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Obnova Kraljice noći

Obnova Kraljice noći


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Obnova Kraljice noći - Povijest

Prema procjenama, bit će pogođeno oko 1700 poduzeća u 70 ulica, ali velike tvrtke s godišnjim fakturama većim od milijun eura dobit će popust od 95 posto na porez na gospodarske aktivnosti. Osim velikih hotela, malo će tvrtki imati koristi od toga, pa ostaje za vidjeti koje će mjere vlada i Udruga trgovaca Povijesnog centra i Ensanche moći pružiti.

Obnova Plaza de la Reina počet će zatvaranjem parkirnih mjesta, pa ako se od danas planirate voziti do centra grada, bit će iznimno teško bilo gdje pronaći parkirno mjesto. To bi moglo imati dobrodošao učinak tjeranja valencijskih vozača iz automobila, napokon, s obzirom na izvrsnu infrastrukturu u pogledu javnog prijevoza, a da ne spominjemo namjenske biciklističke staze koje prelaze grad.


Istražujući arhetipove: Hestia

Ova serija postova bit će zbirka svih informacija o određenom arhetipu na jednom mjestu, kao i stalno istraživanje arhetipa, njegove mitološke povijesti, odnosa s drugim arhetipovima, što god se pojavi.


Hestia u mitu: sinopsis

HESTIA je bila djevičanska božica ognjišta (privatnog i općinskog) i doma. Kao božica obiteljskog ognjišta vodila je i kuhanje kruha i pripremu obiteljskog obroka. Hestia je također bila božica žrtvenog plamena i primala je dio svake žrtve bogovima. Kuhanje zajedničke gozbe kurbanskog mesa prirodno je bilo dio njezine domene.

U mitu je Hestia prvorođeno dijete Kronosa i Rhee koje je otac progutao pri rođenju. Zeus je kasnije prisilio starog Titana da odbaci Hestiju i njezinu braću i sestre. Kao prva koju je progutala, ujedno je i posljednja izbačena, pa je tako proglašena i najstarijom i najmlađom od šest Kronida. Kad su bogovi Apolon i Posejdon tražili njezinu ruku u braku, Hestia je to odbila i zamolila Zeusa da joj dopusti da ostane vječna djevica. On je pristao i ona je zauzela njeno mjesto na njegovom kraljevskom ognjištu.

Hestia je na atenskom slikarstvu vaza prikazana kao skromno prikrivena žena koja ponekad drži cvjetnu granu (čednog drveta?). U klasičnoj skulpturi također je bila zastrta, a kotlić joj je bio atribut.


Iz knjižnice u Halexandriji

Još jedna djevičanska božica, poput Artemide i Atene, ali koja se prilagođavala povlačeći se od ljudi, postajući anonimna u izgledu i sama. Hestia se, umjesto toga, usredotočila na unutarnje subjektivno iskustvo, potpuno apsorbirano dok je meditirala, tražila tihi mir, samoću, smatrala da je čuvanje kuće smislena aktivnost (vrijeme kairos - sudjelovanje u vremenu) ili čak oblik obožavanja, iznad i izvan intriga i suparništva, izbjegnuta da budu uhvaćena u strasti trenutka, nikad ushićena ili devastirana, mudra, odvojena i povezana, usredsređena, tiha, nenametljiva, topla, mirna, samodostatna, izvornoj “staroj duši ”, nedostajala je ambicija i vozila, nije cijenila moć ili priznanje, na seks je gledala kao na lijepo, toplo iskustvo, neorgazmično, a svejedno vode teku duboko, ” odbijale su intelektualne i emocionalne sile koje bi je mogle odmaknuti od njezina centra.

Stranica pentakla

Stranica pentakla najodgovornija je od stranica, osobina koju dijele sve sudske karte pentakla zbog njihove zemaljske prirode. Stranica pentakla općenito je mlada tijela, ali stara uma. Vrijedna je radnica i učinkovit menadžer, koji koristi zdrav razum više od intuicije i radi stvari po mjeri, a ne riskira. Unatoč tome, ona je uvijek otvorena za nove ideje i nije tako kruto dogmatična kao ostatak sudskih karata Pentacles. Ona vidi mogućnosti koje su svojstvene svakoj situaciji i pronalazi najbolje načine da ih iskoristi na temelju resursa kojima raspolaže. Stranica pentakla uživa u svijetu i pokušat će sačuvati njezinu ljepotu kao što će sačuvati stare načine razmišljanja i činjenja.

Stranica pentakla unutar svakog od nas dobra je energija za pozivanje kada moramo upravljati timom ili snositi veliku odgovornost. Prikupite svoje resurse i pametno ih koristite jer se samo pomoću takve mudrosti može postići uspjeh. Kad ta energija bude jaka u vama, često ćete razviti strast za učenjem i upijanjem novih ideja. S entuzijazmom primjenjujte znanje, razmišljajte praktički u svim situacijama i ne možete pogriješiti.

Postupak rekonstrukcije i usklađivanja prikazan je karticom Temperance za izmjenu ili jačanje dodavanjem nove komponente postojećoj tvari ili smjesi. Sve primjene Temperance dijele zajedničku temu umjerenosti i ravnoteže, koja kulminira stvaranjem usredotočenog i dobro zaokruženog bića. Crveno-bijela simbologija koja je prvi put prikazana u Čarobnjaku također se pojavljuje na ovoj karti-umjerenost želje (crvena) sa čistoćom (bijela) jedna je od najosnovnijih manifestacija ove karte, kao i obrnuto (čistoća sa željom) . Anđeo nosi bijelu haljinu i ima crvena krila. Čistoća srca i uma daje vam čvrstu osnovu na koju se možete osloniti, ali samo kroz želju za osobnim rastom možete se ikada razviti. Bijela haljina anđela daje joj osnovni oblik, ali samo kroz kontrolu njezinih crvenih krila dolazi do njene sposobnosti letenja.

Prije nego što postignete sklad u svojim odnosima s ljudima oko sebe, morate se pomiriti sa samim sobom. Unutarnje neravnoteže često se mogu manifestirati u fizičkom svijetu ako se na njih ne vodi računa, neovisno o tome je li neravnoteža negativna. Ravnoteža se najbolje postiže okretanjem prema unutarnjem glasu radi usmjeravanja.


Opet, većina gornjih opisa dolazi iz Američkog udruženja tarot, Božanske moći, Knjižnice u Haleksandriji i sa stranica Wikipedije na raznim tarot kartama. Svaka im čast na briljantnom istraživanju arhetipova i tarot karata. Svakako ih provjerite i uvjerite se u njihovu mudrost (veze su tamo s desne strane.)


Molitva

Oče naš, zahvaljujemo vam na ovom pogledu u vašu riječ, u istinu koja utječe na naše živote. Molimo se da i mi, kao što je to učinio Nehemija, naučimo biti disciplinirani, hrabri, sigurni u vas i spremni reći ne, spremni biti apsolutno nemilosrdni prema silama koje bi potkopale i narušile vitalnost naših života u vama. U Kristovo ime, Amen.

Prijepis poruke i snimanje i kopija 2021. od Ray Stedman ministarstava, vlasnika isključivih autorskih prava prema autorskom ustupku. Za dopuštenje za korištenje ovog sadržaja, pregledajte RayStedman.org/permissions. Podložno politici dopuštenja, sva prava pridržana.

Božji nacrt za uspjeh

Pobliže pogledajte Nehemijinu knjigu da vidite kako možete nadvladati kušnje i obnoviti slomljene dijelove svog života. Na stranicama ove knjige pronaći ćete smjernice za razgovor s Bogom, primanje Njegovih uputa i napredovanje u životu kako biste ispunili Njegovu volju.


