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McCormick, Cyrus - Povijest

McCormick, Cyrus - Povijest



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Poslovni čovjek-izumitelj
(1809-1884)

Cyrus Hall McCormick rođen je 15. veljače 1809. u okrugu Rockbridge u Virginiji. Iako je imao malo formalnog obrazovanja, na njega je snažno utjecao otac koji je bezuspješno pokušavao usavršiti mehaničku žetelicu. 1831. sin je uspio izgraditi takav uređaj.

Međutim, tek 1834. godine dobio je patent, suočen s prijetnjom konkurentskih izumitelja. Razumljivo, McCormick je zadržao svoju žetelicu s tržišta još nekoliko godina, kako bi poboljšao mehanizam; pa čak i kad ga je predstavio tržištu, koncentrirao je proizvodnju u samo jednom pogonu u Chicagu.

Kad je patent konačno istekao 1848., ponovno se suočio s mnogim rivalima. Ipak, uspio je poboljšati, a zatim i održati svoj položaj na tržištu.

Putujući svijetom, snažno je promovirao i demonstrirao svoj proizvod. Izlaganje na izložbi Crystal Palace u Londonu (1851) pokazalo se posebno korisnim u povećanju prodaje.

Uz brojne poslovne interese u cijeloj zemlji, bio je posebno aktivan u Demokratskoj stranci u Illinoisu. Također je do kraja života bio jako zainteresiran za prezbiterijansku crkvu, te joj je dao veliki doprinos. McCormick je umro u Chicagu 13. svibnja 1884.


JAKO kratka povijest područja divljine McCormick Tract

Sve je počelo 1778. godine kada je Robert McCormick emigrirao iz Irske i nastanio se u Rockbridge Co. Virginia. Njegov sin Cyrus Hall McCormick u dobi od 22 godine proučavao je očeve zapise o neuspjelim žetelicama, a 1831. uspješno je pokazao svoju žetelicu maloj skupini poljoprivrednika, a 1834. godine dobio je prvi patent za žetelicu. Nastavio je raditi na dizajnu sve dok se Cyrus 1847. nije preselio u Chicago i otvorio tvornicu žetelica, koja je postala The McCormick Company.

Ova glavna tvornica bila je vrlo uspješna, ali je 8. listopada 1871. izgorjela s ostatkom Chicaga. Cyrus je preuzeo vodstvo u obnovi grada i godinu dana kasnije otvorio je kongresni centar McCormick Place kako bi svijetu pokazao da se Chicago oporavio od požara. Nastavio je razvijati McCormick Co. do svoje smrti 1884.

Cyrus Rice McCormick, osnivač McCormick traktata rođen je 16. svibnja 1859. Kao tinejdžer Cyrus je promijenio srednje ime u Hall po ocu. U dobi od 25 godina, dok je bio na Princetonu, preuzeo je dužnost predsjednika očeve tvrtke odmah nakon očeve smrti.

U posljednjih 25 godina 1800 -ih mnoge su tvrtke razvile kombajne i žetelice s mnogim tužbama. Konačno 1902. godine, na prijedlog JP Morgan, pet najvećih, John Deere Co., Deering Co., Milwaukee Harvester Co., Champion i McCormick Co., udružili su se pod imenom International Harvester Co. ovo spajanje izvršio je briljantni mladi odvjetnik, koji je zastupao McCormick Co., Cyrus Bentley. Cyrus H. McCormick u 36. godini postao je predsjednik, dok je Charles Deering preuzeo mjesto predsjednika Uprave. Godine 1918. Cyrus je postao predsjednik Uprave sa svojim bratom Haroldom kao predsjednikom.

Robert McCormick došao je na ideju žeteoca,

Cyrus H McCormick razvio je ideju u izum koji se može prodati i započeo njegovu proizvodnju, i

Njegov sin, Cyrus Hall McCormick, osnivač McCormick traktata, postao je industrijalac.

Otkriće i formiranje McCormickova trakta

Povijest McCormickovog trakta započela je 1884. To je bila godina kada je najstariji Cyrus umro, a njegov sin Cyrus postao je predsjednik tvrtke McCormick Co. i otišao na svoje prvo kampiranje. Dok je bio na Princetonu, McCormick je upoznao profesora dr. Williama Greya, koji je bio strastveni vanjski čovjek. Imao je stalni kamp na otoku u Bayfield Wi. te je pozvao mnoge ljude da mu budu gosti tijekom godina, uključujući McCormickove, koji su mu postali veliki prijatelji.

Doktor Grey često bi odlazio na kampovanje po cijelom SAD -u. Odabrao bi područje gledajući na karti mjesto s dva ili tri vodena toka zajedno s potocima koji teku u suprotnim smjerovima i mnogim malim jezerima. Ta su područja obično pružala izvrsna područja za kampiranje s obilnom igrom.

Jednog dana, 1884., dr. Gary je pozvao Cyrusa da ga prati na jednom od njegovih kampovanja. Prije odlaska susreo se s Cyrusovom majkom i poslao neke Cyrusove osobne stvari kako bi se Cyrus osjećao kao kod kuće. Cyrus, dr. Grey i još jedan suputnik putovali su vlakom na sjever do Championa, zatim indijskim vodičem na sjever uz staru indijansku stazu uz rijeku Peshekee. Kad su stigli do kampa na rubu bezimenog jezera, Cyrus se iznenadio ugledavši veliki bijeli šator, krevete s plahtama i asortiman svojih osobnih stvari.

Sljedećih godina Cyrus i njegov odvjetnik Cyrus Bentley počeli su posjećivati ​​ovo područje. Došli bi i postavili privremeni bazni kamp na malom stjenovitom otoku u ovom jezeru. Na jednom takvom putovanju sjedili su na otoku i gledali u visoku stjenovitu liticu i odlučili da bi se trebao zvati Tvrđava. Kasnije su nazvali jezero po ovom blefu nazvavši ga Tvrđavsko jezero.

Krajem 1800 -ih, Peter White, J. M. Longyear i drugi rukovoditelji zajednice Marquette odlučili su osnovati ekskluzivni klub u planinama Huron. Nazvali su ga Klub streljaštva i ribolova na planinama Huron i promicali članstvo u Detroitu i Chicagu. Pristupili su Cyrusu Bentleyu i odlučili mu se pridružiti 1902. Tijekom mnogih putovanja na jezero Fortress, Bentley, koji je bio strastveni planinar, smatrao je da bi bilo sjajno izgraditi stazu od otoka Fortress Lake do planinskog kluba Huron. McCormick je pristao i odlučio nastaviti s kupnjom nekretnine. Poslao je izviđača, Edwina McLeana, koji je procijenio područje i mislio da se može kupiti za oko 5 USD po jutru. Znajući da bi cijena zemljišta bila povišena da je prodavač znao za bogatstvo gospodina McCormicka, zamolio je svog tajnika F. A. Stewerta da kontaktira agenta za zemljište u Marquetteu, W.E. Lewisa, da mu djeluje kao agent za nekretnine. Kad se približio vlasnicima zemljišta, gospodinu Lewisu je ponuđena čvrsta cijena od 10 USD po jutru. Ispostavilo se da je agent za vlasnike zemljišta, John M. Longyear, čuo da je gospodin McCormick zainteresiran za kupnju zemljišta i da nije zainteresiran za poslovanje s gospodinom Lewisom. Stoga je povisio cijenu zemlje. McCormick je bio prisiljen obavijestiti gospodina Longyeara da je gospodin Lewis njegov agent te je u rujnu 1904. McCormick kupio 151,75 jutara za 3,16 dolara po jutru. Pokrivao je zapadni dio jezera Tvrđava i obuhvaćao otok.

U sljedećih 16 godina 13 zasebnih kupnji uspostavilo je područje na 2933 jutara. Prva izgrađena zgrada bila je kabina knjižnice na otoku 1904. Većina drugih otočkih zgrada datira iz 1906. ili 1907. Otprilike u to vrijeme došlo je do proširenja na obalu jezera i bilo je dobro razvijeno 1930 -ih.

Kabina gospodina Bentleya u planinama Huron dovršena je 1905. Iste godine završena je staza od grubog kampa na Otoku tvrđava do kabine Bentley na jezeru Superior.

Jezero Tvrđava postalo je vrlo zaposleno mjesto s izgradnjom kabina, posada koje su radile na razvoju staza, uključujući šetališta uz rubove tvrđave i susjednog jezera Bulldog. Jedan od najmanje voljenih poslova bio je probijanje kanala između jezera Tvrđava i Buldog kako bi brodovi lako mogli proći između njih. Kad je zemljište kupio McCormick, na istočnom kraju jezera Tvrđava nalazila se velika brana od dabra praćena močvarnim potocima i drugim malim dabrovim branama koje su vodile do jezera Bulldog. McCormickova posada ovdje je izgradila 1900 -metarski kanal između 1908. i 1916. Iskopali su ga, a zatim zabili stupove i na te stupove pričvrstili žice. Mogli su se čamci vući ručno kroz ovaj kanal. Stupovi i priključci za žice i dalje su u kanalu.

