-in-law was on the staff of Senator Bob Smith (R, NH), brought the matter to the attention of his son-in-law, who was able to get the issue in front of Smith. Smith convinced Senator John Warner (R, VA) to hold hearings on the Senate Armed Services Committee on 14 September 1999, in which several Indianapolis survivors testified. Also called to testify in the hearings were Vice Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Donald Pilling, Director of Naval History Center Dr. William Dudley, and the Judge Advocate General of the Navy Rear Admiral John Hutson. The hearings were reported to sway Senator Warner into allowing a "Sense of Congress" resolution clearing Captain McVay's name to be passed to full Congress for a vote. In October 2000, the United States Congress passed a resolution that Captain McVay's record should state that "he is exonerated for the loss of Indianapolis". President Bill Clinton also signed the resolution. [39] The resolution noted that, although several hundred ships of the US Navy were lost in combat during World War II, McVay was the only captain to be court-martialed for the sinking of his ship. [40] In July 2001, United States Secretary of the Navy Gordon England directed Captain Toti to enter the Congressional language into McVay's official Navy service record, clearing him of all wrongdoing. [41] [42]


USS Arizona survivor, Navy veteran celebrates 100th birthday, receives personal message from Secret Service

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One of the two living survivors from the USS Arizona celebrated his 100th birthday Thursday, with a personal message from the White House Secret Service to wish him well on his special day.

Navy veteran Ken Potts, who now lives in Utah, served on the USS Arizona as a crane operator. Potts was aboard the craft when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, escaping with other sailors who were above-deck at the time.

Some 80 years later, there are only two living survivors: Potts and Lou Conter, the latter turning 99 in September 2020.

Reaching the centennial landmark did not go unnoticed, and Stg. Jonathan Stockeland, a 35-year-old Marine Corps veteran, sent Potts a happy birthday message filmed in front of the White House.

Sgt. Jonathan Stockeland showing World War II veterans around the White House. The 2017 tour included survivors of the USS Arizona. (DHS)

Stockeland met Potts in 2017 when he volunteered to give a "Veterans Tour" of the White House while he served as a member of the Secret Service.

He only later learned that the tour included survivors of the USS Arizona.

World War II veteran Ken Potts met President Trump during a 2017 tour of the White House. Potts is one of two remaining survivors of the USS Arizona, which was lost during the Dec. 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. (DHS)

Potts also met former President Trump during the tour.

Stockeland now says that the highlight of his career was giving that tour, which he concluded in the Map Room of the White House, where President Roosevelt would go for his daily briefings during World War II.

Sgt. Jonathan Stockeland films a message to celebrate veteran Ken Potts' 100th birthday. (DHS)

Potts will receive many video messages, but Stockeland’s message is a personal one that will be shared with Potts and his family, a Secret Service spokesperson told Fox News.

Potts joined the Navy at 18 when jobs were scarce and the war raged in Europe and the Pacific. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Potts recovered stateside and received a medical discharge.

He reenlisted a year later, serving on a destroyer and fighting in the invasion of the Philippines, according to Stars and Stripes.

Last year, Potts saw another of his fellow survivors, Don Stratton, pass, leaving him and Lou Conter as the last two.

"It's important when you get old, like we are," he said of his bond with his fellow survivors. "It's especially important when you lose one."


Gledaj video: Langley-The First Aircraft Carrier (Srpanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Broderik

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  2. Annan

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  3. Nkosi

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  4. Bakora

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  6. Kitchi

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