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Što je bio hipi pokret? Zašto je odbio?

Što je bio hipi pokret? Zašto je odbio?


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Kad se osvrnemo na šezdesete i sedamdesete godine prošlog stoljeća, mnogo puta nailazimo na izraz 'hipi pokret' ili 'protu-kultura'. Hipiji su opisani kao ljudi koji su se izdvojili od ostatka svijeta. Na primjer, nosili su odjeću koja nije mainstream, imali su čudne frizure, nisu slijedili konvencionalnu religiju i drogirali se. Međutim, volio bih imati određeniju definiciju ove kulture?

Koji su posebni događaji tijekom 1960 -ih u zapadnom svijetu doveli do uspostave Hipi pokreta i kulture? Koji su uzroci njezinog porasta popularnosti tijekom antikulturne ere 1960-ih i 1970-ih? Koji su događaji/čimbenici doveli do njihovog pada? Kakav je utjecaj kasnije imao na društvenopolitički krajolik zapadne kulture?


Prema knjizi Williama Straussa i Neila Howea, Generacije, generacije koje su rođene neposredno nakon velikog rata su "idealističke" generacije koje odbacuju vrijednosti i stilove života svojih roditelja te tvore "kontrakulturu" koja (privremeno) odbacuje konvencije i društveni poredak.

Razlog zašto se to dogodilo bilo je to što su društvo pedesetih i šezdesetih vodili vojnici koji su se borili i pobijedili u Drugom svjetskom ratu (i njihove supruge), pa su stoga stvorili društvo nalik vojsci koje je bilo "previše uređeno" prema povijesnim mjerilima.

Većina "hipija" bili su pripadnici Baby Boom generacije, rođeni tijekom i nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. Njihova pobuna protiv roditelja bila je manifestacija "generacijskog jaza" koji je bio neobično velik između djece rođene u "novom dobu" nakon velikog rata i roditelja koji su bili pripadnici "predratnog" i etosa Drugoga svjetskog rata.

Stil "hipija" pao je u nemilost kako je Boom generacija sazrijevala, postala "Yuppies" i pridružila se Establishmentu. U biti, to je bio "most" do "smjene straže" između generacije Drugoga svjetskog rata i Baby Boomera. Njegov glavni učinak na svijet bio je taj što je izazvao slična, ali privremena kretanja u inozemstvu, ponajviše 1968. godine.


Pokušat ću reći nešto o pitanju zašto je kontrakultura odbila. Priroda pitanja je takva da vjerojatno nitko ne može dati konačan odgovor, samo nagađanja i dojmovi. Moj odgovor se odnosi na SAD, koje su bile vođe pokreta. Druge su se stvari događale na drugim mjestima, npr. U svibnju 1968. u Parizu.

Dvije velike stvari na koje su beatnici, a zatim i hipiji reagirali, bili su institucionalizirani rasizam i Vijetnamski rat. Nakon završetka rata i ublažavanja najočitijih rasnih pitanja, mnogi su ljudi vjerojatno vidjeli manje razloga za pobunu.

Određeni ekstremni elementi kontrakulture otišli su predaleko, pokazali strašne tendencije prema nasilju ili postali kultovi ličnosti. Primjeri su bili Mansonova banda, Oslobodilačka armija Symbionesea, a vjerojatno i Crne pantere. Iako su te skupine bile brojčano male i općenito nisu predstavljale kontrakulturu, ljudi su bili fascinirani i odbijeni medijskim izvještavanjem o njima.

Neki od utjecajnih prvih vođa kulture droga bili su krajnje naivni. U nekim slučajevima činilo se da je logika sljedeća: "Ako su lagali kad su nam rekli da je lonac loš, mora da su lagali i o svim drugim lijekovima!" Kako je vrijeme prolazilo, šteta koju im je droga nanijela postala je očita. Na primjer, John Lennon postao je ovisnik o heroinu, a zatim je na kraju prohladio puran i napisao pjesmu o tom iskustvu.

Jimmy Carter bio je nepopularan predsjednik zbog inflacije, krize povezane s uvozom nafte i iranske krize talaca. U sklopu reakcije protiv njega, Ronald Reagan je izabran za predsjednika. To je postavilo reakcionarni ton u američkom društvu.

Postojao je trend prema disku i praznoj pop glazbi. Teško je reći je li to bio uzrok ili posljedica, no u svakom slučaju etos diska bio je posvećen hedonizmu, koji se razlikovao od vrijednosti hipi kontrakulture.


Za početak ću podijeliti hipi kulturu u dvije korpe: Moda i Kulturni stavovi. Moda se promijenila, jer to moda čini. Stavovi, pa neki su se promijenili jer se svijet oko njih promijenio, ali neki ostaju s nama i danas.

Moda je nešto poput odjeće, umjetnosti, glazbenih stilova, frizure. To su stvari koje imaju prirodnu promjenu. Dio onoga što modu čini kul je njezina novina. Ako nešto nije novo i uzbudljivo, zaista ne može biti moderno. Po definiciji, sve što vaši roditelji uživaju i/ili im je ugodno nije moderno.

Stoga je sasvim logično da bi hipi moda, kakva god da je na kraju bila, bila reakcija na modu iz 50-ih Eisenhower-ove ere. Najbolje riječi tu su "sivo" i "konzervativno". Govorimo o vrlo prigušenim bojama ili pastelima ako želite biti raskošni. Kratki muški krojevi, zajedno s prilično dobro opremljenim odijelima dizajniranim tako da ne privlače pozornost na nositelja. Duge haljine i kratka kosa na ženama. Popularna glazba dolazila je iz velikih sastava i orkestara.

Stoga je sasvim logično da bi njihova dječja moda bila protiv svega ovoga. Svijetle boje. Duga kosa za svakoga. Labava odjeća za muškarce, kratke suknje za žene (ili u drugom smjeru, odjeća identična muškoj). Glazba iz malih (5 ili manje članova) bendova.

A budući da je moda, prošlo je na isti način na koji je i došlo. Do 80 -ih, jednostavna duga kosa i široka uniseks odjeća postali su nešto što su voljeli vaši roditelji, a ne nešto cool i vrhunsko. Glazba izgrađena oko jednostavnih aranžmana (osobito najjednostavnijih - narodna glazba) postala je dosadna stvar koju djeca nikada ne bi kupila.

Kulturni stavovi - Ovo je malo složenije. Hipiji su više vjerovali u rasnu i spolnu ravnopravnost nego njihovi roditelji, ali moglo bi se reći da je to samo dio većeg tekućeg pokreta koji je započeo u poslijeratno doba i traje i danas. Neke su stvari ipak dolazile i prolazile, osobito njihov prihvaćajući stav prema seksualnoj promiskuiteti i ilegalnoj upotrebi droga.

Rekao bih da je seksualna revolucija zapravo započela dva razvoja: kontracepcijska pilula i legalizirani pobačaj. To je ženama dalo mogućnost da imaju seksualne odnose gotovo bez rizika kao i muškarci. Također im je omogućilo da se natječu na tržištu rada i u kulturnom društvu općenito, bez vjerojatnosti da će usred svega biti iznevjereni neočekivanom trudnoćom.