Drugi od mnogih zadataka bio je razvoj sustava staza oko jezera i staze Bentley od jezera Fortress do kolibe gospodina Bentleya na jezeru Superior.

U studenom 1907. Cyrus McCormick odlučio je službeno nazvati jezero White Deer Lake po jelenu albino kojemu su on i drugi gosti često viđali.

Listopad 1935. bio je Cyrusov posljednji posjet tom mjestu. Umro je 2. lipnja 1936. u 77. godini. Vlasništvo nad naseljem dobio je sin Gordon McCormick koji je započeo projekt obnove svih zgrada. To se nastavilo i u 40 -ima. Gordon je 1947. bio posljednji posjet naselju. Umro je 1967. godine i oporukom je nagodio USDA.

Ovi podaci preuzeti su isključivo iz sljedeće dvije reference:

Superior Heartland A Povijest Pokrajine Vol. I knjiga II C. Freda Rydholma u privatnom izdanju C. Fred Rydholma, 221 Lakewood Lane, Marquette MI 49855, 1989.

Povijest uporabe obitelji McCormick u kampu jezera White Deer Lake, eksperimentalna šuma McCormick, Baraga, okruzi Marquette, Michigan. Dostavljeno: USDA Forest Service, Ottawa National Forest, Ironwood, Michigan, 49938. Dostavio: Srednjoamerički istraživački centar, Sveučilište Loyola, Chicago, Illinois, 60611. Načelni istražitelj, Theodore J. Karamanski.

& quotMoje hvala Tomu Foyeu što mi je omogućio prostor na njegovoj izvrsnoj web stranici. Vrlo je dobro prikazao područje McCormick traktata. Ako želite saznati više o povijesti ovog jedinstvenog mjesta, napisao sam knjigu o podrijetlu, životu i smrti od 1906. do njene nabavke od strane US Forest Service 1968. Moj otac, Ted Tonkin, bio je nadstojnik u kampu White Deer Lake 38 godina i kao obitelj ljetovali smo tamo. & quot

Odlomak iz knjige gospođe Cooley koja opisuje život u kampu na jezeru White Deer.

& quotOd početka ledenog vremena u kasnu jesen, nakon što je razina jezera spuštena kako bi se prilagodilo očekivanom proljetnom otjecanju, jedno mjesto udaljeno oko 200 'od obale, tik uz kućicu za čamce, držalo se podalje od snijega. Ovo područje je imalo približno 100 kvadratnih metara. Sredinom siječnja došlo je vrijeme za rezanje leda. Kad se led nakupio do 20 "debljine, izrezani su ogromni blokovi dimenzija 20" x 18 "x 20" i težine približno 200 lbs. Muškarci su ručnom pilom za led rezali komade i klešta za led kako bi ih izvukli iz vode. Ukrcani su na male saonice i izvučeni do ledene kućice koja se nalazi nekih 500 'od obale na južnom kraju zgrade Kuhinja. Ako su uvjeti to dopuštali, traktor je korišten za vuču saonica uz kratko, ali strmo brdo. Inače su muškarci to morali učiniti ručnim vitlom. Blok i pribor ubacili su komade u ledenu kuću. Nakon što su postavljeni, ti su blokovi složeni usred hrpe piljevine. U dobroj zimi čak 300 blokova (ili oko 26-30 tona leda) bilo bi spremljeno za upotrebu u ledenicama tijekom sljedeće godine. & Quot

Ovdje pretiskano uz dopuštenje Kathleen Cooley. Hvala ti što si napisala svoju izvrsnu knjigu, Kathleen!


Cyrus McCormick (1809.-1884.)

Učinkovitost poljoprivrede . U prvim desetljećima devetnaestog stoljeća količina površine koju je obitelj mogla obrađivati ​​često je ovisila o tome koliko ljudi mogu ući u polja. Kao rezultat toga, većina poljoprivrednika koji su proizvodili za tržište suočili su se s stalnim nedostatkom radne snage, osobito u sezoni berbe, no to bi se uskoro promijenilo. Novi strojevi skratili su vrijeme potrebno za žetvu žitarica otprilike za polovicu između 1800. i 1840., a ponovno polovicu do 1880. Proizvodnja i učinkovitost poljoprivrede brzo su rasli, što je ključni razvoj za gospodarstvo Zapada.

John Deere Plugovi . Plugovi od željeza i čelika uskoro su zamijenili drvene. 1837. John Deere je konstruirao svoj prvi željezni plug s čeličnom oštricom. Do sredine 1840 -ih godišnje je proizvodio tisuću plugova, a sljedeće desetljeće deset tisuća godišnje. Ovi novi plugovi omogućili su doseljeniku da reže milju po milju inače otporne prerije na Srednjem zapadu, ali čak ni plugovi tvrtke Deere nisu mogli prevladati problem pronalaska dovoljne radne snage u vrijeme žetve. Poljoprivrednici koji uzgajaju strne žitarice poput pšenice i dalje su trebali radnike za žetvu srpovima, kosama ili većim ručnim oruđem zvanim kolijevke.

McCormick žetelice . Cyrus Hall McCormick rođen je u Virginiji 1809. godine, a njegov otac Robert bio je nešto poput limača. Rani mehanički žetelici pojavili su se u Engleskoj oko 1800. godine, a izumitelji u Europi i Sjedinjenim Državama nastavili su istraživati ​​nove mogućnosti. Robert McCormick eksperimentirao je sa žetelicom i poklonio je svom sinu Cyrusu 1831. Nakon poboljšanja, mlađi McCormick patentirao je svoju novu žetelicu 1834. Iako je Cyrus McCormick napustio posao sa poljoprivrednim strojevima na nekoliko godina, njegova žetelica, došao transformirati poljoprivredu na Trans Appalachian Zapadu, pojavio se na tržištu 1840. Između svoje vlastite radionice u Virginiji i nekih izvođača u Cincinnatiju, Ohio, McCormick je 1845. pokazao 150 žetelica. McCormick je shvatio da bi tvornica na Srednjem zapadu mogla značajno povećati prodaju , pa su 1847. on i partner sagradili tvornicu u Chicagu. Tamo su 1848. godine proizveli 500 mehaničkih žetelica.

Natjecatelji . Važno je shvatiti da Cyrus McCormick nije bio jedini izumitelj nove žetelice. Zapravo, Obed Hussey patentirao je svoju prvu žetelicu godinu dana prije McCormicka i godinama mu je ostao glavni konkurent. Bilo je i drugih konkurenata, što je otežalo zaštitu McCormickovih patenata. McCormick je više puta išao na sud kako bi zaštitio razne patente. Unatoč tim zakonskim preprekama, McCormick je do 1850. godine proizveo više od 1600 žetelica i zauzeo 50 posto američkog tržišta. Tijekom 1850 -ih, dok se broj žetelica koje je proizveo povećavao zbog stalne potražnje, njegov se tržišni udio smanjio. Do 1865. McCormick je posjedovao samo 5 posto tržišta žetelica. Doista, novi konkurenti brže su izmišljali i proizvodili bolje strojeve. Ipak, tvrtka McCormick Harvesting Machine Company nastavila se natjecati u posljednjoj polovici devetnaestog stoljeća. Kad je Cyrus umro 1884., posao je preuzeo njegov sin Cyrus Jr. 1902. McCormicksi i drugi veliki proizvođači mehaničkih žetelica spojili su se kako bi stvorili divovsku tvrtku poznatu kao International Harvester.

Inozemna prodaja . Uspjeh Cyrusa McCormicka ovisio je o brojnim čimbenicima. Kao rani izumitelj imao je skok na tržište i uspio je dobiti ključne patente. Lukavi McCormick također je upotrijebio genijalne metode za marketing svojih žetelica. Rano je McCormick otputovao na selo kako bi vidio svoje strojeve kako rade tijekom sezone žetve. Kasnije su njegovi agenti i mehaničari pomogli popraviti žetelice na polju. McCormick je razvio jamstvo na svoje strojeve i prodao ih je na kredit. Kao i konkurencija, svoje je žeteoce plasirao i na poljoprivredna društva i sajmove. 1851. McCormick je putovao Europom kako bi izveo suđenja nad svojom žetelicom. Bio je toliko uspješan da je svoje europske pohvale iskoristio za publicitet kod kuće. Ubrzo su njegovi konkurenti otišli u inozemstvo promovirati vlastite strojeve.