Plemeniti koncepti: Kraljica noći

Osmislio ga je i stvorio Randy Weiner, najpoznatiji u New Yorku po svom angažmanu u impresivnom kazališnom iskustvu Ne spavaj više, Kraljica noći otvorena u podrumu hotela Paramount 2. veljače. Predstava spaja kazališnu predstavu, cirkuske predstave, "nastup s hranom" i raskošnu večeru u večer kao nitko drugi.

Smješten u rekonstrukciju povijesne Diamond Horseshoe Billyja Rosea, događaj, koji se naziva "mračna debitantska lopta" koju je Marchesa dala u čast svoje kćeri Pamine, zahtijevao je talente i kreativnost nevjerojatnog tima umjetnika. Večer je dekadentna, puna seksualnih insinuacija, raskošna i uključuje kontakt koža do kože između glumačke postave i publike.

Za ovaj ambiciozni projekt Weiner je okupio tim rock zvijezda: redateljica Christine Jones, kreatorica cirkusa Shana Carroll, kreatorica "performansa hrane" Jennifer Rubell, koreografkinja Lorin Latarro i kreativna direktorica Giovanna Battaglia. Pridružili su im se Douglas Little (scenografija i miris), Austin R. Smith (dizajn svjetla), Darron L. West i Charles Coes (dizajn zvuka), Thom Browne (modni dizajn), Steve Cuiffo (čarobni dizajn), Meg Sharpe (dizajn interijera), i izvršni kuhar Jason Kallert.

Jones je najpoznatiji kao scenograf, a najviše od Broadwaya Buđenje proljeća i Američki idiot. Projekt, iako je na neki način odmak, također je izdanak njezinog razvoja kazališta za jedno, „prijenosnog prostora izvedbene umjetnosti za jednog izvođača i jednog člana publike, koji pretvara javne događaje u privatne činove, čineći svaku predstavu posebno intimnom razmjena. ”

U vrijeme kada je Jonera doveo Weiner, arhitekti Stonehill & amp Taylor radili su na stvaranju prostora Diamond Horseshoe s dizajnericom interijera Meg Sharpe više od godinu dana. Mjesto, prožeto stvarnom i izgrađenom poviješću, bilo je dio priče od početka.

Weinerovo osoblje i vizija spojili su se oko rekreacije Dijamantne potkove, koja je očito bila ključna za stvaranje i uspjeh događaja. Originalna Diamond Horseshoe, koju je stvorio Billy Rose, otvorena je 1938. ispod hotela Paramount. Nakon što je godinama bio dom raskošnih revija, Horseshow se zatvorio 1951., ali je ostavljen sam da se raspadne, osim kad se koristio za nekoliko odabranih događaja, poput memorijalnog ručka Andyja Warhola 1987. godine. Prostor je čekao da postane dom Kraljica noći.

Tim je, prema Jonesu, bio pravi susret istomišljenika. “Svi smo na različite načine bili privučeni Dijamantnom potkovom i svi smo željeli natprirodno iskustvo. Bilo je nevjerojatno surađivati ​​s toliko različitih umjetnika, svi smo na značajan način radili izvan svoje zone udobnosti, a većina nas radila je prvi put ”, kaže ona. “Tijekom mnogih vrlo intenzivnih tjedana, stvarali smo, rekreirali, revidirali, počeli ispočetka, vraćali se starim idejama i sastavljali mapu puta. Nitko od nas nikada prije nije učinio ništa slično, pa nismo imali iskušana i istinska sredstva da ovo uspije, a svi smo imali vrlo različite načine rada. ”

Prema Littleu, „Christine se htjela pokloniti prostoru i dati gostima da uđu u nešto što je izgledalo kao ostaci stare Dijamantne potkove. Prostor je rijedak dragulj i ima svoju posebnu magiju. Ulazak iz ludila Times Squarea i silazak u ovaj čarobni svijet nije ništa drugo do mitološko iskustvo. ” Smith prepričava svoje početno iskustvo prostora s istim stubištem. "Dijamantna potkovica bila je potpuno izvađena kad sam ušao", kaže on. “Vjerujem da je to bilo vrlo rano u veljači 2013. Nema kata - stubište je uglavnom bilo netaknuto kako ga vidite danas. Svidjelo nam se kako stubište izgleda, ali arhitekt je morao to obnoviti. Poslije je ušao naš scenski tim koji ga je vratio u prvobitnu dotrajalost. ”

Inspirirana Čarobna flauta, kao i mitove o Perzefoni i Demetri, smatra Jones Kraljica noći biti "mnogo više ritualno iskustvo nego kazališna predstava". Jasno joj je da je najveći izazov emisije “integriranje toliko različitih elemenata. U jednom trenutku koordinirate cirkusku izvedbu na pozornici, mađioničarski trik, svinje na ražnju koje čekaju u krilima, čaše koje je potrebno isporučiti, nastupe u privatnim sobama koji se događaju istodobno - slojevi i slojevi događaja i detalji koji se pojavljuju tijekom tri sat vremena. " Prema riječima Jonesa, predstava se sastoji od blizu 10 sati materijala, prikazanog istodobno u nekoliko soba i velikoj plesnoj dvorani, u razdoblju od tri sata.

Kreativna direktorica Giovanna Battaglia malo je potaknula njegovo iskustvo radeći na projektima prozora za Bergdorf Goodman. Za njega je najveći izazov, osim rada s timom redatelja umjesto jedinstvene vizije, bio „naknadna oprema prostora za performanse koji nikada nisu imali namjeru raditi samo više od rada na kanalima“. Osim arhitekata, kazališnom izgradnjom rukovodio je tim za stolariju Nick Colt i Chris Ehman, dok je voditelj proizvodnje Gabriel Evansohn nadzirao gradnju i instalacije.

Za cijelu priču, uključujući i bliži pogled na scenografiju i dizajn rasvjete, preuzmite ožujsko izdanje iPada u Dizajn uživo.


Rekonstruirani Hram noćnog sunca u mrtvačnici kraljice Hatšepsut otvara se za javnost

Više od 1,2 milijuna rotacija Zemlje oko svoje osi od njezine smrti, kraljica Hatepshut njeni stari nasljednici nisu izbrisali iz sjećanja. Daleko od toga. I danas, gotovo 3.500 godina nakon što je umrla, znanstvenici rade na sjećanju ovog monarha drevnog Egipta obnavljajući i preuređujući njezin ogromni hram u tebanskoj nekropoli u blizini Luksora.

U veljači 2015. dužnosnici su otvorili dio njezina hrama na kojem su nedavno završeni radovi, hram Noćnog sunca, gdje su drevni svećenici zazivali poznata solarna božanstva drevnog Egipta, uključujući Ra i Amun-Ra.

Poljski i egipatski znanstvenici i dužnosnici upriličili su svečanost otvaranja kompleksa solarnog kulta u hramu Hatšepsut. Poljski konzervatori i arheolozi rekonstruirali su hram. (Fotografija: P.M. Jawornicki)

Hatšepsut je bila najduža vladajuća žena faraon i bila je poznata kao "Žena koja je bila kralj". Egipatsko gospodarstvo cvjetalo je za vrijeme njezina faraona. Upravljala je izgradnjom i popravkom mnogih zgrada, spomenika i hramova. Međutim, nakon njene smrti, njezini nasljednici pokušali su izbrisati svako sjećanje na nju. Iako je možda cilj bio iskorijeniti je iz sjećanja, ti su pokušaji samo potaknuli želju modernih civilizacija da saznaju više o njoj.

Kraljica Hatšepsut, koja je vladala Egiptom prije otprilike 3.500 godina.

Smatralo se da su njezine zgrade mnogo veličanstvenije od zgrada njezinih prethodnika, a mnogi od njezinih nasljednika pokušali su ih smatrati svojim. Najveće građevinsko postignuće Hatšepsut bio je mrtvački hram izgrađen u kompleksu u Deir el-Bahriju, smještenom na zapadnoj obali Nila. Ovo se smatra jednim od arhitektonskih čuda starog Egipta.