Opća percepcija o drogama među hipijima bila je da ako vas vlasti ne uhvate, onda nema štete. Pa ako se osjećate dobro, učinite to. Zašto ne?

Ono što je ubilo oba ova stava 80 -ih godina bio je porast zaista opasnih lijekova i spolno prenosivih bolesti. Kokain (i njegov mlađi brat Crack) bili su droga koja je "drogu" pretvorila u zastrašujuće stvari. Ne samo da su uništili mnogo života (osobno poznajem nekoliko slučajeva), već su i potpuno razorili unutarnje gradove.

Za bolesti smo imali herpes, a zatim sidu. Herpes je postojao stoljećima, ali se slobodno širio tijekom slobodnih ljubavnih 70 -ih (i dobio je lijepu hipersku ruku krajem 70 -ih od farmaceutske tvrtke koja je razvila tretman) Bilo je prilično zastrašujuće jer je postojan i nema lijeka za to . Kad se pojavila AIDS, bilo je još gore jer ne samo da nije imalo lijeka, nego čak nije ni imalo liječenje i ubijalo je ljude. U početku, puno ljudi. Ovo je seks ponovno pretvorilo u nešto oko čega morate biti oprezni.


Temeljeno isključivo na mom iskustvu kao ljudskog bića, ne mislim da je 'hipi' pokret zapravo opao, nego je samo preuzeo druge inkarnacije i imena.

'Hipi pokret' nije ništa drugo do oznaka fenomena koji se dogodio tijekom tekućeg vremenskog razdoblja, ali nema se što reći da se isti fenomeni još uvijek ne događaju u drugim oblicima na drugim mjestima s novim oznakama. Na sveučilištima diljem svijeta studenti se i dalje drogiraju, i dalje se bune, još uvijek stvaraju klike, i dalje se smatraju kontrakulturistima, a neki bi se čak mogli opisati i kao 'hipiji'. Umjesto da ga nazivamo 'hipi pokretom', nazivamo ga stvarima poput 'feminističkog pokreta', anarhističkog pokreta 'itd.

Ukratko, oznaka je proizvoljna, duh hipi-doma živi i ne vidim mnogo dokaza da je duh hipi perioda zapravo opao.


Što je bio hipi pokret?

Svaka generacija pronalazi način da se definira. Kako mladi rastu, mnogi traže načine da učine dvije stvari

  • biti u skladu sa svojim vršnjacima; pronaći grupu u koju će se uklopiti / identificirati.

  • budi drugačiji"; da se na neki način pobuni.

Ne odgovaraju svi ekstremnom slučaju koji je objavljen, ali vole misliti da jesu.

Da ne bude sveobuhvatno, prije Hipija su postojali Beatnici. Prije toga rat je poremetio društvo (iako su se ljudi mogli pridružiti ili biti protivnici). Tijekom depresije bila je kultura bandi, a u SAD -u eksperiment zabrane. Roaring Twenties vidjeli su flapere, a popis se može nastaviti.

Imamo manje perspektive na kasnije generacije, ali možete vidjeti oznake poput Gen-X, Gen-Y itd. Svaka skupina voli misliti da su izmislili pobunu, zajedno s riječima poput cool.

Pokretači hipi pokreta bili su prvo to što su bili prvi od Baby Boomera, ljudi rođenih u neposrednom poslijeratnom razdoblju. Njihovi su roditelji bili konzervativni, tek su preživjeli veliki rat i postajali imućni. Glazba se mijenjala, kao i uvijek, a onda je došao rat u Vijetnamu sa svim uobičajenim poluistinama i nepravdama koje rat nosi. Većina generacija bila je na koledžu ili sveučilištu, gdje je vruća atmosfera ubrzano potaknula razvoj pokreta. Televizija je pomogla u objavljivanju velikih događaja kao što su antiratne demonstracije (ne postoji loš publicitet) i prekomjerne reakcije policije i Nacionalne garde.

Smrti tijekom demonstracija na Jackson State Collegeu i Sveučilištu Kent State bile su šok stvarnosti koji su bili početak kraja pokreta. Smrt od predoziranja heroinom Janis Joplin kasnije iste godine nastavila je tretman stvarnosti.

Zašto je odbio?

Uglavnom, ti pokreti izumiru kako većina grupe raste do sazrijevanja i postaju roditelji. Često će ljudi pokušati nastaviti život kakav je bio prije, ali drugo dijete, koje se bavi vlastitim tinejdžerima i hipotekama, te drugim životnim pritiscima postupno potiskuje to ponašanje u drugi plan. Na kraju, postoji OMG trenutak u kojem otkrivaju da su baš poput svojih roditelja, kako je opisano u hitu Harryja Chapina Mačka je u kolijevci.

Ipak, ne odlaze svi. Ozbiljno angažirani pojedinci (a ne oni koji su bili samo "vješalice") nastavljaju živjeti u skladu sa svojim idealima.


Prema udžbeniku Source AQA Specification A, američki hipi pokret bio je razlika te generacije od norme. To je uglavnom proizlazilo iz rata u Vijetnamu i velike nepravde na koju se gledalo. Pokret se tada proširio na više od prosvjednika mira, privukavši mnoge mlade ljude iz te generacije, jer se na to gledalo kao na prkos i nešto cool.

Tako je, kako se oko njega rasla gomila, pojavili i negativni utjecaji poput droga i nekih od nasilnijih prosvjeda. Hipi pokret tada se proširio svijetom zbog američkog kulturnog utjecaja na zemlje poput Velike Britanije. Taj utjecaj došao je u stvari poput glazbe, mode, književnosti i filma, između ostalog što je hipi pokret učinilo dostupnim mladima diljem svijeta.


Smrt Hipija

Fotograf Joe Samberg sjeća se kako je droga uništila scenu Telegraph Avenue.

1967., neposredno nakon Ljeta ljubavi, Atlantik objavio je "Cvjetanje hipija", profil nove kulture mladih San Francisca. "Skoro prvo zanimljivo mjesto kod hipija bilo je to što su bili američka djeca srednje klase do kosti", primijetio je autor. „Građane sklone uzbunjivanju ovo je najviše izluđivalo to što to nisu bili crnci na koje boja boja ne utječe, niti useljenici zbog neobičnosti, već dječaci i djevojčice s bijelom kožom s desne strane gospodarstva. Nakon redovitog obrazovanja, samo da ih požele, mogli bi putovati na fin posao iz predgrađa i posjedovati lijepe kuće sa kupaonicama u kojima bi se mogli obrijati i oprati. ”

Dječak srednje klase s desne strane ekonomije: to je bio rođak moje majke Joe Samberg. Kad su odrastali, svaki Dan zahvalnosti provodila je u kući njegove obitelji u otmjenom predgrađu Long Islanda u Roslyn Heightsu. Njegov je otac bio uspješan poslovni čovjek koji je, pomalo neskladno, imao krajnje lijeve simpatije. Tijekom 1960 -ih, Joe i njegova četiri brata postajali su sve radikalniji. Dvojica dječaka iz Samberga na kraju su otišla na Kubu rezati šećernu trsku za Castrovu revoluciju.