McCormickovo naslijeđe . Velike promjene u zapadnoj poljoprivredi uslijedile su nakon razvoja McCormick žetelice i drugih novih strojeva. Budući da se broj hektara koje bi poljoprivrednik mogao ubrati znatno povećao, farme na Zapadu postajale su sve veće. Kao i kod svih tehnoloških promjena, neki su Amerikanci bili povrijeđeni ovim razvojem događaja. Siromašnije poljoprivredne obitelji često su otkrivale da se ne mogu natjecati s bogatijim komercijalnim poljoprivrednicima. Manje oslanjanje na ljudske ruke gurnulo je mnoge poljoprivredne radnike u nacionalne gradske tvornice. Ekološke posljedice na kraju su uključivale eroziju tla i transformaciju američkih prerija u područja razmjerno male biološke raznolikosti. Prije 1860. takve zabrinutosti još nisu bile očite mnogim Amerikancima, a nacija je umjesto toga slavila uspon naizgled učinkovite poljoprivrede velikih razmjera.


Cyryus Hall McCormick (1809.-1884.)

Virginia djetinjstvo. Cyrus Hall McCormick rođen je u strogoj prezbiterijanskoj poljoprivrednoj obitelji u dolini Shenandoah u zapadnoj Virginiji, 15. veljače 1809. Cyrusin se djed preselio u Rockbridge Country iz Pennsylvanije tijekom Američke revolucije (u kojoj se borio) i tamo se smjestio. koja je u obitelji McCormick ostala do dvadesetog stoljeća. Cyrusov otac, Robert, smatrao se nešto kao izumitelj te je, između ostalog, dizajnirao ogrtač djeteline, mijeh za kovače, pa čak i stroj za čitanje. Cyrus, koji je počeo raditi na obiteljskom poljoprivrednom gospodarstvu i pohađati seosku školu kad je to dopuštalo vrijeme, mora da je uhvatio mehaničku grešku od svog oca. Kad je imao dvadeset dvije godine, imao je američki patent u zasluzi za plug na padini. No, Cyrus se poslužio vlastitim idejama kada je trebalo projektirati i izgraditi svoju prvu žetelicu 1831.

Unosno tržište. Kad je McCormick (uz pomoć robova u vlasništvu svog oca) dovezao svoju neugodnu novu napravu na zobeno polje Johna Steelea za pokus, to nije bilo prvih 1820 -ih Patrick Bell iz Škotske koji je napravio stroj za žetvu čak deset hektara dnevno, nekoliko puta više od onoga što bi čovjek mogao učiniti ručno. Međutim, sa svojim malim farmama i dosta jeftine radne snage, britanski poljoprivrednici nisu imali velikog interesa za mehaničke sprave za žetvu, poput Bell -ove žetelice. S druge strane, u Americi je situacija bila obrnuta. Ogromno prostranstvo obradivog zemljišta i razmjerno oskudna ponuda radnika pozivali su na usvajanje uređaja za uštedu rada. Pšenica je posebno morala biti ubrana u pravo vrijeme, prije nego što su njene žitne glavice previše riferirale i prosule svoj dragocjeni teret po tlu, a budući da je pšenica svih u određenoj regiji sazrijela otprilike u isto vrijeme, poljoprivrednici su koji nisu mogli pronaći dovoljno radne snage u ključnom razdoblju mogli bi izgubiti cijeli urod. Jeftin stroj koji je mogao sigurno i brzo sjeći žito na terenu imao je potencijal ući na unosno tržište.

Rani konkurenti. Nakon što je prvi žetelac Cyrusa prošao kroz šest hektara Steeleovog zobi, a zatim je preživio još jedno veće javno suđenje 1832. (nakon nekoliko mehaničkih poboljšanja), McCormick je počeo gomilati svoj stroj s potencijalom zarade. Nastavio je poboljšavati svoj prvotni cilj tijekom 1830 -ih, ali drugi su mu obiteljski pothvati ulili vrijeme, a on nije učinio ništa na putu marketinga ili proizvodnje svog stroja sve dok Obediah Hussey iz Ohia nije počeo graditi i prodavati svoju žetelicu sredinom desetljeća. Svaki je čovjek neovisno stigao do svog cilja (Hussey je patentirao svoju žetelicu 1833., godinu dana prije nego što je McCormick primio patent), ali Husseyjeva žetelica djelovala je po načelima sličnim McCormickovim koji su postali izvor trvenja i suparništva između dvojice muškaraca. Terensko ispitivanje dva stroja iz 1843. pokazalo se neuvjerljivim, ali konkurencija (kao i nagomilani dug iz drugog obiteljskog poduzeća) potaknula su Cyrusa da počne ozbiljno proizvoditi i prodavati svoje strojeve. Koristeći obiteljsku kovačku radnju i pomoć oca i braće, McCormick je 1843. sagradio i prodao dvadeset i devet žetelica, a 1844. pedeset. McCormick je, međutim, shvatio da može prodati samo toliko skupih žetelica (100 do 150 dolara) poljoprivrednicima brda Shenandoah s njihovim malim, stjenovitim poljima i istrošenim tlom.

Kreće se prema zapadu. Godine 1844. McCormick je prodao nekoliko žetelica poljoprivrednicima u bogatim zemljama doline Ohio, a krajem te godine i sam je otišao na zapad kako bi provjerio jesu li njegovi strojevi pravilno sastavljeni. Posjetivši ogromna, nedavno naseljena prerijska poljoprivredna zemljišta u Illionisu, Wisconsinu i Missouriju, McCormick je promatrao situaciju prilagođenu za svoje žeteoce, a 1847. on i njegova obitelj preselili su se u nadolazeći grad Chicago. U roku od godinu dana željeznica i telegraf stigli su do grada, Chjicaga i brodskog središta za cijeli Zapad. McCormick je stajao u epicentru tog prijelaza, naoružan izumom idealnim za žetvu prerije.

Inovacije. McCormick je 1848. iz svoje tvornice u Chicagu prodao 450 žetelica, a do 1850. više od 1 000, ali je njegov uspjeh bio gotovo siguran. Njegovi patenti istekli su 1848. godine, otvarajući polje za desetke konkurenata, neki s dizajnom superiornijim od vlastitog McCormicka. Nadalje, poljoprivrednici su oklijevali potrošiti više od 100 dolara na komad strojeva o kojem nisu znali ništa. McCVormick je usvojio neka od svojih suparničkih poboljšanja, poput sjedala za jahača i rakera, bolju reznu šipku i na kraju automatska veziva, a cijene je smanjio smanjenjem troškova u svojoj tvornici. Bio je agresivan i vrlo sporan natjecatelj. No, McCormickova je prava inovacija došla s njegovim marketinškim shemama. McCormickovi agenti demonstrirali su njegovu žetelicu na poljoprivrednim sajmovima po srednjem zapadu, suprotstavljajući strojeve protiv onih drugih tvrtki na natjecanjima koja su privukla velike mase. Napisao je vlastite oglase u kojima se izlažu vrline svog “ Virginia Reaper ” (često uz svjedočanstva poljoprivrednika), a istodobno je ilustrirao koliko je lako i isplativo koristiti njegov uređaj. Organizirao je sustav prodajnih agenata koji su prodavali žetelice po proviziji, ali su također bili odgovorni za popravak strojeva i poučavanje poljoprivrednika o njihovom radu. Konačno, ponudio je svoje žetelice na prodaju na temelju plana otplate kredita, dopuštajući poljoprivredniku da u proljeće uplati predujam, koristi stroj za ubiranje žetve, a zatim do prosinca plati ostatak troškova. Uz pomoć brzog širenja željezničke mreže i naglog povećanja cijena pšenice, McCormick je do sredine 1850 -ih prodavao više od četiri tisuće žetelica godišnje, a do 1860. prodao ih je ukupno osamdeset tisuća. 1851. žetelac je osvojio željenu Vijeće Medalja na izložbi u Kristalnoj palači u Londonu McCormick je iskoristio ovaj zgodan trenutak za pokretanje inozemne prodajne mreže.