Poljski i egipatski arheolozi i dužnosnici nedavno su proslavili otvaranje novoobnovljenog dijela njezinog hramskog kompleksa u kojem su bili poljski znanstvenici i konzervatori

"Bilo je ... pokušaja rekonstrukcije izvornog izgleda dvorišta solarnog oltara. Vjeruje se da bi mogao postojati žrtveni stol i dva obeliska", stoji na web stranici Science & amp Scholarship u Poljskoj, citirajući priopćenje za javnost.

Na web stranici piše da je „Solarni kultni kompleks skupina soba smještenih u sjevernom dijelu Gornje terase, koja se sastoji od kapele Noćnog sunca, dvora Solarnog oltara i svetišta Anubis. ... Ovo je mjesto štovanja Amun-Ra, kao i Ra- Horachty i Atum-Amunm, dva druga aspekta solarnog boga. Kapela Noćnog sunca nalazi se u istočnom dijelu kompleksa, odražavajući ideju o uskrsnuću sunca na istočnom horizontu nakon noćnog putovanja barkom kroz Podzemni svijet. Kiparski ukras kapele ilustrirao je putovanje preko noći. Oltar se, prema egipatskom običaju, nalazi u dvorištu pod vedrim nebom, tako da životvorne zrake mogu neometano doprijeti do njega. Svećenici bi išli stubama do vrha oltara kako bi prineli žrtvu suncu, vjeruju istraživači. ”

Dvadeset dvije godine nakon što je preuzela vlast kao faraon, oko 1458. godine prije Krista, Hatšepsut je umrla, u kasnim 40-im godinama. Pokopana je u grobnici u Dolini kraljeva, u brdima iza Deir el-Bahrija. Dala je sarkofag svog oca premjestiti u svoju grobnicu, tako da su mogli zajedno ležati u smrti. Nakon njezine smrti, Thutmose III, Hatšepsutin posinak, preuzeo je ulogu faraona, vladajući 30 godina nakon Hatšepsutine smrti. Tutmos III. Zahtijevao je da se iskorijene dokazi o Hatšepsutinoj vladavini. Dogovorio je da se njezin lik faraona ukloni iz hramova i spomenika. Tutmos III je vjerojatno htio ukloniti dokaze da je Egiptom vladala snažna žena. Iz tog razloga, znanstvenici su znali vrlo malo o postojanju Hatšepsut prije 1822. godine, kada su dekodirani hijeroglifi na zidovima Deir el-Bahrija.

Nakon otkrića njezina postojanja, nagađalo se o mjestu njezinih posmrtnih ostataka. 1902. arheolog Howard Carter otkrio je Hatšepsutin sarkofag, ali bio je prazan. Mnogo godina kasnije dr. Zahi Hawass počeo je tražiti Hatšepsutinu mumiju. Pretražio je nekoliko grobnica, konačno uspoređujući zub iz jedne kutije sa ženskom mumijom kojoj nedostaje zub. Testiranje je provedeno, a snagom moderne forenzičke znanosti mumija je 2007. pozitivno identificirana kao Hatšepsut. Sada je slavnija od sina koji ju je pokušao izbrisati.

Identificirani ostaci faraonske kraljice Hatšepsut (28/05/07): DNK test jednog zuba bio je ključan za rješavanje jedne od najvećih misterija drevnog Egipta. Izvor slike.

Istaknuta slika: Hram Hatšepsut u Deir el-Bahriju. (Izvor slike: Wikipedija)


Recenzija: Čovjek koji je možda volio Lucy: Pisac zamišlja ljubavnu vezu s Lucille Ball

Neposredno prije nego što je zauvijek završeno prošlog proljeća, "Will & amp Grace" posvetio je epizodu sitcomu iz 50 -ih "I Love Lucy". Omaž se s disonantnim zveckanjem srušio protiv 2020. godine. Tropovi u kojima se trgovalo predstavom otkazani su davno: prljava domaćica, ljubavnica Latina, odvojeni kreveti. Tako je glumačka ekipa "Will & amp Grace" kampanjem ponovno pokrenula kampanju s oduševljenjem i ironijom. Suvremeni danak "Lucy" mora se provesti kroz filter poznate satire.

No, ako su umišljenosti "Lucy" zastarjele, marka fizičke komedije Lucille Ball je besmrtna: Tisuću godina od sada ćemo joj se još uvijek smijati, čokoladnih obraza s čokoladom i natopljene Vitameatavegaminom. To se zasigurno pojavljuje u genijalnom i gorko -slatkom četvrtom romanu Darina Straussa, "Kraljica utorka". Autor isto tako vanvremenskog povijesnog romana “Chang and Eng” ne postavlja Ball -a ne kao suvremenu osobu, već nekoga s kim se suvremeni čitatelj može povezati: srčan, s nedostacima, ranjen bijesnim pogledom javnosti, ali odlučan pobijediti nad mrziteljima. Feministica drugog vala avant la lettre.

“Ovaj se članak odnosi na mrežnu nespretnost tijekom emitiranja emisije o Lucille Ball i Desi Arnaz kao paru mješovitih rasa. Iako je to u to vrijeme možda bila uobičajena percepcija, Arnaz je bio kubanski Amerikanac i bijelac. ”

Kako bi bolje naglasio svoju važnost, Strauss pronalazi način da radi u Trumpu. Otvaramo na Coney Islandu, 1949., dok predsjednik razvojni otac, Fred Trump, organizira zabavu na plaži. Čisti put novom projektu uklanjanjem starog-staklenog zabavnog parka zvanog Paviljon zabave. Ball, njezin suprug, Desi Arnaz i drugi otmjeni gosti uručuju svečane cigle i pozivaju ih da ih bace na osuđenu građevinu.

Predsjednikova "jedina nećakinja", klinička psihologinja Mary Trump, prikazuje čovjeka kojeg je njegova obitelj iskrivila u "Previše i nikad dovoljno".

Staklene kuće, stakleni stropovi, klimavo tlo, zastarjela zabava: Početne stranice romana prikladne su za ispucavanje metafora o Ballovoj nevolji. Prije "Volim Lucy", bila je voditeljski i glumac bez posla koji se jedva držao holivudske B-liste. "Lucille Ball bila je zgodna sa šalom u 'Ulazima na pozornici', ali ona nije Groucho Marx", piše Strauss. “Lucille Ball je bolove kula u‘ Plesu, djevojko, plesu ’, ali ona nije Carmen Miranda. Lucille Ball držala je pjesmu u pjesmi 'Hey Diddle Diddle', no je li ona Ethel Merman? Ne, ona nije Ethel Merman. " Ona ima ideju za TV emisiju, ali mreža i sponzori škrto govore o tome kako iskoristiti medij u nastajanju za emitiranje komedije o paru mješovitih rasa.

Bollova tjeskoba u karijeri povezana je s intimnijim. Te noći na plaži upoznaje nadobudnog književnika i mladog developera nekretnina po imenu Isidore Strauss. Oni flertuju, on ukrade poljubac Arnaz ga ispaljuje. No iskra između Isidora i Lucille i dalje postoji. I evo gdje stvari postaju malo više 2020.: Isidore je bio djed Darin Strauss, i iako nema dokaza o aferi, ovaj roman sličan autofikciji uvjerljivo ga zamišlja. Ball bi bio bijeg za Ball, koji je bio frustriran medijskim blještavilom, njezinim suprugom pljačkašem i kratkom, ali zastrašujućom interakcijom s Odborom za neameričke aktivnosti Doma.