Godine 1969., kad je Joe imao 22 godine, preselio se u Kaliforniju. Do tada je scena iz Haight-Ashburyja opisana u Atlantika članak je uglavnom migrirao preko zaljeva na Berkeley's Telegraph Avenue. Najamnine su tamo bile malo jeftinije, a za one koji uopće nisu mogli platiti stanarinu vrijeme je bilo malo toplije. Sveučilišni grad također je bio naklonjeniji dugokosoj djeci koja su danonoćno vrvjela po pločnicima-pričala, protestirala, ljubila se, plesala, tukla se i uzimala mnogo i mnogo droge.

"Ono što mi je jako zanimljivo na ovoj slici su ljudi koji stoje sa strane", kaže Joe. “Tip s desne strane, s frizurom Dutchboy, pokušava biti mirotvorac. Zatim idete skroz ulijevo i vidite tog tipa u košulji s kravatom poput: "Ho hum, ovo je zanimljivo", pušeći cigaretu. Zatim postoje tri crne djevojke koje se drže jedna za drugu, doista se trudeći da crnac, Archie, pobijedi. A tu je i jedna od mladih bijelih djevojaka, Vanessa - čini se da je fascinira kako su crne djevojke toliko zabrinute zbog borbe. Usput, Archie je pobijedio u borbi, ali doista, obojica su se jednostavno urušila od umora. ” (Joe Samberg)

Joe je bio dio svega, ali bio je i pomalo izvan toga, sve je promatrao kroz objektiv svog fotoaparata. Godinama kasnije, kad je bio visoko cijenjen profesionalni fotograf - nakon što se skrasio i odgojio troje djece (uključujući komičara Andyja Samberga) - pokazao mi je neke od svojih ranih portreta s Telegraph Avenue. Od tada su mi u očima, kontrapunkt svim popularnim slikama znakova mira, lanaca tratinčica i krugova u vodi. Stvarnost koju je Joe vidio bila je vrlo slična onoj Atlantika autor je opisao: horde djece koje su utopijskim idealima namamili u Kaliforniju, a zatim se naselili u život seksa, droga i letargije.

Joe se često šali da je krenuo na zapad iz istih razloga kao i Jojo u pjesmi Beatlesa: "zbog neke kalifornijske trave". No, kao i većina djece koja su se iskrcala na području San Francisca kasnih 1960 -ih, i on je imao vrlo osobne razloge da ostavi stari život iza sebe. Godine 1965. njegova je djevojka s fakulteta poginula u prometnoj nesreći upravo kad su počeli razgovarati o braku. Šest mjeseci kasnije majka mu je umrla od raka. "Zaista sam počeo tonuti", kaže. “Nisam se mogao koncentrirati. Nisam mogao pronaći ništa o školi što bi zadržalo moju pažnju jako dugo. "

Napustio je Emerson College i preselio se iz Bostona na Manhattan, gdje je našao posao u laboratoriju za boje u središtu grada. Slobodno vrijeme provodio je u Harlemu, viđajući Jamesa Browna i druge R & ampB pjevače u kazalištu Apollo, ili na grubim abecednim ulicama East Villagea, družeći se u orbiti Andyja Warhola. Gledao je igru ​​Baršunastog podzemlja kako se igra u Exploding Plastic Ineuitable, a zatim se vratio u trošne stanove kako bi ušmrkao met. "Ono što sam radio bilo je tugovanje", kaže sada. “Ali bio sam premlad da to shvatim. Znao sam samo da sam očajnički želio ponovno se osjećati dobro. ”

Lijevo: Djeca se penju uz stepenice "Telegraph Hiltona", oronulog pansiona iznad trgovine odjećom koja se zove Rag Theatre. Desno: Dva momka zajedno putuju uz rub pločnika. “Tata mi je slao 200 dolara mjesečno, koje sam plaćao za najam stana koji smo braća i ja dijelili. Uspio sam jesti gotovo za ništa. Bilo je mjesta na kojima se za dolar mogao nabaviti tanjur s rižom, a mnogo sam dana jeo samo jedno od njih. ” (Joe Samberg)

1969., neposredno nakon što je dobio otkaz, njegov najmlađi brat Frank došao je u grad. Frank je živio vani u Berkeleyju i nagovorio je Joea da se s njim vrati tamo. Vožnja je trajala tri ili četiri dana, gotovo cijela kroz turobna, zaleđena polja. Srušili su se na pod negdje u Ohiu. U Wyomingu, nakon što su se zaključali iz auta, lokalni šerif ih je pustio unutra, pregledao ih, a zatim im rekao da se više ne vraćaju u grad. Prešli su Sierras tijekom oluje, jedva su vidjeli cestu. Na kraju su osjetili kako im auto ide nizbrdo umjesto gore.

“A onda smo se,” kaže Joe, “odjednom našli u ovoj bujnoj dolini. Izgledao je kao temeljni premaz prvog razreda. Brda su se valjala i zelena, sva mekana i zakrivljena poput lijepog tijela mlade žene. Nebo je bilo savršeno plavo. I oblaci su bili svi nabujali, znaš? Čisto i bijelo i užareno. Gotovo sam se pitao: ‘Jesmo li pobjegli s ceste i pali u raj?’ ”

Kad su ušli u Berkeley, hipiji su bili posvuda - stajali su na svakom uglu, poredali svaku aveniju. Joe nikad nije vidio ništa slično. "Ljudi to sada zapravo ne razumiju, ali u to vrijeme u većem dijelu zemlje niste mogli imati dugu kosu i ne biste bili u opasnosti od batina", objašnjava Joe. “U Bostonu su se automobili zaustavljali i vrištali, a momci su iskočili i htjeli me ubiti. Morao bih trčati. ” Čak i u New Yorku, kad god je napustio Greenwich Village, "stalno su me maltretirali, pljuvali i gurali okolo." A Joe zapravo nije ni bio hipik. "Bio sam kuka," on kaže. "To je značilo čizme, crne traperice, crnu majicu, kožnu jaknu-nešto što biste mogli vidjeti kako nosi Rolling Stonesi."

"Na ovoj slici možete vidjeti da su sve Krišne obrijane glave, osim one najupečatljivije, koja ima dugu plavu kosu", kaže Joe. “Priča koju sam čuo bila je da je s Havaja, gdje Krišne nisu morale brijati glavu. Ostali su bili neustrašivi - smatrali su da njegova duga kosa pokazuje taštinu. Znači, bio je s njima u igri. ” (Joe Samberg)

U Kaliforniji je stil cvijet-dijete bio na vrhuncu. "Ljudi su zaista razvili svoj individualni izgled", kaže on. “Nisu više pokušavali shvatiti što znači biti hipik. Smatrao sam da je to zaista poticajno. Bio je to sjajna tema za fotografa-iako su, prema standardima srednje klase, ti ljudi živjeli potpuno bijedno. "

Joe je pronašao mjesto za život i počeo je dane provoditi na pločniku. "Zapravo nisam posjedovao nikakvu odjeću osim one koju sam imao na sebi", kaže on. “Jedva da sam jeo. Kad god sam imao novca, prioriteti su mi bili droga, film i hrana - tim redoslijedom. ”

Na Telegraph Avenue su bile dvije vrste korisnika droga. Jedna je grupa neopozivo pucala u heroin. Druga skupina je uzimala lijekove koji mijenjaju um, ali su vjerovali da su opijati zlokoban način da Čovjek spriječi siromašne da se popnu iz geta. U početku su neka djeca stavljala natpise s natpisom: "Ovdje nema dilera heroina." S vremenom su, kaže Joe, ti znakovi nestali i sve je više ljudi počelo koristiti teške droge. "Sve te stvari o svijesti jednostavno su otpale."