Prošle godine. Prema vlastitom priznanju, McCormick je živio za svoju žetelačku djelatnost. “ Imam jednu svrhu u životu, ” je rekao, “ uspjeh i široku upotrebu mojih strojeva. Sve ostale stvari su mi previše beznačajne da bih ih se moglo razmatrati. ” McCormick nije ni potamnio, ni pušio, a oženio se tek u srednjim godinama, iako su on i njegova žena ipak uspjeli imati sedmero djece, od kojih je jedno, Cyrus Jr., preuzelo društvo. On je uvelike pridonio Demokratskoj stranci, bio je član nacionalnog odbora stranke, te se nekoliko puta (neuspješno) kandidirao za funkciju, jednom za potpredsjednika. Jedan od prvih američkih industrijskih tajkuna, McCormick je ulagao u željeznice, rudnike i druge poslovne pothvate, postavši direktor u upravi divovske unije Union Pacific Railway. Doživotni strogi prezbiterijanac, McCormick je također donirao velike svote novca crkvi i Prezbiterijanskom bogoslovnom sjemeništu u Chicagu (zvanom McCormick Theological Seminary do 1928). Unatoč svim tim aktivnostima, međutim, McCormick Harvesting Machine Company (osnovana 1879., a u kombinaciji s drugim tvrtkama osnovala International Harvester 1902.) ostala je središnja institucija u njegovu životu. Nastavio je biti predsjednik tvrtke, nadgledajući poboljšanja u proizvodnji i dizajnu McCormick žetelice, sve do svoje smrti 1884.


Poduzetnička povijest Chicaga: Braća McCormick i uspon Megacorpsa

Predmet braće McCormick i njihov razvoj “Virginia Reaper”, a kasnije i čikaškog konglomerata, International Harvester, izaziva nebrojene ironije i neželjene posljedice u američkoj povijesti. Evo samo nekoliko: Južni robovlasnici uzdižu sjeverne države, proizvodnjom viška žita i stvaranjem viška radne snage, do odlučujuće prednosti u industriji i ljudstvu u građanskom ratu. Zahvaljujući McCormicksovom izumu, na primjer, Sjever je izvezao 200 milijuna grla žita u Europu tijekom Građanskog rata olakšavajući rad svih poljoprivrednika i ispravljajući savijena leđa, dobronamjerni Virginijci ubrzavaju urbanizaciju i industrijalizaciju njihove nacije . Ove sile razbijaju, s druge strane, njihov voljeni Jeffersonian agrarni način života i pretvaraju poljoprivrednike u neobičnu, nestajuću pasminu.

BRAĆA McCORMICK, POSLOVNI VIZIONARI

Za života Cyrus, William i Leander McCormick nisu učinili ništa drugo nego revolucionirali poljoprivredu i definirali potpuno novu industriju. Okončali su stoljetnu ručnu berbu žitarica - srpom, kosom i kolijevkom. Time su postali milijunaši, priznati divovi u novoj industriji poljoprivrednih strojeva i poznati u cijelom svijetu. Ali zašto su braća McCormick zadovoljili dugogodišnju potrebu za strojevima za uštedu radne snage na farmi? Tko je zamijenio mišićje životinja ljudskim mišićima? Odlikovanje McCormicksa od njihovih rivala i konkurenata, te stavljanje u avangardu promjena, bilo je njihovo poznavanje jezika izuma, marketinga i organizacije, rijetka kombinacija darova. Kao što je malo tko učinio, uspješno su iznijeli očev izum, prvu praktičnu mehaničku žetelicu, na tržište. Da bi to učinili, morali su uvesti nove i originalne metode prodaje, oglašavanja i distribucije svojih proizvoda. Nije bilo nikoga za oponašanje. Oni bi bili poslovni ljudi koje bi drugi oponašali, zapravo model za buduću automobilsku industriju.

Poduzetnički genij McCormicksa otkrio se na više, međusobno povezanih načina. Nazovimo ga "McCormickov sustav". Njihova je nova poslovna kultura, izraz južnjačke domišljatosti, a ne više najavljivane Jenkijeve domišljatosti koja se nalazi u Williamu Deeringu i Johnu Deereu. Nove tehnike McCormicksa srušile su tradiciju "upozorenja" i zamijenile povjerenje, odgovornost, prepoznatljivost robne marke i dobru volju kupaca. Kako bi povećali tržište svojih strojeva, braća su predstavila neke genijalne uređaje. Jedan snažan poticaj bilo je njihovo takozvano "besplatno probno razdoblje", pisano jamstvo pri svakoj prodaji, jamstvo povrata novca u iznosu potpunog povrata novca ako su njihovi proizvodi radili nezadovoljavajuće. Povezani poticaj bio je njihov "plan kupnje na rate". Godine 1849. prodali su svoju žetelicu od 120 USD poljoprivrednicima pod sljedećim uvjetima: 30 USD manje pri isporuci prije žetve i preostalih 90 USD, plus 6% kamata, do 1. prosinca (Usput, svi troškovi dostave i transporta bili su na trošku kupca .) Jasno je da su braća bila spremna preuzeti velike, dosad neviđene financijske rizike kako bi plasirali svoj proizvod na tržište.

No, nije to bilo ni približno kockanje na koje bi se moglo pomisliti. Čini se da su u računanje cijene i dobiti uzeli u obzir velika potraživanja. Od 1849. do 1858. dospjeli i neplaćeni računi narasli su na više od 400.000 USD, potencijalno katastrofalno da nisu ostvarili oko 150% dobiti po žeteocu.9 Štoviše, standardizirali su svoju visoku maržu dobiti postavljajući cijenu koja je objavljena, fiksna i o kojoj se ne može pregovarati. Nije se trebalo cjenkati niti cjenkati s kupcem, niti bilo kakvih posebnih rabata. Svi su platili istu cijenu.

Još jedna od inovacija McCormicksa bila je "terenska proba", posebno učinkovit dio oglašavanja i promocije u ruralnoj Americi. Braća su organizirala javna natjecanja, besplatna za gledatelje, od strane suparničkih proizvođača žetelica. Zapravo, uložili su velika sredstva u oglašavanje svih oblika, pa čak su objavili i trgovački časopis koji je distribuirala njihova mreža agenata, a koji je postigao veliku čitanost među poljoprivrednicima. Ulazili su na brojne državne sajmove i izložbe kako bi demonstrirali "Old Reliable". Nagrade i nagrade koje su osvojili, u zemlji i inozemstvu, pomogli su da “McCormick” postane univerzalni naziv marke mnogo prije nego što je marka postala ludnica korporacije. Takva popularnost omogućila je McCormicksima da naplaćuju više za svoje strojeve, kao i da svojim agentima plaćaju niže provizije.

U prvim su godinama McCormicksi stvorili mrežu obučenih agenata vezanih za njih ekskluzivnim ugovorima i ekskluzivnim teritorijima. Oni su naručivali, primali, isporučivali i popravljali žetelice koje su napravili. Kasnije, 1880 -ih, regionalni agenti koji su radili po proviziji zamijenjeni su menadžerima koji su nadgledali franšizne trgovce. Organizacija je bila prvorazredna.

Domoroci iz okruga Rockbridge, Virginia, također su znali prilagoditi ideje i izume drugih svojim komercijalnim prednostima. Jasno je da je njihov izum potaknuo izum sofisticiranijih poljoprivrednih strojeva od strane onih s većom inventivnošću nego što su posjedovali. Uz sva tehnološka poboljšanja koja su uslijedila, oni su ustrajno držali korak: Atkinsov samoračovski žetelac, kombajn braće Marsh Withingtonova žica za samovezivanje i Deeringov samovez za užad. Oni su također bili izumitelji i zajmoprimci. Bill Gates bi mogao biti reinkarnirana braća McCormick. Sličnosti u njihovim strategijama i taktikama su zapanjujuće.

Kao što je biograf Cyrus Hall McCormick William T. Hutchinson istaknuo, prilično uvjerljivo, "njihovi dani kao izumitelja zatvoreni su njegovim patentom iz 1847." Nakon toga su lukavo kupili patente, prava na patente i licence od drugih, plaćajući autorske naknade kad je to bilo potrebno, dok su se njihovi stručni odvjetnici borili na sudovima u beskonačnim „patentnim ratovima“ sa svojim rivalima. Poslovne godine bile su im preplavljene u parnicama. Bili su neustrašivi.

Najinspirativnija odluka McCormicksa, donesena 1847. godine, bila je premještanje središta njihovih operacija na zapad, iz doline Shenandoah u Chicago. Shvatili su da je budućnost žetelice u Velikim ravnicama i na zapadnoj granici. Prvim dolaskom "uhvatili" su veliki dio domaćeg tržišta. I ovo je bila velika kocka, jer je Chicago tada bio daleko od željezničkog čvorišta koje je kasnije postao. Njihova žetelica prethodila je željeznici do Chicaga tri godine. Zapravo, oni su osnovali svoj proizvodni pogon u Chicagu PRIJE nego što su telegraf, kanali i željeznice stigli u taj grad od 17 000 stanovnika. McCormicksi su se kladili na svoju budućnost i dobili na lutriji. Rast njihove tvrtke i rast Chicaga isprepletali su se do kraja stoljeća i kasnije. Braća McCormick pojavila su se kao prvi veliki industrijalci u Chicagu, poslovni ljudi koji su posjedovali najveću tvornicu.