Isidore je također morao frustrirati bijeg: osujećene književne snove i upravo takvo postojanje u židovskoj enklavi na Long Islandu. "Žena, materijalna udobnost, kriška pite nakon večere", piše Strauss iz djedove glave. "Ako ste sve to dobili, koja je svrha biti rođen u ovom avanturističkom stoljeću?"

Čak i u Straussovoj mašti, afera Isidora i Lucille bila je samo pitanje nekoliko pokušaja. No, ipak je rezultirala suradnjom: filmskom obradom o crnom vojniku iz građanskog rata. Ovaj tretman zapravo postoji, a isprepleten je u romanu u kojem Strauss sam pokušava prodati agenta na projektu 90 -ih, nesiguran u odnos para, ali zaključio je da bi to moglo biti prodajno mjesto. Postoji blagi frisson između 90 -ih Darina koji je romantizirao Isidorovu ambiciju i starijeg koji sada piše ovu knjigu, koji u životu svog djeda vidi uglavnom propuštene prilike.

"Zvijezdi je dosadno", Byron Lane, možda neće istresti svu prljavštinu u svijetu asistenata, ali vrlo je zabavna i iznenađujuće nježna fikcija.

No, Darinu je potrebno neko vrijeme da se ubaci u priču, zbog čega se "Kraljica utorka" osjeća pomalo nespretno. Umjesto povijesnog romana ukrašenog i kompliciranog romanopisčevom prisutnošću, knjiga se često osjeća podijeljenom u odvojene grudice "auto" i "fikcija". Čitatelja koji traži izravan povijesni roman o Ballovu životu mogao bi izazvati zabrinutost zbog sve veće igre. No, čak i netko tko shvati što Strauss radi i sviđa mu se to bi se moglo zapitati treba li roman o komičaru biti smiješniji. Scenografski snimak o Ball -u koji bi snimio prvu epizodu filma "Volim Lucy" proučava njezine misli i postupke tako neizvjesno da je njezin cilj - nasmijati ljude - gotovo izgubljen.

Strauss nalazi svoje uporište pri kraju, uspoređujući Izidorov i Lucillein stvarni život i romantiku o kojoj je sanjao za njih. U oba scenarija to su bile srodne duše: Isidore je htjela pobijediti konvenciju preko Ball -a, koji je ironično činio istu stvar kroz svoj vrlo konvencionalni sitcom. Oboje su žudjeli za domaćinom, ali s različitim partnerima.

Strauss bilježi način na koji je Arnazovo varanje učinilo Ball tiho osvetoljubivim, sve željnijim Isidorovih pažnji: postala je "jednostavno još jedna žena koja je progutala nepravdu ako bi potiskivanje bilo okretni moment, Lucille bi mogla podignuti Sierra Nevadu točno iznad njezine glave." Dok se kreće između njihovih kasnijih života, Strauss se ne trudi tako ozbiljno da ih poveže, čini se da iskreno žali zbog ljubavne veze koja se nikada nije dogodila.

U debitantskom romanu Emily Beyda, "The Body Double", žena je angažirana da zamijeni palu zvijezdu.

Ball je bio uspješan: postala je rijetka žena voditeljica velikog studija u svom razdoblju, razvela se od Arnaza i umrla legenda 1989. Isadore je bio manje uspješan: borio se i s ljubavlju i s novcem prije svoje smrti 2000. godine. imao je potez, kako Strauss zamišlja, bio je prolazan i štetan, zbog čega su dvije obitelji bile zarobljene u ogorčenosti i alkoholu. To je Straussovo zrcaljenje stvarnosti, što je dio posla romanopisca. No Strauss također sanja o scenariju u kojem bi romantika mogla uspjeti, što je također posao romanopisca. "Zar ne bi bio savršen poklon mom djedu da to mogu napisati i da je to istina?" pita prema zaključku romana. To bi bila savršena filmska romansa iz 50 -ih. Ali Strauss zna u kojem vremenu živimo.

Athitakis je pisac iz Phoenixa i autor knjige "Novi srednji zapad".

Kraljica utorka
Darin Strauss
Slučajna kuća: 326 stranica, 27 USD


Posljednji dani Marie Antoinette

Kad je francuska kraljica Marija Antoaneta podignuta protiv optužnice u kolovozu 1793., nekoliko mjeseci nakon pogubljenja njezina supruga Louisa XVI. Za vrijeme Francuske revolucije, zatražila je da neće "dugo trpjeti". Međutim, provela je više od dva mjeseca živeći u bijedi prije suđenja i konačne egzekucije zbog izdaje 16. listopada 1793. Ovdje Will Bashor iznosi posljednje događaje iz života Marie Antoinette, uključujući pokušaj bijega koji će postati poznat kao Afera karanfil ...

Ovo natjecanje je sada zatvoreno

Objavljeno: 15. listopada 2019. u 12:40

“Bila sam kraljica i oduzeli ste mi krunu za ženu, ubili ste mog muža kao majku i lišili mi djece. Ostaje samo moja krv: uzmi je, ali ne tjeraj me da dugo patim. " Ove je riječi izvijestila Marija Antoaneta nakon što je tužitelj pročitao njegovu optužnicu.

No, pala kraljica tada nije ni znala da će prije suđenja i pogubljenja provesti dva i pol mjeseca u bučnoj, pljesnivoj tamnici koja je zaudarala na dim iz cijevi, urin štakora i loše sanitarne uvjete.

Ovdje Will Bashor iznosi događaje posljednjih dana kraljice Francuske ...

Marie Antoinette u profilu

Rođen: 2. studenog 1755., Palača Hofburg, Beč, Austrija

Umro: 16. listopada 1793., Place de la Concorde (ranije poznat kao Place de la Revolution), Pariz, Francuska

Zapamćeno po: Srušeni od strane francuskih revolucionara i javno giljotinirani nakon ukidanja monarhije.

2. kolovoza 1793

Marie Antoinette stigla je u Conciergerie u zatvoru Temple u Parizu u 03.00 ujutro, nakon što je istrgnuta iz ruku svoje kćeri, Marie-Thérèse i njezine šogorice, madam Élisabeth. Njezin suprug, kralj Louis XVI, pogubljen je početkom godine, a najmlađi sin Louis Charles oduzet joj je mjesec dana ranije.

Marie Antoinette brzo su otpratili do ćelije ispod razine zatvorskog dvorišta. Pod od cigle popločan je bio prekriven blatnjavom sluzom, a voda se slijevala niz zidove zbog blizine Sene. Kad je rijeka bila niska, bilo je moguće vidjeti komadiće stare tapete-ironično ukrašene fleur-de-lisom.

Kraljica je zurila u gole zidove. Kad je pronašla čavao, objesila je sat na njega, a zatim se ispružila na krevetu - sklopivi krevetić za koji su (neki) mislili da je previše dobar za kraljicu. "Najzaraženija tamnica s nekoliko rešetki slame za krevet", primijetio je stražar, "sve je što je potrebno".

Međutim, za sadašnje zatvorske upravitelje, Toussaint i Marie Anne Richard, bilo je poznato da su suosjećajni i pokazali su svojim zatvorenicima poštovanje i obzir. Preuzeli su veliki rizik kako bi Mariji Antoaneti pružili malu udobnost: jastuk, mali stol s dva stolca od slame, malu drvenu kutiju praha i limeni lonac s pomadom.

Kraljica i njezini upravitelji bili su pod stalnim nadzorom. Samo je zaslon odvajao kraljicu od dva čuvara koji su se mogli naći kako piju, puše i igraju karte u bilo koje doba dana.

Kad je kraljica zamolila gospođu Richard za novu zalihu odjeće, zapovijedi revolucionarne vlade bile su tako stroge i stroge da se uplašeni upravitelj nije usudio udovoljiti njezinim željama. Međutim, kada je Richard primijetio da poklopac motora Marije Antoanete više nije u stanju popraviti, riskirala je zatražiti novi. Zanimljivo je da su vladini dužnosnici pristali i kraljica je dobila dvije nove kape. Poznato je da koštaju po sedam livra - kraljičini su troškovi pomno zabilježeni tijekom njezinog zatočeništva.