“Vidite li ovu djecu kako piju Southern Comfort? Te su se dvije boce pojavile i nestale u roku od dvije minute. Ta su djeca imala 13, možda 14 godina, ali jednostavno su konzumirali sve što im se nađe na putu. " (Joe Samberg)

Gledajući Joeove slike, jasno je koliko su neki od tih ovisnika bili mladi. Jedna grupa mlađih djevojčica, poznata kao Mini Mob, često se pojavljivala u majicama Mickey Mousea. "Tamo je bilo ljudi kojima je ta mala djeca jako na dohvat ruke", kaže Joe. “Rekli su im:‘ Slušajte, ne morate ići u školu. Sve što u životu trebaš naučiti nalazi se ovdje na ulici. ”

Puno se promijenilo u Berkeleyju od 1964. godine, kada su se tisuće studenata - od kojih su mnogi nosili odijela i kravate - okupili na Sproul Plaza kako bi zagovarali građanska prava i zahtijevali slobodu govora. Kampusi su bili izvori najhrabrijih ideja kontrakulture, mjesta na kojima su se mladi aktivisti mobilizirali u borbi protiv segregacije i Vijetnamskog rata, pohađajući tečajeve političke teorije i istočnjačke filozofije.

Lijevo: Kristolik lik sjedi na kanti za smeće. Desno: Lokalni lik koji nosi cilindar nazvan Groovy (budući da je pokojni) paradira avenijom s nekim od svojih brojnih prijatelja. “Još je postojala iskra ideje o novom društvu, boljem načinu života. Ali sve je to padalo. " (Joe Samberg)

Sada su se oni koji su napustili fakultet skupljali s neprilagođenima i bjeguncima s druge strane Sather Gatea. Ogorčenje je i dalje bilo, ali problemi su bili mutniji. Dok se Joe družio na Telegraph Avenueu, njegov brat Paul objavio je antologiju podzemnih novinskih novina pod nazivom Vatra! Između ostalog, knjiga je ismijavala cijelu ideju visokog obrazovanja:

Fakultet je fantazija u prigradskom umu gospodina i gospođe Work-Hard-Our-Life-Is-No-Fun-But-the-Kid-Will-Get-What-We-Can't-Afford. Kampus je uzgojeno gnijezdo gdje Ja-Ne-Shvaćam-On-Uvijek-Bio-Dobar-Dječak i Oh-Ne-Ona-Nije-Takva-Djevojka šetajte ruku pod ruku uz ljestve do uspjeha, njihove nježne glave lebde na satovima nježnog profesora. Samo djeca nikada nisu vidjela profesora. Bio je u svom laboratoriju razvijajući novi poboljšani suzavac pod kojim djeca kašlju dok predsjednik sveučilišta sjedi iznad svega.

Prosvjednici ruše lančanu ogradu koja okružuje Narodni park. "U našoj kući uvijek su ležale socijalističke publikacije", kaže Joe. “Sve sam ih pročitao i sve sam razumio. Jednostavno nikad u to nisam vjerovao u istoj mjeri kao i ostatak moje obitelji. ” (Joe Samberg)

Međutim, čak i u to vrijeme Joe kaže da je bio "previše sarkastičan" da bi u potpunosti ušao u radikalnu agendu. "Prosječna osoba na aveniji politički je bila gotovo potpuno neuka", kaže Joe. “Jedino im je doista bilo stalo do droga, droga, droga. Bili su nihilisti i hedonisti. Oni su samo podržavali sve što je bilo protiv establišmenta. Nije bilo intelektualnih temelja. Duh o kojem su svi govorili - osjećaj ljubavi i novog doba i progresivna politika - umirao je bijednom smrću. "

Joe se na kraju oženio, zasnovao obitelj i nastanio se u egzistenciji srednje klase, ali se nikada nije odselio od Berkeleyja. Na Telegraph Avenue se još uvijek druže beskućnici, ali kako Joe ističe, jedva se više čak ni pretvaraju da su hipiji. Sam pokret je mrtav, a i mnogi ljudi koji su često posjećivali traku.

S vremenom, Joe kaže da je gledao kako droge koje "šire um" ustupaju mjesto sve većem broju heroina. "Nikada nisam imao dovoljno mogućnosti da budem punopravni ovisnik o drogama", kaže Joe. “Nikad nisam imao dovoljno novca. I nikada nisam bio voljan prodati svoj fotoaparat. ” (Joe Samberg)

"To je bio moj problem u cijeloj stvari", kaže Joe. “Nema rasta za ljude ako su stalno na drogama. Počelo je sa svim tim višim razmišljanjem - proširivanjem uma kako biste postali svjesniji onoga što se doista događa u svemiru. Ali kad su droga preuzeli vlast, sve te velike ideje su nestale. ”

Autor knjige Atlantika članak, Mark Harris, došao je do sličnog zaključka. Bio je generaciju stariji od Baby Boomera, ali kao bijeli New Yorker koji je pisao za Ebanovina i Crnogorski sažetak, bio je vrlo naklonjen omladinskom aktivizmu šezdesetih godina. Jednostavno nije mislio da hipiji posebno donose značajne promjene. Prostirke su usporile njihov emocionalni razvoj, prepustivši ih na milost i nemilost "svojim iluzijama, svom nerazumu, svojim đavolskim teorijama, svom neiskustvu u životu i svojim nedostacima percepcije". Umjesto promicanja bratstva i jednakosti, zauzeli su javne prostore, ubrali cvijeće u parku Golden Gate i odbili utišati glazbu kako bi svojim vrijednim susjedima dali spavati. I dok su molili za novac i posjećivali besplatne klinike, ova djeca iz predgrađa isisavala su resurse daleko od gradskih mještana kojima su bili najpotrebniji.

Joe 1970. (Margie Samberg)

Ipak, hipiji su na kraju imali trajan utjecaj na američku kulturu - čak i ako nije bio baš onakav kakvim su ga namjeravali. "Nakon nekog vremena počeo sam primjećivati ​​nešto", kaže Joe. “Svi oni ljudi koji su me prije htjeli pretući zbog moje duge kose - sada njihov kosa je bila duga! ” Sredinom 1970-ih, kada je Lynyrd Skynyrd pjevao "Sweet Home Alabama" u Oakland Coliseumu na pozadini divovske zastave Konfederacije, izgledali su neobično slični hipijima Telegraph Avenue. "Dakle, da", zaključuje Joe. "Pretpostavljam da je došlo do revolucije."