Prelaskom McCormicksa na „prerijsko tržište“ okončano je doba decentralizirane podproizvodnje koju su zabrinjavajući stupanj karakterizirali neadekvatan nadzor, nepouzdanost i loša kontrola kvalitete na mjestima poput Brockporta, New Yorka i Cincinnatija. Centralizacijom proizvodnje u Chicagu počeo je stalni nadzor, poboljšanja proizvodnih procesa i ekonomija opsega. Budući da su McCormicksove inovacije u marketingu i prodaji riješile mnoge najteže probleme u masovnoj distribuciji žetelice, u načinu prodiranja na nacionalno tržište poljoprivrednika, njihova prva tvornica u Chicagu mogla je slobodno napasti problem proizvodnje razmjera. Kad se masovna proizvodnja integrirala s masovnom distribucijom, megacorp je debitirao u sektoru poljoprivrednih strojeva. A put do International Harvestera najprije je osvijetljen.

McCORMICKOVA PRVA Tvornica CHICAGA, 1848. - 1871. godine

Between 1848 and 1871 the McCormick brothers regularly enlarged and improved their Chicago plant, which was designed with ready access to water and rail transportation. Comprised of both wood-working and iron-working departments, as well as a paint shop, and with docks on the Chicago River for receiving raw materials and shipping finished products, it was built to control costs. At first, some parts of the 1,200 pound reaper were manufactured elsewhere: sickles in Massachusetts guard fingers in New Jersey iron castings on the other side of Chicago. Raw materials arrived from all over the country and the world white ash lumber from Michigan pig iron from Pittsburgh and Scotland steel from England. But the story of the next half-century was one of integration, of lowering costs by eliminating more and more outside suppliers and middlemen. By 1870, the McCormicks were producing 10,000 machines annually at the Chicago factory.

CONTINGENCY IN AMERICAN BUSINESS HISTORY
1871 MARKED AN IMPORTANT TURNING POINT IN THE HISTORY OF THE McCORMICK COMPANY.

The Great Chicago Fire of that year proved both a terrible misfortune, as the original factory complex burned to the ground with great financial loss, and a perverse twist of good luck. Contingency is a powerful force in the life of an institution. Without “The Fire,” one can readily imagine a different fate for the McCormick brothers, Cyrus and Leander, brother William having died in 1865. Led by Leander, they relocated and rebuilt in a visionary fashion, with allowances made for prodigious future growth, the McCormicks obtained additional advantages over their competitors through the most up-to-date equipment, greater economies of scale, and wholesale efficiencies.

Thereafter, at the vast 230-acre “McCormick City,” which employed 1,400 workers in 1884 and whose main factory building was ten times the size of its predecessor, the McCormick Harvesting Machinery Company, which replaced the old partnership, C.H. & L.J. McCormick, in 1879, operated furnaces and foundries, produced its own iron, ran sawmills and the largest twine mill in the world, and even manufactured its own bolts and nuts. The company also purchased mines and forests to assure steady supplies for its furnaces and sawmills. In time, virtually every part of the McCormick harvesting machines would be made at this complex.12 “McCormick City” anticipated Henry Ford’s industrial colossus at the River Rouge by twenty-five years. What was needed to transform “McCormick City” into the River Rouge was another technological breakthrough, the moving assembly line.

“McCormick City” liberated supply. Production doubled between 1870 and 1880. Between 1880 and 1884, when Cyrus McCormick died and his son Cyrus, Jr. took over management of the company, output nearly trebled. By 1891, annual output approached four times its 1880 figure.

THE CREATION OF INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER

America’s very first outbreak of “merger mania” occurred between 1898 and 1902. Over that span 212 major consolidations took place in American industry. One of those mergers involved the McCormick Harvesting Machinery Company. In 1902, it combined with its chief competitor, William Deering & Co. and three smaller rivals, to create the megacorp, International Harvester. With assets of $110 million, and control of 85% of U. S. production of harvesting machines, IH was “a virtual monopoly.” By 1909, it was the fourth largest corporation in America, as well as the largest farm equipment company in the world. The corporate behemoth rested securely on foundations put firmly in place by the McCormick brothers. In recognition of their central role in the creation of International Harvester, the remaining McCormick heirs received 43% of the new company’s stock. And Cyrus, Jr., was chosen its first President.

According to Alfred Chandler, the dean of business historians, the initiative for the merger came from U. S. Steel and the Morgan bankers who dominated that corporate giant. Elbert Gary, head of U. S. Steel, feared that both the McCormick and Deering firms intended to build their own steel rolling mills, depriving him thereby of lucrative contracts and valuable customers. Gary’s efforts coincided with a readiness on the parts
of William Deering and Cyrus McCormick, Jr. to halt, once and for all, the fierce, cutthroat competition that troubled their industry.

Today, the once great conglomerate, International Harvester, is no longer extant—having been undermined by the competitors, such as John Deere, in the early 1980s. By the end of it’s life, the company produced a variety of products but focused primarily on farming equipment, small and heavy-duty trucks, and construction equipment, a massive organization which worked well in good times, but prevented the company from innovating during times of economic strain. International Harvester was split up into three separate companies, Navistar, Case IH (Fiat), McCormick Tractors, and Cub Cadet. Despite the break-up, the legacy of the McCormicks and of International Harvester lives on in the immense philanthropic gifts, most of which can be seen on the walls of the great Chicago and Virginia institutions, as well as countless McCormick-International Harvester aficionados across the country, who still consider McCormick the first name in farming.

1Robert Hall McCormick, had nine slaves. On the eve of the Civil War Cyrus owned “three or four” slaves, property which he hired out to his Walnut Grove neighbors while he lived in Chicago. See William T. Hutchinson, Cyrus Hall McCormick: Seedtime, 1809 – 1856 (New York, 1930), 17 William T. Hutchinson, Cyrus Hall McCormick: Harvest, 1856 – 1884 (New York, 1935), 38. Hereafter, cited as Vol. I and Vol. II.
2Herbert N. Casson, Cyrus Hall McCormick: His Life and Work (Chicago, 1909), 192.
3AlLeander made “long annual visits” to the Shenandoah Valley of his youth and Cyrus was elected in 1880 as the first president of the Virginia Society of Chicago. Hutchinson, Vol. II, 37 (fn. 1).
6Chapter Two, “A Legacy in the Heartland,” in Barbara Marsh, A Corporate Tragedy: The Agony of International Harvester Company (New York, 1985), 15 – 34, and Chapter Three, “Cyrus McCormick,” in Harold C. Livesay, American Made: Men Who Shaped the American Economy (Boston, 1979), shed abundant light on McCormick’s business innovations. Alfred D. Chandler’s The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business (Cambridge, MA., 1977), 305 – 7, 402 – 3, 406 – 11, details McCormick’s role in the “managerial revolution” that swept American industry in the late nineteenth century.
7Richard S. Tedlow, Giants of Enterprise: Seven Business Innovators and the Empires They Built (New York, 2001), 1. McCormick did qualify for inclusion in Daniel Gross, Forbes Greatest Business Stories of All Time (New York, 1966). See “Cyrus McCormick’s Reaper and the Industrialization of Farming,” 22 – 38.
8Casson, Cyrus Hall McCormick, 80.
7
9Marsh, A Corporate Tragedy, 23 Hutchinson, Vol. I, 249.
10James Wallace and Jim Erickson, Hard Drive: Bill Gates and the Making of the Microsoft Empire (New York, 1992), 117, 135, 269, 342, 352, 381, 390.
11Hutchinson, Vol. II, 360. 12Casson is especially informative about the development of “McCormick City.” 13Chandler, The Visible Hand, 306 – 7. 14Marsh, A Corporate Tragedy, 4, 41 – 2 Chandler, The Visible Hand, 408 – 9.


Death of Cyrus McCormick

Inventor and businessman Cyrus McCormick died on May 13, 1884, in Chicago, Illinois.

Cyrus Hall McCormick was born on February 15, 1809, in the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. He was the oldest of eight children born to inventor Robert McCormick, Jr. Around the same time Cyrus was born, his father began working on a design for a mechanical reaper. He spent 28 years working on the design but never managed to make it right. So Cyrus went on to take up the project himself.

McCormick worked with Jo Anderson on the design. While some machines were designed to be pushed by horses, McCormick worked on a machine that would be pulled by horses and cut the grain on one side of the team. In 1831, McCormick held one of the first demonstrations of his new machine. He said he had developed the finalized version in 18 months. McCormick was then granted the patent for his reaper on June 21, 1834.

US #891 - Klasična omotnica za prvi dan.

During this time, McCormick and his family also had a blacksmith and metal smelting business, which nearly went bankrupt during the Panic of 1837. McCormick began holding more demonstrations of his machine, but most local farmers thought it was unreliable. McCormick continued to improve on his original design and eventually began to sell more – seven in 1842, then 29 in 1843, and 50 in 1844. The following year, he got another patent for the improvements made to the reaper.