Službenici su morali primijetiti koliko su koštali novi poklopci jer su 26. rujna naredili policiji da pretražuje kraljičine stvari ostavljene u zatvoru u Hramu kako bi pronašla svu odjeću koja bi joj mogla zatrebati i poslala je sa sobom. U dekretu je suho dodano: "Očekuje se da će to rezultirati uštedama."

Zabrinuta zbog melankolične kraljice, jednog dana je madam Richard dovela svoje najmlađe dijete Fanfan sa sobom u kraljičinu ćeliju. Bio je to šarmantan momak svijetle kose i plavih očiju, ali kad ga je kraljica ugledala, navodno je zadrhtala od emocija i, uzevši ga u naručje, prekrila poljupcima. Zatim je briznula u plač i progovorila o vlastitom sinu koji je bio otprilike istih godina, ali je ipak bio zatvoren u zatvoru u Hramu. Rekla je da stalno misli na njega dan i noć. Ovaj je incident navodno učinio kraljicu toliko uznemirenom da je morala leći. Madame Richard povjerila je Rosalie, sluškinji u zatvoru, da će se pobrinuti da više nikada ne dovede svog sina u zatvor.

Međutim, gospođa Richard ne bi imala priliku, jer bi Richardovo nadzorništvo uskoro bilo prekinuto. 28. kolovoza 1793., rojalist Chevalier od Rougevillea bacio je karanfil u kraljičinu ćeliju, koji je sadržavao poruku smotanu u laticama.

Marie Antoinette kasnije je posvjedočila da je poruka otkrila sljedeće neodređene fraze: „Što ćete učiniti? Što planirate učiniti? Bio sam u zatvoru, ali čudo me spasilo. Doći ću u petak. ” Bilo je i ponuda novca, možda za podmićivanje čuvara, te obećanje da će se Rougeville vratiti u petak. Kraljica je pribadačom ubola ceduljicu na kojoj je pisalo: „Držim se na vidiku. Ne mogu razgovarati ni s kim. Vjerujem ti. Doći ću."

Ovo je bio prvi incident u nečemu što je bilo poznato kao afera karanfil, plan koji je pomogao kraljici da pobjegne, a vrlo je mogao uspjeti. Rougeville se ipak vratio u petak kako bi kraljicu otpratio na sigurno, ali je stražar koji je bio podmićen zaustavio kraljicu u zadnji čas da napusti prostorije, iz nepoznatih razloga. Zavjera je propala i kraljicu su prevezli natrag u ćeliju.

Vlasti su ispitale sve strane u aferi, ali kraljica je izbjegavala paziti da nikoga ne inkriminira. Richardovi su, međutim, razriješeni dužnosti i zatvoreni zbog svog nemara. Pušteni su tek nakon kraljičinog pogubljenja, nakon čega se gospođa Richard vratila na posao i zatvorenici su je često hvalili zbog njezine ljubaznosti. Tri godine kasnije, međutim, ubio ju je očajni osuđenik koji je navodno 'poludio' kaznom od 20 godina glačanja. Kad mu je madam Richard pružila zdjelu juhe, ubo ju je nožem u srce. Umrla je za nekoliko minuta.

21. rujna 1793

Nakon afere karanfil, Richards je upravnike zamijenio upravitelj zatvora La Force, monsieur Bault i njegova supruga. Upravitelj Conciergerieja nije bio željeno mjesto i Baults je oklijevao prije nego je razmišljao o zastrašujućoj odgovornosti, potpuno svjestan da su upravitelj Richard i njegova supruga upravo uhićeni.

S druge strane, Baulti su bili dužni Marie Antoinette, koja ih je štitila dok je bila kraljica. A kad je par otkrio da se brutalni čuvar zatvora u Hramu razmatra za nadzornika u Conciergerieju, par se brzo zatražio i dobio poziciju. They looked forward to using the opportunity to console and soften the captivity of their former mistress, as they had done for the royal prisoners of La Force.

But times had changed. Since the departure of the Richards, wardens could no longer shop for food provisions for the queen suppliers had to pass through the prison checkpoints with their goods. Although Madame Bault’s orders were to give her prisoner only bread and water, she followed the example of her predecessors and carefully prepared food bought secretly from nearby vendors. And because Marie Antoinette never drank wine and the fetid water of the Seine River did not agree with her, Madame Bault also took great risk to have the pure waters of Arcueil brought to her every day.

Monsieur Bault was more cautious. On one occasion, the queen reportedly offered the prison maid Rosalie a piece of white ribbon. After Rosalie left the queen’s cell, Warden Bault reportedly joined her in the corridor and snatched the ribbon from her hands. Did he fear for Rosalie’s life, or perhaps his own, for receiving such a small gift from the queen?

“I am very sorry to have vexed that poor lady, but my post is so difficult that a mere nothing is enough to make one tremble,” he said, according to a later account. “I can never forget that poor Richard and his wife are at the bottom of a dungeon. In God’s name, Rosalie, do not commit such acts of imprudence, or I should be a lost man.”

Marie Antoinette’s feelings may have been hurt by Bault’s reaction, but she surely recognised the danger that came from being her warden. The former warden’s family currently sat in prison and could soon be escorted to the scaffold for their compassion. Yet on another occasion, Warden Bault had risked his life, worrying about the queen’s comfort in a cell without any stove for heat. When the queen asked for a cotton blanket for her bed, Bault asked the prosecutor Fouquier-Tinville if he could procure one. “You dare ask?” the prosecutor reportedly snapped. “You deserve the guillotine!”

16 October 1793

The Baults’ wardenship did not last long. Marie Antoinette’s lengthy trial began with a 15-hour session on 14 October and a 24-hour session over 15-16 October. After 10 weeks in the Conciergerie, the queen’s incarceration was coming to an end. The verdict of the jury was affirmative. It was 4.30am when she heard her sentence: death by guillotine. She didn’t utter a single word.

After guards returned Marie Antoinette to her cell, she asked Warden Bault for a pen and paper. He complied and she wrote a letter to Elisabeth, the late king’s sister:

“I write to you, my sister, for the last time. I have been condemned, not to an ignominious death – that only awaits criminals – but to go and rejoin your brother. Innocent as he, I hope to show the same firmness as he did in his last moments. I grieve bitterly at leaving my poor children you know that I existed but for them and you – you who have by your friendship sacrificed all to be with us.”

When the queen finished the letter, she reportedly kissed each page repeatedly, folded it without sealing it, and gave it to Warden Bault. The gendarme standing guard outside the cell likely observed this because, when Bault left the queen, the guard confiscated the letter and it was taken to Fouquier-Tinville. Elisabeth would never receive the queen’s last testament.

At 11am the next morning, on 16 October 1793, the executioner Sanson appeared. Madame Bault confirmed that Sanson cut the queen’s hair and that the queen, looking back, saw the executioner place the locks of hair in his pocket. “This I saw,” said Madame Bault, “and I wish I had never seen that sight.”

At 12.30pm, Marie Antoinette was taken to the guillotine at the Place de la Revolution. After the queen’s head fell it was shown to the crowd, who cried: “Vive la République!

Will Bashor is author of Marie Antoinette’s Head: Prisoner No. 280 in the Conciergerie (Rowman and Littlefield, 2016). To read more about Marie Antoinette, click here

This article was first published by HistoryExtra in 2017


LORD OF THE MANOR &ndash SHUGBOROUGH HALL

Brown dammed the River Lea which cut through the parkland, and formed two lakes, one of which survives today, in what might be termed &lsquothe back garden&rsquo.