Rock 1970 -ih

Sedamdesete su počele kao desetljeće rock zvijezde. Višak je postao norma za bendove poput Rolling Stonesa, ne samo u smislu njihovog privatnog bogatstva i dobro proklamirane dekadencije, već i u smislu scenskih i studijskih efekata i troškova. Sama skala prodaje rock albuma dala je glazbenicima-i njihovoj sve većoj pratnji menadžera, odvjetnika i računovođa-prednost u pregovorima s diskografskim kućama, i na trenutak se činilo da što je umjetničko samozadovoljstvo veće, to je veće financijski povrat. Međutim, do kraja desetljeća 25-godišnji rast rekordne prodaje zaustavljen je, a kombinacija gospodarske recesije i sve veće konkurencije za potrošnju slobodnog vremena mladih (osobito od proizvođača videoigara) dovela je glazbenu industriju , do ove točke temeljene na rock -u, svoju prvu pravu krizu. Angloameričko glazbeno tržište konsolidirano je u oblik koji se od tada nije mnogo promijenio, dok su se nove prodajne mogućnosti izvan utvrđene transatlantske rute počele intenzivnije tražiti.


Hipiji su romantizirali autohtonu i istočnu kulturu, što je čin nepopravljive kulturne aproprijacije

Važno je uzeti u obzir kontekst hipija, većinske bijele skupine mladih ljudi srednje klase s neporecivim luksuzom mogućnosti ‘odustajanja’. Čak i s obzirom na njihovo sudjelovanje u pokretima za građanska prava i u ratu, činjenica je da su hipiji imali manje u igri od onih koji se bore za građanska prava kako bi mogli u potpunosti sudjelovati u društvu, a ne odustati. Hipiji su romantizirali autohtone i istočne kulture (ne uzimajući u obzir patnju zbog siromaštva) zbog nedostatka modernosti, eksperimentirajući s zajedničkim životom i imaginarnom boemom, stvarajući umjetnu marginalnost, koju su smatrali etički ispravnom. Da ne govorimo o njihovoj neupitnoj kulturnoj prisvojenosti.

Hipiji su potaknuli kulturne promjene više nego političke promjene-establišment je lako kooptirao njihovu odjeću, frizure i glazbene preferencije (Credit: Getty)

Hipiji su djelovali kao ekstremni kraj u spektru kontrakulture, poput dada i fluxus umjetnika prije njih, inscenirajući 'događaje' (iako ih nisu nužno tako zvali) i namjerno otuđivali događaje kako bi izazvali i rasplamsali svakodnevnu američku osjetljivost , što je, vjerojatno, učinilo prosvjede Crnih pantera, Chicana i feministica manje ometajućim u usporedbi s njima. Crni, smeđi ili LGBTQ aktivisti nikada nisu mogli pobjeći od prijestupa hipija.

Sloboda od ograničenja konzervativnih, kapitalističkih, prigradskih SAD -a predstavljenih Eisenhower -ovim 50 -im godinama prikazana je u filmu o surfanju Beskrajno ljeto (Zasluge: Alamy)

Anti-establišment, anti-akademske i anti-mainstream ideje hipija proširene su kroz publikacije u stilu zine, a kasnije u školama poput Kalifornijskog instituta za umjetnost u Valenciji, Kalifornija (1969.) i Škole bestjelesne poetike Jack Kerouac ( 1974.) na Sveučilištu Naropa u Boulderu, Colorado. Ovdje je status quo eksplodiran i ponovno sastavljen u nove načine razmišljanja koji su odjekivali umjetnošću, književnošću i životom sve do 21. stoljeća.

Svjetlost i prostor, čovječe

Kalifornijski pokret minimalizma, iako se obično ne predaje kao dio nastavnog programa na sveučilišnim tečajevima povijesti umjetnosti, bio je popularan u južnoj Kaliforniji, kaže kustos filma Beskrajno ljeto Michael Darling. Uživao je u nedavnom oživljavanju na sajmovima umjetnosti i u većim muzejskim zbirkama, što se ne razlikuje od ideologija hipija. Ipak, kalifornijski minimalisti izronili su iz mačo scene mišića automobila iz 1950-ih i kulture surfanja u Los Angelesu, uklopivši se u modernost više od kulture hipija, kaže Darling za BBC Culture. "Ovi momci su uglavnom počeli kao apstraktni ekspresionisti", kaže Darling. Umjetnici su bili prestari da bi bili hipiji, ali su pričali o tome, šišali se i pili Kool-Aid.

Protesti protiv Vijetnamskog rata bili su najčešći oblik političkog angažmana koji su hipiji odabrali (Zasluga: Fotografija Greg Beckel, ljubaznošću Walker Art Center)

Kalifornijski minimalisti, poput Roberta Irwina u emisiji na MCA -i, bili su psihodelični na svoj način, stvarajući introspektivne objekte inspirirane istim zen i taoističkim tradicijama kao i neki od hipija. Judy Chicago, također izložena, napravila je velike psihodelične mandale inspirirane feminističkim ideologijama proklijalim u istoj hipi kontrakulturi. Istina je, naravno, da je hipi estetika bila sve samo ne minimalna. No, umjetnici Svjetla i svemira bili su, kako pokazuje predstava Beskrajno ljeto, inspirirani kombiniranjem i usmjeravanjem života u umjetnost i obrnuto.

Mnogi bivši hipiji, poput Jamesa Turrella, koji je druge poučavao spaljivanju njihovih nacrta, na kraju su stvorili nepolitičku umjetnost, poput njegovog djela Bridget's Bardo (Credit: Getty)

Revolucije kontrakulture 1960-ih i ranih 70-ih prešle su i oceane, jer je masa studenata izašla na ulice u Parizu u proljeće 1968. Ilustracije Emoryja Douglasa u novinama The Black Panther imale su dalekosežan utjecaj na revolucionarne grupe u Latinskoj Americi, Afrike i Azije. U međuvremenu, kalifornijski minimalisti uspjeli su premostiti jaz između minimalne umjetnosti, popa Andyja Warhola i hipi revolucije izbjegavajući klasifikaciju i, prema Darlingu, u svoje meditativne oblike ugraditi više kritike nego fantazije.

Da ne bismo zaboravili da je smrad revolucije lebdio u zraku usred šarene kiše LSD -a i slobodne ljubavi, možemo pogledati naslove vlastitog vremena. Politika kontrakulture ostaje uglavnom nepromijenjena - rješava nejednakost, nasilje, klimatske promjene. Utopija je još uvijek san na vidiku, a distopija zastrašujuća mogućnost.

Ako želite komentirati ovu priču ili bilo što drugo što ste vidjeli na BBC Culture, prijeđite na našu Facebook stranici ili nam pošaljite poruku Cvrkut.


Hipi pokret 1960 -ih

Hipiji su bili važan dio američkog društva, čak i ako su svoje ideje prezentirali na pomalo neobičan način.

Most of the time, whenever people think of the hippies, they think of drugs, parties, naked people, etc. The hippies did fit into each of these categories, but they also inspired a number of aspects of our country that most people don’t know about, such as our clothing, our music, etc.