US #891 – Rubber Stamp Cachet First Day Cover.

Up until this point, the machines were all built in the family farm shop. But McCormick soon realized that he was receiving orders for reapers from out west, where the farms were larger and flatter. McCormick then contracted to have his machines mass-produced at a factory in New York. In 1847, he and his brother opened their own factory in Chicago. The business prospered after that, aided by railroads that could help deliver the machines and replacement parts much quicker than ever before.

Item #81883 – Commemorative cover marking McCormick’s 179th birthday.

In 1851, McCormick took his reaper to the Crystal Palace Exhibition in London. His reaper successfully harvested a field while the Hussey machine (Obed Hussey who had a competing patent claim) failed. McCormick then won a gold medal and was admitted to the Legion of Honor, but also found out he had lost a court challenge of Hussey’s patent. By 1856, McCormick’s factory was producing over 4,000 reapers per year. Then in 1871, the factory burned down during the Great Chicago Fire, but he rebuilt it and reopened in 1873.

US #982 was issued for the 200th anniversary of Washington and Lee University.

McCormick was a devout Presbyterian all his life and committed much of his time and money to helping others. He helped create the Theological Seminary of the Northwest (later named the McCormick Theological Seminary) and donated $10,000 to help start the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA). McCormick and his wife also donated money to Tusculum College and helped create churches and Sunday Schools in the South after the Civil War. During the last 20 years of his life, McCormick was a benefactor and served on the board of trustees for Washington and Lee University.

After suffering a stroke in 1880, McCormick died on May 13, 1884, in his home in Chicago. He received many honors during and after his life – the French named him an Officer of the Legion of Honor and he was elected to the French Academy of Sciences for “having done more for the cause of agriculture than any other living man.” Many credit McCormick’s reaper with reducing human labor on farms, increasing productivity, and being a driving force in the industrialization of agriculture in dozens of nations.


McCormick County History

Hunters, traders and drovers coming into the area that is now McCormick County in the early 1700s discovered an unspoiled, enchanting, wilderness paradise. The virgin soil of the hills was dark red clay, rich and porous along the streams it was deep, dark and fertile sandy loam. The whole countryside was an adorned savanna as far as the eye could see – carpeted with wildflowers of every hue, canes, wild-pea, and native grasses in profusion, and trees spaced so far apart that deer and buffalo could be seen from afar.

The hills were forested with short-leaf pines and oaks, interspersed with cedars, persimmons, cherries, and locusts. Along the streams grew walnuts, cottonwoods, birches, hickories, and maples. Chestnuts, oaks, and poplars along the streams often grew to exceed seventy feet or more in height. The crystal-clear streams teemed with catfish, perch, bass, bream, and shad. Beavers, raccoons, otters, and muskrats trailed their banks. The soil was deemed ordinary when canes grew no higher than a man’s head but fertile when the canes attained a height of twenty or thirty feet. The land was the Native American hunter’s bonanza. It thronged with turkey, ducks, quail, geese, eagles, hawks, owls, songbirds, and wild animals – rabbits, squirrels, opossums, foxes, bobcats, wolves, and cougars. Buffalo, deer, and black bear abounded. The shaggy buffalo would later lend its name to locales like Buffalo Creek, Little Buffalo Creek, and Buffalo Baptist Church in the county. A hunter from Ninety-Six reported counting more than a hundred buffaloes grazing on a single acre near Long Cane Creek. Herds of deer numbering sixty and seventy roamed the natural habitat. A Cherokee hunter often killed two hundred deer in a year. In a good year tribesmen sold more than two hundred thousand deerskins to traders from Charles Town. In a single autumn, a hunter could kill enough black bear to salt down three thousand pounds of meat. The virgin soil of the hills was dark red clay, rich and porous along the streams it was deep, dark and fertile sandy loam. The whole countryside was an adorned savanna as far as the eye could see – carpeted with wildflowers of every hue, canes, wild-pea, and native grasses in profusion, and trees spaced so far apart that deer and buffalo could be seen from afar.

John Stevens maintained cow-pens near the crossing of the Cherokee Path, over Stevens Creek in 1715. The Cherokees called the Cherokee Path, “Suwali-Nana”. Stevens’ cow-pens lended the name for the creek. Likewise, cow-pens located on Cuffeytown Creek led to the creation of a trading post, probably called “Cuffey Town”, that was situated on the east side of the stream just above the bridge on U. S. Route 378, near Longmires, presently the Hollingsworth home. In 1756, George Bussey took up a 900-acre tract of land on Horn’s Creek below Stevens Creek. In the same year John Scott, formerly of Cuffeytown Creek, moved to Stevens Creek, where five years later he was made a justice of the peace. The Stevens Creek settlement was a fifteen-mile circle nearly surrounded on the south and west by Savannah River and Turkey Creek encompassing lower present-day McCormick County.

The 1747 treaty set the new Indian boundary at Long Cane Creek. It clearly stipulated that there would be no settling north of the boundary. The immediate effect of the treaty was to open land for settling along the Indian path.

Scots-Irish Arrive in the Long Canes

After General Edward Braddock’s defeat in 1755 during the French and Indian War, the frontiers of Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania were exposed to great danger from the French at Fort Duquesne on the Ohio River, and their Indians allies. Bands of warring Indians ravaged the frontiers populated mostly by Scots-Irish. Settlers evacuated the countryside. To escape the atrocities, five Scots-Irish families made their way down the Great Wagon Road from Virginia to the Waxhaws. The Calhouns – four brothers James, Ezekiel, William and Patrick, their sister Mary, widow of John Noble, and their mother Catherine. At the Waxhaws, they were induced by a band of hunters to visit the Long Canes in the Ninety-Six District. The hunters gave a glowing description of the Long Canes. The Calhouns arrived in the Long Canes (present-day McCormick County) in February 1756. They settled at a site on the east side of Long Cane Creek, where they built a palisade fort called Fort Long Canes. The site was less than a mile from present-day Long Cane A.R.P. Church, and two miles west of Troy. Before the end of the year the Calhouns crossed Long Cane Creek and relocated a few miles to the north to the Flatwoods on Little River (near present-day Mt. Carmel). The Flatwoods was located in Cherokee hunting lands. Their nearest neighbors were Robert Gouedy, a Scots-Irish Indian trader at Ninety-Six, and Andrew Williamson, a Scot cattle drover on Hard Labor Creek. The Calhouns assured the provincial government that they had secured permission of the Cherokees to settle there. How true it was cannot be ascertained. However, according the 1747 treaty the land was not legally open for settlement.

The Calhouns quickly petitioned for land grants and received hundreds of acres in the Flatwoods on Little River. Patrick Calhoun secured a deputation as land surveyor. Surveying these tracts began the near monopoly of land surveying that he held for seven years. They cleared land, planted crops and accumulated poultry, cattle, hogs, horses, and mules. These five pioneer families opened the way for development of the Long Canes. From the beginning the Calhouns were people of substance. Other Scots-Irish Presbyterian settlers followed the Calhouns down the Great Wagon Road from the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Many of them were relatives and former neighbors of the Calhouns. Most, like the Calhouns, had originally settled in the backwoods of Pennsylvania, and had moved on into Virginia when settling became crowded. By 1759 the number of families had increased to twenty or thirty. Among those who located in Long Canes early were the Arthur Patton family, and the families Alexander, Anderson, Houston, Norris, and Pickens. “Squire” Patrick Calhoun, the family patriarch, was appointed a justice of the peace and became a prosperous farmer and the undisputed leader of the Calhoun Settlement in the Long Canes. In 1769, Calhoun was seated, albeit not without great effort, as a representative for Prince William Parish as the region’s first representative in the Royal Assembly in Charles Town. In 1775, he was elected from Ninety-Six District to the First Provincial Congress. William Calhoun was also commissioned a justice of the peace. He built a store on his place and carried on a lively trade with his white neighbors and with Cherokee Indians. The Indians brought deerskins, bear and beaver hides, ginseng, and other herbs, which they traded for guns and powder, farm tools and implements, household items, cloth and ribbons.

The Huguenots

The Huguenots were French Calvinists or French Reformed Protestants. Like the Scottish Presbyterians, they were followers of John Calvin, French religious reformer. The New Bordeaux colony was settled primarily by two separate groups: the first in 1764 under the leadership of Pastor Jean Louis Gibert, the second by fate in 1768. Early in the second half of the eighteenth century, Pastor Jean Louis Gibert, condemned to death by the French government seven years earlier for his Calvinist preaching, organized the migration for the New Bordeaux colony from his London base. British King George III’s interest in financing the Huguenot settlement was for bringing about quick settlement of the South Carolina back country following the Cherokee War of 1760. His Commissioners designated a location in the thinly settled back country, the strategy being to create a buffer to protect the Charleston tidewater area against Indian uprisings.