However, instead of a new mansion, the Earl got a heavily remodelled house. A fire interrupted works in 1771, but by 1774 the house, despite being incomplete, was inhabited Dr. Samuel Johnson visited in 1781 and spoke of the house&rsquos glory: &ldquoThis is one of the places I do not regret coming to see&hellip.in the house magnificence is not sacrificed to convenience, nor convenience to magnificence&rdquo.

luton hoo before its renovation of 1825 (wikimedia commons)

A stable block was also added by Adam, which survives today, forming the spa facilities and further bedrooms and suites for the hotel, plus another restaurant.

The house stayed rather the same until the early decades of the 19th century: Stuart&rsquos great-grandson, John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquis of Bute, had Sir Robert Smirk &ndash who designed the British Museum and Eastnor Castle &ndash draw up plans for a new palladian west front (now the front of the property) in 1825 he desired a portico with wings and bows that reflected the east wing of Adam&rsquos design and completion of the frontage that Adam didn&rsquot see completed.

A fire gutted the mansion&rsquos interior in 1843, and seemingly discouraged, the Marquis sold the estate to John Shaw-Leigh, who was a solicitor from Liverpool. Shaw-Leigh, on the advice of Smirke&rsquos younger brother, restored the house, except for the north wing, which was left as a shell.

His son, John Gerrard-Leigh, took on the project of finishing the house in 1873, adding a chapel by George E. Street this chapel was destroyed in 1940. His death in 1875 saw the estate pass to his widow, whose next husband let Luton Hoo to Sir Julius Wernher in 1900, and agreed to sell it in 1903.

Luton Hoo&rsquos rear facade, looking down onto the capability brown lake (jon mould)

A view of luton hoo from the south-west side, with its formal garden (elite hotels)

In the intervening years, however, there was another royal visit. Queen Victoria visited with her son, when Princess Mary &lsquoMay&rsquo of Teck was there. It was in the conservatory on the south side (which no longer exists) that Mary and Albert Victor &ndash who died just a few months later &ndash became engaged in 1891.

Wernher was a German diamond dealer, who became naturalised in Britain in 1897 he had worked for Jules Porges and helped him to become the largest importer of South African diamonds into London. Eventually he took over the company and settled in the capital, marrying Alice Sedgewick Mankiewicz in 1888.

He renovated Luton Hoo, largely to please his wife, who was a prolific entertainer: Alice enjoyed the social life that her husband&rsquos wealth afforded.

But art was Wernher&rsquos passion &ndash yes that Wernher! His collection grew over the years, including paintings, ivories, silver, and bronzes, filling the rooms at Luton Hoo. He commissioned Charles Mewes and Arthur Davis to give the interior an overhaul, influenced by his love of the Ritz Hotel, which sat opposite his London home.

One of the main architectural changes here was a mansard roof, to give more room for staff, but the interiors were transformed.

the great hall at luton hoo, looking through to the dining room (Elite hotels)

You are welcomed into a rather grand hallway, befitting a house of this kind.


Black History of Charlotte Part 1: The White Supremacist Response to Reconstruction

Biddle Hall at what was then called Biddle University. (Courtesy of the Robinson-Spangler Carolina Room, Charlotte Mecklenburg Library)

The following is the first in a five-part history of Black culture in Charlotte. Stay tuned for the parts in upcoming issues.

On October 4, 1891, Rev. Dr. Daniel Jackson Sanders ascended the pulpit at the Biddle University chapel to deliver his first sermon as Biddle’s president. He chose his text from Hebrews: “Seeing we . . . are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us.”

It was an auspicious occasion. Founded just after the Civil War to educate African Americans, Biddle University (now Johnson C. Smith University) had become one of Charlotte’s most substantial institutions, the embodiment of Black ambition. The red-brick tower of Biddle Hall, where Sanders delivered that first address, soared grandly above the city’s western skyline, as it still does today.

In 1867, when Biddle first opened its doors, all the school’s teachers had been white. But times had changed. Sanders, who had been born in slavery, was Biddle’s first Black president. All but one of the professors in his audience were African American as well.

The change had sparked controversy. While many white Charlotteans supported the idea of a school for African Americans, they were far less enthusiastic about a school run by African Americans. “It is not probable that the negroes can successfully manage such an institution of learning,” the Charlotte Observer groused after Sanders’ appointment. All four of Biddle’s white Southern trustees resigned over the matter.

Biddle university Class of 1894. (Courtesy of the Robinson-Spangler Carolina Room, Charlotte Mecklenburg Library)

Sanders had no trouble proving his critics wrong. When he was born, in 1847, laws forbade enslaved people to learn to read and write. He learned shoemaking at age 9, and earned money for the man who claimed to “own” him until freedom came and he could strike out on his own.

A brilliant man with a commanding personality, Sanders became a widely admired minister and educator, as well as publisher of the influential African-American Presbyterian newspaper. At Biddle, he worked tirelessly to raise funds, expand course offerings and modernize the curriculum. Faculty likened him to Moses. Students dubbed him “Zeus.”

African-American Accomplishment

Across Charlotte, African Americans displayed similar ability and resolve. Amid the wreckage of Civil War defeat, North Carolinians had vowed to shape a “New South” based on commerce and industry.

Residents of Charlotte were especially keen on the promise of the New South. They built rail lines, farm supply stores, banks and a growing number of cotton mills, all of which promoted commerce and swelled the city’s population.

In 1860, on the eve of the Civil War, Charlotte had 2,265 residents. By 1900, it held 18,091, second only to the port city of Wilmington. As in slavery, this new economy depended on African-American labor. Black Charlotteans did hard, dirty and essential tasks that included washing clothes, scrubbing floors, digging ditches, making bricks, and loading and unloading 500-pound bales of cotton.

Many were brutally exploited. But in the more fluid racial order of the post-Civil War era, some found opportunity.

By the 1890s, Charlotte’s growing Black middle class practiced law and medicine, sold real estate, and operated businesses that included drugstores, restaurants, barber shops, saloons, newspapers, a brick factory, and the national publishing house of the AME Zion Church.

Successful African Americans invested in fine homes and substantial churches, often on the same streets as white homes and institutions. Thaddeus Tate built an Italianate brick mansion on East 7th Street, close to his upscale barber shop.

AME Zion Bishop George Wylie Clinton, publisher of the Star of Zion newspaper, lived on Myers Street in a Colonial Revival home surrounded by an enormous porch.

AME Zion Bishop George Clinton and friends at his Myers Street home. (Courtesy of the Robinson-Spangler Carolina Room, Charlotte Mecklenburg Library)

Female leaders such as school teacher Mary Lynch worked together with white women to promote community welfare and raise charitable funds, most notably for Good Samaritan Hospital, which opened in Third Ward in 1891.

Thanks in part to the political astuteness of saloonkeeper John Schenck, Black candidates regularly won election to Charlotte’s Board of Aldermen, and at one point held as many as three of the 12 seats.

Such achievement built confidence and optimism. ”Thus far the Negro has done well, he has answered all questions,” the Star of Zion proclaimed in 1897. “His destiny is to make his race the equal of the best race in history and to be distinct only as to color.”

Political Strife

But these gains were far from secure. Statewide, competing social and economic visions were fueling bitter political battles that would remake the racial order yet again.

From 1877 into the 1890s, North Carolina was run by the Democratic Party, the party which had plunged the South into the Civil War. Democratic legislators, most of which were well-off whites, used their power to favor commerce and industry and to restrict political participation to a wealthy few.

Most African Americans, who in 1890 made up 35% of North Carolina’s population, belonged to the Republican Party, the party of Abraham Lincoln. Both Black and white Republicans championed measures that would shake up the state’s social and economic hierarchy, in part by expanding voting rights.

At the start of the 1890s, a nationwide depression opened a window of opportunity. The economic downturn was particularly hard on the state’s small-scale white farmers. They began to look for alternatives to Democratic rule.