The Beatniks

Before the hippies, there were the beatniks, who came from the Beat Generation of the 1950s. The beatniks were a group of rebellious people that read and wrote poetry as a way to express themselves, and they spent most of their time in coffee houses filled with other beatniks. The males often sported loose-fitting hooped t-shirts, goatee beards, and sunglasses the women wore mostly the same thing, but subtract the beards and add tons of eye makeup. Eventually, the beatniks dropped their poetic ways, and turned into what we know as the hippies.

The Hippies

Average hippies were between 15 and 25 years of age. They were mostly white, middle-classed Americans who saw themselves as being misunderstood by society. Every hippie was different, but most of them didn’t work unless they absolutely had to, they didn’t go to church, and they freely participated in sexual activities.

The movement originally started in San Francisco, California. A large multitude of hippies flocked to the corner of Haight Street and Ashbury Street, which came to be known as the Haight-Ashbury District.

Despite the differences in the groups of hippies, they were all out to promote the message of peace. They are most well-known for their opposition of America’s involvement in the Vietnam War, and they also helped to jump-start the Civil Rights Movement. Musical shows, peaceful sit-ins, rallies, and street theater are only a few of the ways that hippies expressed their opinions.

Hippie Music

Many hippies were musicians, and they wrote music as a way to express their thoughts, feeling, beliefs, and ideas. They held many concerts in numerous places, where they came together to drink, smoke, sing, make love, dance, be together, and just be hippies. The largest and most well-known of these concerts was Woodstock, which was held in Sullivan County, New York. It lasted approximately 4 days, and attracted over 450,000 people. It also caused one of the largest traffic jams in history, which prompted many local and state traffic laws to be passed.

Hippies used many hallucinogenic drugs, such as marijuana, mescaline, psilocybin, and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) as a way to escape reality and look within themselves. Some hippies also used amphetamines and opiates, but they were looked down upon even by the people who used them because they were harmful and addictive.

By the end of the Hippie Movement, San Francisco’s local government was paying over $35,000 a month for drug abuse treatment for the city’s 10,000 hippies.

Effects of the Movement

Throughout the Hippie Movement, many hippie college students were threatened with expulsion and a criminal record, just for expressing their ideas. It is because of their persistent efforts that we are able to live in today’s society, where we benefit from freedom of speech and equal opportunities for minorities.

The hippies were also the first to notice the need for change in the United States. For example, they strongly supported breastfeeding during an age that focused mainly on commercialized baby formula. Since then, scientists have proven that breastfeeding is a healthier alternative for both mother and baby.

While the rest of society looked down upon the hippies, it is widely believed that if society had listened to more of what the hippies had to say, many of the social and environmental problems that we face today could have been avoided. As Robert Howard states, “The hippie movement that was created in the San Francisco area of Haight-Ashbury offered a serious though not well articulated alternative to the conventional society system.”


Why the Hippie Revolution Failed

The word Hippie has a lot of connotations. Most of them are bad, but I suppose that depends on your perspective. If thinking about Hippies automatically makes you break out in hives, however, let me assure you that Hippie culture is not all bad, nor is it all good. (Which means, of course, that it’s like every other culture in the world).

Yesterday I talked about two values that destroyed modern civilization. Francis Schaeffer identified these values as “personal peace” and “affluence.” As a generation in the midst of the twentieth century embraced these two values, they became apathetic about most everything. To them, there was nothing wrong with this. To their children coming of age in the 60s and 70s, however, this was revolting.

This generation looked at their parents and wanted nothing to do with their sugary Leave-It-to-Beaver lifestyle. What that saw was fake. Plastic. What they wanted was real. Genuine. They didn’t want pretenses or the appearance of having it all together. They wanted to let it all hang out and find out what was real.

So they acted out. They pursued ideologies in ways that their parents never had. They aggressively experimented with drugs, sex, and alcohol. They threw themselves into rock n’ roll. Plenty were just going along for the ride, but many pursued these things ideologically. They were searching for meaning, for some experience that would validate their lives and give them a sense of reality. In fact, even those who were just after the pleasure often did this as a means of finding a philosophical experience through the pleasure itself.

Here’s the thing. We can look back at the Hippies and mock them for Woodstock. We can call them stoners and look down on them for being so rebellious and out of touch with their parents. But Schaeffer insists that this generation was doing something right. They were searching for nešto. They saw their parents’ values of personal peace and affluence for what they really were: bankrupt. They wanted nothing to do with these values, so they rebelled and tried something different.

Steve Jobs in 1976

The problem is, they didn’t find what they were looking for. In the tradition of Ecclesiastes, they looked everywhere for meaning and found nothing. So what did they do? They fell in line. They stopped acting out. They got jobs, moved a few steps up the corporate ladder, and started families. The only remnants of their rebellion were the closet pot smoking and their continued fascination with Dylan and the Beatles.

But most importantly, they ended exactly where their parents had been. They too embraced personal peace and affluence as their highest values. They dressed differently and still couldn’t quite relate to their parents, but in this area they were identical. Many looked at this mellowing out and rejoiced. The Woodstock generation is behind us! Our children are normal again! But Schaeffer says that he could have cried. At least they had been passionate about something! Now their lives were devoted to the same impoverished values their parents had settled into.

So what about us? What do you really care about? What drives you? What are you pursuing? Does your subculture make you feel unique? In touch? Are you a passionate type of person?

As I said yesterday, don’t assume that being passionate in general is enough to carry you through. What you want to see is action. Devotion. You want to see your beliefs making a difference in your life and in the people around you. If all you have is a rebellious passion, it doesn’t matter whether your ideology is drug taking or evangelizing.

At the end of the day, if your highest values are personal peace and affluence, you’re still just sitting on the sidelines. Too much of the church today looks no different than the world in this respect. They wear Christian t-shirts and attend Christian services, but these are mild forms of rebellion that eventually fade back into the pursuit of personal peace and affluence.

See these values for what they are and let your commitment to Christ and his kingdom transform you and the world around you.


The Decline of the 1960s Counterculture and the Rise of Thatcherism | Kenny Wilson

In the past few weeks I have been reading widely about the 1960s Counterculture both here and in America. This interest was inspired by two things. Writing an account of My Life in Music, which included my experience of the Counterculture in Leicester, and visiting an exhibition of sculptures by Francis Upritchard at Nottingham Contemporary and seeing James Riley’s talk about the perceived end of the Counterculture into “bad craziness” in the early 1970s.

My original piece was just based on memory with no reference to any other sources but I was struck by how close my experience was to the sequence of events described by James Riley. I was also intrigued by Francis Upritchard’s description of hippies in New Zealand when she says that “all the things that hippies hoped would happen, or felt might happen, didn’t.” In one sense her exhibition is about the failure of the 1960s and 70s counter-culture that is still celebrated at festivals – and its gaudy, individualistic “alternative” aftermath.

At this point it might be worthwhile to describe what I think the Counterculture is (or was). The Counterculture appeared in the 1960s both in the UK and America and became influential throughout the Western World and also in Eastern Europe. It’s protaganists were mainly young but there were significant influences from older artists and intellectuals. It’s not really clear why or how it came about but it epitomised what became known as the Generation Gap. This could be described as the difference between people who became adults before World War 2 and those who were adults after it.