The sailing vessel slid out of the harbor, and headed northward toward the English Channel and Plymouth, England, on August 9, 1763. The Friendship dropped anchor in Charles Town, South Carolina on the 12th of April 1764. The town of New Bordeaux was planned and built in the design typical of a French village on Little River. Log homes were built on half-acre lots in neat rows along narrow streets. Once situated, the Huguenots immediately adopted a local governmental council consisting of five members – the justice of peace, the minister, and the three officers of the village militia. North of the village were the family, four-acre vineyard lots stretching along gentle slopes toward the river. On these mini-farms the Huguenots developed olive groves and grape vineyards. On the same lots they cultivated garden crops such as maize (Indian corn), potatoes, beans, and cabbage.

Four years later, contrary winds caused another group of colonists to join the already established settlement at New Bordeaux. Jean Louis Dumesnil de St. Pierre, a French Huguenot refugee living in London, conceived a plan to establish a colony in North America to cultivate a wine and silk industry on a commercial scale. He petitioned King George III for land to settle upon on. The British monarch approved the scheme and promised St. Pierre a land grant of 40,000 acres on Cape Sable Island near Halifax in Nova Scotia. After more than three years of preparation and anticipation, St. Pierre and his French and German protestant colonists boarded the St. Peter in London harbor for a perilous voyage bound for Cape Sable Island in Nova Scotia. They departed on September 26, 1767. When not long at sea, the St. Peter began to encounter choppy waters. Increasingly brisk winds began to lash the vessel in this record-breaking early winter season. As the weeks passed into months, gale after gale brought the fury of rain and hail and bitter-cold, winter winds. Ten of the colonists who died of scurvy in-route were forever entombed in frigid watery graves. By the first day of January 1768, the St. Peter was situated, “at latitude 41° north,” according to St. Pierre’s journal, which described the ship as “being very leaky and the Colonists reduced to three pounds of bread for nine days and very sick of the scurvy, they did oblige (him) to bear and put into the harbour of Charles Town.” The helmsman steered the brigantine carrying the colonists toward Charles Town, South Carolina. Better weather prevailed. Nearly six weeks later, the St. Peter limped into the seaport on February 10, 1768. In Charles Town, Lord Charles Montagu encouraged St. Pierre to settle his Protestant colonists in the South Carolina back country with the French Huguenots at New Bordeaux. Huguenot Parkway at Sheridan.

The German Palatines

Johann Heinrich Christian, Sieur de Stumpel was a German of high position. For several months he enlisted Germans who turned over everything of value to de Stumpel’s agent – homes, land, and personal property. A good portion of the colonists were from the area called the German Palatinate – the entire group has usually been referred to as “Palatines.” The riverboats arrived. De Stumpel’s plan was set into motion. The boats slid along the Rhine River picking up German emigrants who had assembled at numerous points. The voyagers were conveyed down the Rhine to the seaport of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. At Rotterdam the excited Germans boarded ships. The ships set sail upon the open sea. There was great jubilation among the passengers as they lost sight of land. They expected to touch port briefly in England where Sieur de Stumpel would be waiting to pay for passage and to make the final arrangements for their settlement in Nova Scotia, and then to put to sea for the journey to the Americas. Finally, after a year of soulful deliberation, apprehension, preparation, and severance from the land of their birth, these bold-spirited German colonists were on the way – Auf dem Weg zum Schlaraffenland! (On the way to the “wonderland!”) So they thought! When the ships docked in London in late August everything went out of whack. Sieur de Stumpel was nowhere to be found, and there was no sign of any agent who might be working for him. The shipmasters were enraged. They demanded passage money. The refugees had none. The Germans were mercilessly thrown off the ships, and their baggage was confiscated. They had no food, no money, no clothes, and no way of communicating with the English-speaking people gawking at them. And they had no leader in their group. They were totally destitute! Finally, leaving the wharf, the bedraggled refugees struggled past the warehouses and into a road that led them to Whitechapel Fields where they sat down along the common. That night a cold rain drenched them. For two days they had no food. Their luck changed a little when an English baker saw them and brought them loaves of bread. After several days without food, except for the loaves, word of their destitution reached the Reverend Gustav Anthon Wachsel, pastor of the new German Lutheran church in London called St. George’s. The church had been built by the pastor’s uncle, a rich German named Beckmann, for the many Germans working in sugar refineries of the neighborhood. The pastor caused the state of their wretched plight to be published in a London newspaper, and immediately went to the aid of the refugees. His parish quickly mobilized and began relief work. The military raised tents to reduce their exposure to the weather. By this time there had already been deaths among the emigrants. As a result of the newspaper coverage, Lord Halifax directed an appeal to the King to intervene and to settle the German Palatines in America. Sieur de Stumpel never showed up. Nor did his agent. After several weeks, the refugees were told that they would be settled in South Carolina. London’s Gentlemen’s Magazine for Tuesday, September 13, 1764, wrote, “In compliance with a petition for that purpose, his Majesty has been graciously pleased to order, that the Palatines now so liberally provided for shall be sent to, and established in Carolina, for which purpose 150 stand of arms have been already delivered out for their use and contracts were made for their immediate transportation.”

Six weeks later vessels with German refugees aboard lifted anchor, and set sail from London, bound for Charles Town, South Carolina. Ihre Reise war wiederum im Fortschritt! (Their journey was under way once again.) The Dragon, commanded by Francis Hammot dropped anchor on the night of December 13, 1764. After nine weeks at sea the voyage was over.

As instructed, Patrick Calhoun built the large community house near Hard Labor Creek. It served as a “center” until the settlers could get settled on their individual tracts of land. In February 1765, the rest of the German colonists arrived in Charles Town aboard Captain Lonley’s Planter’s Adventure. The Lieutenant Governor intended to settle the Germans very near the French Huguenots of New Bordeaux, and the Scots-Irish of the Long Canes. But, upon learning of the still present threat of Indian raids, the German Palatines chose to settle several miles southeasterly. A township containing some 25,000 acres was laid out, and named Londonborough in honor of their London benefactors. The German colonists selected lands in the vicinity of Hard Labor Creek, Cuffeytown Creek, Horsepen Creek, Sleepy Creek, Rocky Creek, Mountain Creek, and Turkey Creek.

afro amerikanci entered the county early. About 1755, John Scott, a Scots-Irish trader with at least five African slaves, took up a tract of land. His son Samuel Scott established a ferry on Savannah River near the present-day town of Clarks Hill. Other settlers, including George Bussey, brought slaves with them, and located in that same valley that came to be known as Stevens Creek settlement – a fifteen-mile circle nearly surrounded on the south and west by Savannah River and Turkey Creek.

At about the same time, John Chevis, a free black carpenter from Virginia, with a wife, nine children, and a foundling infant, was granted a tract of land on Little River, five miles above its junction with Long Cane Creek. It appears that Chevis had initially come into the Stevens Creek settlement.

By the beginning of the American Revolution there were African slaves in Stevens Creek, the Long Canes and New Bordeaux settlements, and other areas of present day McCormick County. In 1790, one fourth of the white families owned slaves.

The Long Cane Indian Massacre

February 1, 1760, was a cold, winter day in the Calhoun settlement at Long Canes in present-day McCormick County. During the morning, the settlers received the alarm of an impending attack planned by Indian warriors from the Lower Towns and the Middle Towns of the Cherokee Nation. Risking her life, Cateechee, a Cherokee maiden, rode some seventy miles on horseback from her Keowee home in the Lower Towns to warn settlers. The daring dash by Cateechee probably saved the Long Canes settlement from total annihilation.

The settlers of Long Canes hastily began preparations to flee some sixty miles south to Tobler’s Fort at Beech Island in New Windsor Township, just across the Savannah River from Augusta, Georgia. Within hours of the warning a first group of over a hundred persons left the Long Canes and would reach Tobler’s Fort unmolested. Shortly thereafter the rest of the settlers moved out in a wagon train of about 150 persons. Travel was hampered due to the ground being soggy wet from recent rainy weather. After traveling a few miles, they reached Long Cane Creek where they experienced great difficulty in crossing the creek and climbing the hill on the east side. By that time, it was late and the decision was made to make camp for the night.