In 1894, these farmers joined with Republicans in a political alliance they called Fusion. Fusionists won control of the state legislature in 1894 and elected Republican Daniel Russell governor in 1896.

Once in power, they passed laws that helped ordinary people — they capped interest rates, made it easier to vote, and increased funding for public schools.

Elite whites reacted with self-righteous outrage. Fusionists, lamented Charlotte mayor J.H. Weddington, sought “to take the government out of the hands of the men who own the property and put it in the hands of those who are ignorant and own no property.”

The Return of White Supremacy

Democrats across the state began to search for an issue that would fuel their comeback. They settled on white supremacy.

White supremacy had a long history in North Carolina. When Europeans first settled the area, they had used the concept to justify taking land from Native Americans. They then made it the foundation of two centuries of race-based slavery.

In 1898, elite whites turned white supremacy to a new use – splitting the Fusion coalition. They devised a carefully coordinated statewide campaign that revived and intensified old racial stereotypes. Articles, speeches and ghoulish political cartoons portrayed the state’s African Americans as foolish, dishonest and dangerous.

Most dramatically, Democrats claimed that African-American men had been emboldened by political power, and thus posed a threat to white women. The year leading up to the election saw sensationalized coverage of a handful of alleged black-on-white rape cases — accusations that resulted in three lynchings and several public hangings.

Campaigners urged rural whites to leave the Fusion alliance and unite with Democrats to protect their wives and daughters.

“Proud Caucasians,” one campaign song ran, must defend their women’s “spotless virtue” with “strong and manly arms.” Additional rhetoric denounced “Negro Rule” and warned of “black domination.” Many of the state’s rising young political stars played key roles in the White Supremacy Campaign — which is what its leaders proudly called it.

A white supremacist campaign cartoon published in the Raleigh News and Observer, September 27, 1898. (Courtesy of the Robinson-Spangler Carolina Room, Charlotte Mecklenburg Library)

Josephus Daniels, future U.S. Secretary of the Navy, turned the Raleigh News and Observer into an effective propaganda machine. Up-and-coming Charlotte participants included future state Supreme Court justice Heriot Clarkson and future governor Cameron Morrison.

In Charlotte, the campaign culminated with a massive parade and rally just before Election Day. “Tryon Street was full of horsemen from one end to the other,” the Observer reported. Participants held banners that proclaimed “White Supremacy” and “White Government.” Nearly 1,500 schoolchildren cheered as the marchers passed the white graded school.

On Election Day, the prospect of violence kept African Americans and their remaining white allies from going to the polls. Democrats won handily across the state.

“Once more the white man’s party will take possession of that which is its right by every law of birth, intelligence and principle,” the Observer reported.

Three days later, on November 11, 1898, African Americans in Charlotte awoke to even more devastating news from Wilmington, then North Carolina’s largest city. “Eleven Negroes Dead,” the Observer proclaimed. “Whites in Control.”

Wilmington was a Republican stronghold, with a Republican mayor, a number of Black public officials and a large Black voting population.

Emboldened by the Democrats’ sweeping statewide victory, Wilmington’s old-line white elite staged an armed revolt. They rampaged through the city, seeking out and murdering Black leaders. Hundreds of African Americans fled into the swamps around the city.

The insurgents then marched on City Hall, where their leader, Alfred Moore Waddell, declared himself the new mayor. It was the first and only coup d’état in American history.

Disfranchisement, Jim Crow and the Lost Cause

Elite whites wasted no time consolidating their power. In 1900 they persuaded voters to approve an amendment to the state constitution that allowed the use of poll taxes and literacy tests to limit who could vote. While the amendment did not mention race, it was targeted at African Americans.

Local voter registrars were given the power of creating the literacy tests and determining who had passed. They gave easy tests to whites and near-impossible ones to Blacks. These restrictions, combined with the ongoing threat of violence, proved devastatingly effective. By 1903, African Americans made up 39% of Charlotte’s population, but only 2% of registered voters.

To consolidate their hold over the state, white leaders wove white supremacy into every aspect of daily life, building a system that became known as Jim Crow. New laws and regulations forced African Americans to drink from separate drinking fountains, live in separate neighborhoods, ride at the back of streetcars, and even use separate Bibles in courtrooms.

In every case, facilities for African Americans were made deliberately and obviously inferior to those for whites.

The rise of white supremacy also fueled the “Lost Cause” movement, which romanticized slavery and the Confederacy, and wiped African-American resistance out of public view. Confederate memorials began to multiply, often fueled by the efforts of elite white women.

Most of Mecklenburg’s Confederate monuments have been gathered together and put off ashamedly in a portion of the Elmwood Cemetery. (Photo by Ryan Pitkin)

Charlotte’s first monument, a soldier’s memorial sponsored “by the women of Charlotte,” went up in Elmwood Cemetery in 1887 and remains there today. Three new monuments were added in the 1910s, including a “common soldier” statue at Mt. Zion Church in Cornelius. An imposing granite marker was placed on Kings Drive in 1929, lauding Confederate veterans for the way that they “preserved the Anglo-Saxon civilization of the South and became master builders in a re-united country.”

To Leave or Stay

As the twentieth century dawned, North Carolina’s African Americans faced hard choices. Many decided to abandon the South, joining the Northern exodus that would become known as the Great Migration. U.S. Congressman George White bluntly stated his reason for departing: “I can no longer live in North Carolina and be a man.”

Those who chose to stay turned inward, focused on self-improvement and self-reliance. African Americans “must exercise much prudence, great patience, unceasing perseverance and a firm faith in God,” AME Zion Bishop Clinton wrote in 1903. “If these things be done and he continues to educate his children, acquire homes and land, improve his morals . . . his course will be ever onward and upward.”

Black businesses began to cluster in the Second Ward neighborhood, joining Black institutions such as the Myers Street School and the Brevard Street Library. Smaller enclaves consolidated in First Ward, Third Ward, Biddleville, Griertown, Cherry and Greenville.

In Second Ward, entrepreneurs hired Black builder and designer W.W. Smith to construct handsome office and retail buildings, including the still-standing Mecklenburg Investment Company Building on Brevard Street. Proud of their accomplishments, Second Ward’s residents began to call their neighborhood Brooklyn, after New York City’s fashionable new borough.

There, in the spaces they had created for themselves, they worked and watched for opportunity.

Look for Part 2: Community advancement and civil rights, in the our next paper.

Biddle Hall still stands on the campus at Johnson C. Smith University. (Photo by Grant Baldwin)

You can learn more about North Carolina’s African Americans in the late nineteenth century, the Wilmington Massacre and the white supremacy campaigns in these books.

You can also check out some of Queen City Nerve’s past stories on Black history in Charlotte, including a series on segregation in Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools and a story on the Civil Rights bombings of 1965.


LORD OF THE MANOR &ndash HIGHCLERE CASTLE

The Dining Room was based on that of the Ritz, influenced by the Mirrored Hall of Versailles. Marble wall coverings and Beauvais tapestries are the impressive elements to attract the attention first, but on further notice, the crystal chandeliers &ndash with rather large pendants &ndash glimmer yellow and pink in the light. It is truly spectacular.

the dining room wernher restaurant) is copied from the ritz hotel, which took its influences from versailles

a closer look at those chandeliers

Similarly the staircase was a reconstruction of the Ritz, complete with marble statue by Bergonzoli, entitled &lsquoThe Love of Angels&rsquo. The staircase hugs the rounded walls and sweeps up to the first floor.

Clever tricks make the house seem lighter: white tiles in the shafts from the ceiling to the roof help elevate the house&rsquos interior.

Expense became an issue in this transformation of the house, but it was eventually completed on a grand scale and declared a triumph.