Jeff Nuttall in his seminal book Bomb Culture(1968) thinks that alternative attitudes in the UK grew out of the shadow and fear of the H Bomb. Kao što je Hladni rat developed there was a constant reminder with the proliferation of nuclear weapons that the World could end any minute. This lead to massive demonstrations in the UK organised by CND (The Aldermaston Marches). Although these were attended by many thousands of people it became clear by the early sixties that the government had no intention of disarming or stopping the arms race. This lead to disillusionment and a feeling of alienation. Many young people began to reject the growing Affluent Society and started creating their own culture much to the bewilderment of the older generation who, as Prime Minister Harold Macmillan said at the time, had “never had it so good”. A youth subculture emerged called The Beatniks by the press. They grew their hair, played trad jazz and folk music, frequented coffee bars and hitchhiked around the country, influenced by American beat writers like Jack Kerouac. In the UK this is where the Counterculture had it’s roots. Here is an unintentionally hilarious TV report about Beatniks in Cornwall in 1960:

Of note in this film is the playing and singing of Whiz Jones. You may think he is influenced by Bob Dylan but you’d be wrong. It was two years before Dylan’s first album was released, he hadn’t even arrived in New York by then. The guitar and singing style was undoubtedly learnt from American folk singer Ramblin’ Jack Elliot who was in England at the time and influenced a whole generation of British guitarists including Donovan (he was also a big influence on Bob Dylan!).

The roots of the American Counterculture are slightly different. Although there was the same fear of nuclear annihilation especially with the Kubanska raketna kriza of 1962 when the Soviet Union based nuclear missiles in Cuba within easy reach of the USA. Another factor was the Pokret za ljudska prava that was working to end racial segregation in the South and also the Vietnam War especially when conscription was accelerated from 1964. Out of this milieu a counterculture was created that eventually became what are known as Hippies. This movement had a profound effect both in America and the rest of the World during the 1960s and it’s legacy has continued until now as I hope to demonstrate.

The UK and American countercultures influenced each other. Initially, the British counterculture imitated the Americans especially in the areas of poetry and the creation of Underground newspapers and magazines. As time progressed the British started influencing the Americans especially in the areas of art, fashion and music. Beatlesi became the most popular and influential group in the World and embraced many countercultural ideas like drugs, mysticism and experimentalism. Paul McCartney was closely linked to the English Underground and was a main financier of the International Times, an important countercultural paper that had a wide distribution. Pink Floyd emerged out of the British Underground with their take on psychedelic rock and, again, eventually became one of the most popular groups in the World.

Ime Underground started to be increasingly used for the Counterculture although, really, this was a misnomer. The main players and self styled leaders were media savvy and natural experts in self promotion. (This was especially true of American Yippies Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin. They achieved international fame at the Chicago Conspiracy Trial where the American justice system managed to appear both brutal and ridiculous. In a rare display of humour a member of the conventional left described their antics as Groucho Marxism!) It never really became underground until the 1970s when the mainstream media and press began to lose interest in it.

The Underground did not have a coherent political agenda. Although there was much talk of Revolucija it was not clear what this really meant. This was true both in Britain and America. It definitely did not mean the same thing as what the old left referred to . The Communist states were seen as no better than the Capitalist ones and probably worse. Even Cuba, apart from the love for Che Guevara (who in the spirit of rock n roll died young and left a good looking corpse. He became the poster boy of the Revolucija with his long hair and revolutionary beret!) was treated with suspicion. There was no strict ideology but general beliefs in the use of drugs (particularly marijuana and LSD), rejection of alcohol, free love, anti-war, anti-materialism, anti-consumerism, individualism, creativity, opposition to alienating work, rejection of television and advertising, caring for and living with the natural environment etc. The list could get very long and forms a general philosophy which is hard to formally categorise. The Revolucija consisted of all these things. Slogans appeared that would have done justice to the best copywriters of Madison Avenue like “make love not war”, “turn on, tune in, drop out” and “do your own thing”.

So, why did the Revolucija fail and where did it go wrong? Conventional wisdom would say that three events in 1969 caused a massive shift in attitudes. The infamous Charles Manson murders, The Woodstock Festival and the killing of a member of the audience by Hell’s Angels na Altamont Free Festival. The death of 60s idealism and the lost innocence of rock n roll is the theme of Don McLean’s pjesma American Pie.

Charles Manson and his Obitelj inverted the ideas of a hippy commune and went on a killing spree based on a psychotic interpretation of the Beatles White Album.

Woodstock is widely seen as the epitome and apotheosis of the Love Generation but can also be seen as the start of a megalithic, bloated and commercial music industry involving large scale festivals and stadium gigs. In order to attract popular acts large amounts of money were paid. Jimi Hendrix is reputed to have received $50,000, an incredible amount at the time equivalent to more than half a million now. Joan Baez virtually destroyed her credibility by accepting $10,000 even though she was using much of her own money to support radical causes. The festival made a colossal loss although that was recouped by subsequent sales of the film rights and DVD. A very interesting book about the making of this festival is Barefoot in Babylon po Robert Stephen Fitz. Rather than the music being an expression of the Counterculture a new commercial aristocracy was formed. The divorce between the music and the Counterculture was perhaps most symbolically shown when Pete Townshend od Tko knocked Abbie Hoffman off the stage with his guitar when Hoffman invaded the stage and tried to make an impromptu speech. It affected both people for years afterwards and effectively ended Hoffman’s political career. The clown prince of politics had been made to appear ridiculous and ineffective! Pete Townshend showed he wasn’t too enamoured with peace and love as this audio clip shows.

To deflect criticism of the cost of tickets on their 1969 tour of America the Rolling Stones gave a free concert at Altamont Speedway in California. This remarkably badly organised festival has become immortalised in the film Gimme Shelter (No, the Revolution wasn’t televised but it was often caught on film, which provided a good source of income from “Free” Festivals. The Stones had already done this with the Hyde Park Free Festival). The general air of chaos and violence is palpable with at least three deaths and a murder.

However, I don’t subscribe to conventional wisdom. Nor do I think that the Counterculture ended in 1969. As James Riley has said these events could just be coincidence and don’t signify anything. Personally, I think that after 1972 the Counterculture actually did go Underground. It was no longer really visible and it also became separated from the Music Industry which had become a large and profitable globalised industry. The press and media also lost interest until it gained notoriety again in the 1980s as the Peace Convoy i New Age Travellers. This culminated in the savagery and brutality of mainstream culture under Thatcherism kod Battle of the Beanfield. This is an Observer article about this event twenty years later:

* Tony Thompson, crime correspondent
* The Observer, Sunday 12 June 2005

It looked just like a carnival – at first. The weather was sunny and music played as the 140 vehicles set off towards Stonehenge. The 600 or so Travellers were on their way to attend the annual free festival on squatted land beside the ancient stones.

A few hours later the convoy had been ambushed by more than 1,300 police officers dozens of Travellers were injured, all but a handful were arrested, and every one of their vehicles was destroyed.

This month marks the 20th anniversary of what has become known as the Battle of the Beanfield. Despite four months’ planning, the police operation to stop the convoy was a shambles. Faulty police intelligence suggested the Travellers were armed with chainsaws, hammers, petrol bombs and even firearms. All this information was false.