Meanwhile, a Cherokee war party of about a hundred Indian braves, reportedly led by Chief Big Sawny and Chief Sunaratehee, arrived at the Long Canes settlement and found it abandoned. They pursued the trail of the settlers for a while and decided to cease pursuit. At the moment, they were about to turn around, they faintly heard shouts of the fleeing settlers as they probably were making the creek crossing. The war party quickly resumed pursuit, crossed the creek at another site and went into hiding. When at their most defenseless moment, the Indians attacked. The campsite was at once a scene of total pandemonium. In the wild confusion only a few of the fifty-five to sixty fighting men could lay hand on their guns. Women and children scrambled for any available cover and became separated. Casualties among the settlers mounted very quickly. The men were able to hold off the attacking Indians for no more than a half-hour. Realizing the futility of further resistance, the surviving settlers, aided by then night, assembled as best they could and fled on horses, leaving behind the wagons containing all their earthly possessions. In the short half-hour, the Long Canes settlers suffered fifty-six killed and a number taken captive. The Cherokee raiding party sustained twenty-one killed and a number wounded. Among the killed was Chief Sunaratehee. 2 mi. west of Troy, Sec. Rd. 36, Rd. 341.

The Battle of Long Canes was fought by Patriot militia against British and Loyalist forces on the east side of the creek December 12, 1780 during the Revolutionary War. 2 mi. west of Troy on Sec. Rd. 36.

Beč, the first commercial center in present-day McCormick County, is now a ghost town under the waters of Lake Thurmond. Located five miles southeast of present-day Mt. Carmel, Vienna was one of three thriving sister cities that developed on Savannah River in the late 1700s. Opposite on the Georgia side in the fork between Savannah and Broad rivers was Petersburg, and on the south side of Broad River and Savannah fork was Lisbon, both in then Wilkes County. The location of the three towns where two rivers met was a great advantage in water transportation. Yet the trade centers needed land transportation for bringing in the products of plantations, especially tobacco and cotton to be shipped and for travel. The towns were made accessible for wheeled conveyances, and became the location where land travel from western South Carolina and from the north and east of upper Georgia crossed. An integrated stage line from Milledgeville, Georgia to Washington, D. C., ran through Petersburg and Vienna as did a United States mail route. Flat boats called Petersburg Boats carried loads of tobacco, cotton, and flour down river to Augusta. Two ferries provided constant service across the River. Westward migration brought a drastic decline in the prosperity of Vienna and her sister cities Petersburg and Lisbon by the early 1820s. The town government of the dying town was abandoned in 1831. 5 mi. southwest of Mt Carmel, at end of Sec. Rd. 91, under water.

John de la Howe, (1710–1797) a French physician, came to South Carolina ca. 1764 and settled in the New Bordeaux French Huguenot community. His will left most of his estate, including Lethe Plantation, to the Agricultural Society of South Carolina to establish a home and school for underprivileged children. The Lethe Agricultural Seminary was founded here after de la Howe’s death in 1797.

Initially restricted to twenty-four boys and girls from what was then Abbeville County, with preference given to orphans, the school emphasized manual training, or instruction in operating a self-sufficient farm. In 1918, the school was turned over the State of South Carolina, opened to children from every county in the state, and renamed John de la Howe School. It is now a group child care agency. On Route 81, 2 mi. southwest of Route 28.

The quest for gold occupies a unique chapter in the annals of American history. It occupies a special place in the history of the Town of McCormick. The zealous quest for the precious metal influenced two men to the extent that it induced the spawning of the settlement and then town that became McCormick. In spite of their mutual interest the two men probably never met. The first was William Burkhalter Dorn’s unrelenting search for and discovery of gold. Dorn’s discovery of the mother lode at Peak Hill in 1852 insured the Dorn Mine a top spot in nineteenth century gold mining in South Carolina. Dorn made extensive investments in real property in the area and was an outstanding philanthropist. As a result of Dorn’s Mine a small settlement called Dorn’s Gold Mines sprang up around the mines. A post office by that name was established in 1857. Cyrus Hall McCormick’s investment in and ultimate purchase of the Dorn Mine from Billy Dorn, and his influence in the acquisition of a railroad terminal at the site clinched the permanence of the Town of McCormick. McCormick’s interest in securing a railroad connection to the Augusta and Greenwood Railroad was an attempt to boost the success of his gold and manganese mines.

Interest in the Dorn Mine was greatly increased because of the participation of the great nineteenth century industrialist Cyrus McCormick. The man who single-handedly changed the face of American agriculture would not experience similar success through his investment in the Dorn Mine, but he will be remembered for adding an engaging chapter to the saga of the mines, and for ensuring the future of the Town of McCormick. Cyrus Hall McCormick, born February 15, 1809, on the family farm Walnut Grove, in Rockbridge County, Virginia, was of Scots-Irish ancestry. At the age of twenty-two, McCormick devised the invention which would change his life and dramatically increase the efficiency of the American farmer. In 1831, and in only six weeks to develop the world’s first successful reaping machine. In all the centuries prior to 1831, there had been invented but two new agricultural implements for harvesting: the scythe (sixteenth century) and the cradle (eighteenth century). From that beginning in 1831, he rose to national prominence. Envisioning Chicago as the future railroad hub and gateway to the expanding West, he chose the Windy City as the site of his factory in 1847. Within two years, he repaid his creditors, and McCormick and Company (later known as International Harvester) was a sensational success.


Povijest

The roots of International Harvester can be traced back to the 1830s, when Cyrus Hall McCormick, an inventor from Virginia, finalized his version of a horse-drawn reaper. The reaper was demonstrated in tests in 1831 and was patented by Cyrus in 1834. Together with his brother, McCormick moved to Chicago in 1847 and started the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. The McCormick reaper sold well, partially as a result of savvy and innovative business practices. Their products came onto the market just as the development of railroads offered wide distribution to distant market areas. He developed marketing and sales techniques, developing a vast network of trained salesmen able to demonstrate operation of the machines in the field.

McCormick died in Chicago, with his company passing on to his son, Cyrus McCormick, Jr. In 1902, the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms (Milwaukee Plano and Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner (manufacturers of Champion brand)) merged together to create the International Harvester Company (IHC).

The McCormick-Deering tractors were renamed to just McCormick, which continued in Europe. In the USA, the tractors were later renamed International.

International Harvester sold off the Ag division in 1985 and later renamed the company. The Agricultural devision being bought by Tenneco, parent to J.I.Case, thus combining them to form Case IH tractor division and Case CE division for construction plant.

Case IH then decided to merge with Fiat's New Holland subsidiary to form CNH. This lead to the competition authorities in several countries ruling that for the merger to proceed they had to sell some production capacity in certain markets. The result was the Versatile factories in in Canada building high horse power machines were sold as the Steiger brand was retained. And in Europe the former International Harvester factory at Doncaster was sold along with some of the Case IH models built there and re branded as McCormick Tractors International Ltd owned by ARGO SpA of Italy, parent company of Landini.


Business Success

McCormick produced more of the machines, and at first, he only sold them to local farmers. But as word of the machine's amazing functionality spread, he began selling more. He ultimately started a factory in Chicago. The McCormick Reaper revolutionized agriculture, making it possible to harvest large areas of grain much faster than could have been done by men wielding scythes.

Because farmers could harvest more, they could plant more. So McCormick's invention of the reaper made the possibility of food shortages, or even famine, less likely.

It was said that before McCormick's machinery changed farming forever, families would have to struggle to cut enough grain during the fall to last them until the next harvest. One farmer, highly skilled at swinging at scythe, might only be able to harvest two acres of grain in a day.

With a reaper, one man with a horse could harvest large fields in a day. It was thus possible to have much larger farms, with hundreds or even thousands of acres.

The earliest horse-drawn reapers made by McCormick cut the grain, which fell onto a platform so it could be raked up by a man walking alongside the machine. Later models consistently added practical features, and McCormick's farm machinery business grew steadily. By the end of the 19th century, McCormick reapers did not just cut wheat, they could also thresh it and put it into sacks, ready for storage or shipment.

At the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, McCormick exhibited his latest model. The American machine was the source of much curiosity. McCormick's reaper, during a competition held at an English farm in July 1851, outperformed a British-made reaper. When the McCormick reaper was returned to the Crystal Palace, the site of the Great Exhibition, word had spread. In the crowds attending the exhibition, the machine from America became a must-see attraction.

In the 1850s McCormick's business grew as Chicago became the center of the railroads in the Midwest, and his machinery could be shipped to all parts of the country. The spread of the reapers meant that American grain production also increased.

It has been noted that McCormick's farming machines may have had an impact on the Civil War, as they were more common in the North. And that meant farmhands going off to war had less impact on grain production. In the South, where hand tools were more common, the loss of farm hands to the military had much more impact.

In the years following the Civil War the company founded by McCormick continued to grow. When workers at McCormick's factory struck in 1886, events surrounding the strike led to the Haymarket Riot, a watershed event in American labor history.


Gledaj video: Cyrus McCormick (Kolovoz 2022).