Wernher&rsquos money also went to philanthropic causes, like the Edward VII Hospital (where the Royal Family are treated today) and Imperial College.

World War Two saw the house sequestered by the government and Eastern Command, playing an important role in war-time Britain. Luton Hoo is located near to the Vauxhall workshop, where tanks were built, and then tested on the land. Camps and huts were built across the Capability Brown parkland, and rooms were altered for other purposes, such as a hospital, where numerous babies were born.

Just off this hallway is the Churchill suite, that was used by the man himself as an office during the government&rsquos occupation of the house. Today, it holds copies of some of Churchill&rsquos distinctive paintings, and of course, a portrait of Sir Winston. It is now typically used for meetings.

the Churchill room at luton hoo was once commanded by sir winston himself (luton hoo)

Sir Harold Wernher was the-then occupant of the house, after inheriting it following his mother&rsquos death in 1922 his son, Alex, was killed in the war, eerily mimicking the death of Sir Julius&rsquo son, also named Alex, in World War One.

Harold&rsquos wife was Lady Zia, or Countess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Torby, the daughter of Grand Duke Michael Mikhailovich of Russia, who was a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. Zia was also a cousin of Nicholas II.

Their granddaughter, Natalia, married the late Duke of Westminster, Gerald Grosvenor Natalia&rsquos eldest daughter married Edward van Cutsem, and one of their younger daughters, Edwina, is married to popular historian, Dan Snow.

It is this Russian heritage that saw an Orthodox chapel installed in the house, which remains today. Complete with a portrait of Tsar Nicholas II, the ornate room is no longer consecrated, and so is used for wedding breakfasts instead of the ceremony itself.

The beautifully ornate orthodox chapel at luton hoo (victoria howard)

The Pillared Hall is now a lounge space with bar, but was once Lady Zia&rsquos living room she had her TV where the piano is. Walls throughout the house &ndash now a hotel &ndash hold family portraits and classical scenes, all that you expect from a stately home.

Next door is the drawing room and on the other side, just off the corridor, is the wernher restaurant, as seen above.

the pillared hall at luton hoo was once lady zias living room to the right of this photo is the ballroom/drawing room, and the left, the dining room following into the staircase and entrance hall.

The next big event at Luton Hoo was Winston Churchill&rsquos visit in 1946, when he addressed some 110,000 people outside of the house the Prime Minister thanked the people of Bedfordshire and Luton for their support during the war.

The couple decided to move back into the house after the war, and exhibit Sir Julius&rsquo wonderful collection. This, however, meant alterations were needed in the house to accommodate visitors and display the items the house was effectively split, with displays in the south wing. Work was undertaken by Phillip Tilden, who was careful to to disrupt the interiors.

Members of the public could view the collection from 1951, which was added to by Sir Harold and Lady Zia in the form of furniture and silver, as well as Zia allowing her Faberge to go on display. She had pieces such as clocks, models of animals (mostly elephants) and picture frames.

Another royal link comes in at this point: Princess Elizabeth and The Duke of Edinburgh stayed at Luton Hoo for a few days during their honeymoon, following their stay at Broadlands, and for almost every wedding anniversary thereafter, ending the weekend with a pheasant shoot.

A couple of photos from some of their visits are displayed in the hotel as a reminder of this connection. The Royals were good friends of the family, having mixed in similar circles after Zia&rsquos father fled Russia for England at the time of the revolution.

Two photos of The Queen and duke of edinburgh at luton hoo the couple spent time here during their honeymoon victoria howard)

Two of the suites are named after the royal couple, and are &ndash of course &ndash connected by an interlinking door. While the suites no longer resemble how Elizabeth and Philip used them, we do have an old photo to show what it did look like: green silk walls have been replaced with red, and the Holland & Holland furniture, a few pieces of which were Arabian in style.

the room used by the queen during her stays at luton hoo the door in the corner takes you out onto the hallway.

Paintings of the royal residences now decorate the walls instead, another nod to its former royal guests.

A passion shared by Lady Zia and The Queen is racing Zia owned Charlottetown, the horse that won the Epson Derby in 1966, an achievement Her Majesty is still yet to reach.

the queen elizbeth suite at luton hoo

The royal friendship continues with Zia&rsquos children: Lady Kennard and Lady Butter

Unsurprisingly, Luton Hoo was awarded a Grade I listing back in 1977. It was also round this time that the family opened up Luton Hoo for corporate events and filming, in order to support the large and expensive to maintain collection.

To avoid death duties the Wernher estate donated the Wernher Triptych to the British Museum. Now, the real Wernher Collection is on display at Ranger&rsquos House in Greenwich, but Elite Hotels who took over some 10 years ago, have been careful to replace these items with very good replicas &ndash in fact, they have spent £60 million restoring Luton Hoo to its former glory.

the wernher tiptych was sold to pay some death duties it is an ivory Byzantine piece carved in Constantinople between 900&ndash1000 AD. (wikimedia commons)

Today, there are drawings of items from the collection hanging throughout, to remind you of the pieces that once lived there some are truly spectacular, especially the Faberge.

Nicholas Phillips tried to keep the estate afloat, but at the time of his death in 1991 &ndash an apparent suicide &ndash he was £30 million in debt. It was at this point, the family realised they couldn&rsquot keep the house and estate, and sold it.

Luton Hoo has also been the location for a number of films, including Four Weddings and a Funeral (that scene where Hugh Grant hides in a bedroom cupboard because the married couple have gotten over-amorous).

The house&rsquos ballroom &ndash now called the drawing room &ndash is complete with sprung beech floor, and was once used for grand entertaining. Now it is the location in which guests take their afternoon tea. It has wonderful views out onto the gardens, and is flanked by a library (with a portrait of Robert Adam) and another similarly-proportioned room that is used for wedding services.

Luton Hoo Hotel Drawing Room is where afternoon tea is served luton hoo)

One of the nicest touches for me when I visited, was the use of coal fires throughout. Hearing the crackle of a real fire and noting that distinct burning smell added an edge of cosiness, despite the grandeur, and was certainly reminiscent of how Luton Hoo must have felt in its heyday.

Four times per year, ladies&rsquo luncheons are held with various talks and demonstrations held, plus a three-course lunch, as are &lsquomeet the winemaker&rsquo events. In the summer, the National Garden Scheme opens the hotel grounds to allow people to explore the landscape with its head gardener.

Part of my visit to Luton Hoo included one night&rsquos complimentary stay plus dinner and breakfast. While this visit was free, my review is wholly unbiased and based on my personal experience.

We stayed in the Lady Butter suite, the room used in &lsquoFour Weddings&rsquo and were amazed at its size and facilities. The bed was so comfortable, and we loved that the bath had jets in it! And who doesn&rsquot love complimentary Molton Brown toiletries and a heated floor in the bathroom?!

It was simply all the little touches, like the replicas used across the house, the standard of furnishing, the free taxi service down to the stable block (spa, golf centre and restaurant) and the tranquil landscape that made our trip. They also offer things like wellies should you like to walk across the estate, boardgames and DVDs, as well as spa facilities, golfing and shooting for all abilities.

You can book a room at the hotel &ndash including the lady Butter or Queen Elizabeth suites, found under &lsquoMansion master suites&rsquo- here or simply spend the afternoon supping tea and eating cakes! Go here.

Also, until the end of March, the hotel is offering a 2 for 1 deal, so you can spend the weekend here, without feeling *too* guilty.


Gledaj video: DEVICA. Imajte hrabrosti da resite situaciju! (Srpanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Dairion

    Žao mi je, ali, po mom mišljenju, čine pogreške. Moramo razgovarati. Napiši mi u PM.

  2. Baldric

    Bravo, kakve riječi..., veličanstvena misao

  3. Deron

    Oprostite što vas prekidam.

  4. Byron

    Jako jako dobro !!!



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