Plans to stop the convoy near the A303 collapsed when a convoy outrider spotted the roadblock and directed the travellers down a side road, where they encountered a second roadblock. After a first wave of violent assaults by the police, in which windscreens were smashed and the occupants dragged out screaming, most of the vehicles broke into a neighbouring field, derailing the police plan further.

For the next four hours there was a standoff, while Assistant Chief Constable Lionel Grundy, the officer in charge, insisted all Travellers had to be arrested.

The final assault began at 7pm, by which time all the officers had changed into riot gear. Pregnant women were clubbed with truncheons, as were those holding babies. The journalist Nick Davies, then working for The Observer, saw the violence. ‘They were like flies around rotten meat,’ he wrote, ‘and there was no question of trying to make a lawful arrest. They crawled all over, truncheons flailing, hitting anybody they could reach. It was extremely violent and very sickening.’

When some of those remaining tried to get away, driving their vehicles through the beanfield, the police threw anything they could lay their hands on – fire extinguishers, stones, shields and truncheons – at them in order to bring them to a halt. The empty vehicles were then systematically smashed to pieces and several were set on fire. Seven healthy dogs belonging to the Travellers were put down by officers from the RSPCA. In total, 537 people were arrested – the most arrests to take place on any single day since the Second World War.

All those arrested were charged with obstruction of the police and the highway, but most of the charges were dismissed in the courts. The Travellers’ unexpected saviour was the Earl of Cardigan, whose family owned the forest where the convoy had stayed the night before. Cardigan had tagged along out of interest, and his descriptions of the violence prevented what might otherwise have become a major miscarriage of justice.

Cardigan recalled that in many cases ‘the smashing up of the vehicles and the instructions to ‘Get Out! Get Out! Get Out!’ and hand over your keys were given simultaneously and therefore there was no chance to understand what was being shouted at you, and to comply before your vehicle started disintegrating around you with your windscreen broken in and your side panels beaten by truncheons and so on.’

It remains a mystery why the police felt compelled to use such violence. With evidence that radio logs of conversations between officers on the day have been altered, the full story may never be known.

‘The Battle of the Beanfield remains a black day for British justice and civil liberties,’ says Andy Worthington, whose book on the event is published this week. ‘From the anti-Traveller legislation of the 1986 Public Order Act and the 1994 Criminal Justice Act to the current hysteria surrounding Gypsy and traveller settlements, the repercussions are still being felt.‘”

The 1986 Public Order Act caused many New Age Travellers to leave England to more tolerant places like Spain and New Zealand. Interestingly, the hippies that Francis Upritchard came across may have been refugees from this time.

Margaret Thatcher was an enigma. Behind the authoritarian Iron Lady facade she wasn’t even really a Tory. She is considered to be the first of what are called conviction politicians. She appeared motivated by a mission and set of beliefs. Tony Blair i David Cameron have also used this approach and in some ways are seen as her successors. Thatcher’s beliefs had more to do with 19th Century Economic Liberalism than traditional Tory zabrinutosti. Her mission was to restore the British nation to it’s former glory and roll back the tide of National Debt, Sindikati holding the country to ransom and encourage Free Trade i Private Enterprise. She famously hated the sixties and virtually saw that period as the main cause of the country’s woes with it’s strong Sindikati, Nationalised industries and Social Liberal vrijednosti.

Margaret Thatcher was ruthlessly effective and she chose her battles well. By defeating the Miner’s Strike and legislating against the Closed Shop she seriously reduced the power of the Trade Unions. At the same time she closed down most of the old heavy industries like steel, ship building and coal mines. By deregulating the banks, Privatising Nationalised businesses like energy and telecommunications and giving council house tenants the Right to Buy she effectively created a new capitalist society which boomed on the back of investments, services and rising house prices. It seemed to work so well that with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the end of the Hladni rat political economist Francis Fukuyama declared “What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such…. That is, the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” Mind you, considering events that happened in 2008, this was probably a bit premature!

But, I would still contend that the ideas of the 60s Counterculture permeated this period. As I have already said, Hippie ideals were resurrected with the Peace Convoy which was attracting many people to it, especially the legion of unemployed created by Thatcher’s early policies. But the ideas had also influenced the mainstream. The new bankers and brokers of the “Greed is Good” years were not the conservative bowler hatted bores of yesteryear but cocaine sniffing, champagne swilling hedonists who roared round London in new Porsches. They were into conspicuous consumption and, dare I say, a rock n roll life style. Also, the type of entrepreneurs that Thatcher was trying to encourage already existed in businesses started in the 60s. Although not British, clothing store chain The Gap, started as a “head shop” u San Franciscu. Global business Pauza started when Tony Elliot took over the listings page from International Times because no one else could be bothered to do it! It became an immensely profitable business. Perhaps the most well known business with counterculture roots was Richard Branson with his Djevica robna marka. This started off as a mail order record company in the late 60s. All of these businesses brought a more relaxed, casual style and in the case of Branson a kind of celebrity status that would never have happened in the past. Basically, countercultural ideas had been assimilated by the mainstream.

However, the real Underground continued both in the Peace Convoy, the Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp and more recently with the Occupy Movement which has become a global phenomenon. I will say more about this later!


Hippie Fashion

1960s hippie fashion wasn’t always flares and tie dye shirts. As a matter of fact, the foundation of what hippies wore, particularly in the beginning, was similar to Beatnik or early Mod fashion. Color palettes were toned down, patterns (if present) were basic, and outfits were overall simple. Workshirts, drainpipe trousers, mohair sweaters, tee shirts, and canvas shoes made up a majority of the early hippie wardrobe for both men and women.

The Merry Pranksters “tootling” in 1964. Simpler outfits were paired with absurd hats, unusual accessories, or excessive amounts of body paint.

These early hippie outfits were made distinct with an “accent” piece such as a garish Western shirt, a non-matching hat, or bright rubber rain boots. Day-Glo paint was also used to paint bodies, faces, hands, and clothes.

1966 mens mod drainpipe pants and button down shirts with loafers 1967 narrow leg “hip hugger” pants with blouses or mock neck shirt

Go here for more about 60s mod fashion for women that you can adapt into early 60s hippie outfits. Look here for men’s 60s outfit ideas.

Seeking the role of anti-fashion, this “cleaner” hippie look would evolve just as quickly as it took for people to adjust to it. In the five years between 1964 and 1969, hippie fashion did a full 180. Pants became flared and baggy, colors grew saturated, and psychedelic patterns such as paisley and mandalas were inescapable. 1968 was the height of flower power and trippy hippie fashion, and it began seeping into the mainstream.

1968 – daisy flowers on a green dress and a bright swirly paisley print. Emerging trippy prints and bright colors in 1967
1968 – Even Wrangler made trippy hippie dresses. Woman with swirled paisley dress

Jeans could be bleached, studded, adorned with patches, torn up, and then painted over. As soon as “ridiculous” was established, it would become popular, then it was on to “even more ridiculous” to produce the same effect. Dedicated hippies who sought to look “way out” fought hard to stay ahead of an ever-rising standard that they themselves were setting.

Flower power print jeans Flower power men’s pants
60s decorated pants Peace sign jeans

In a time of disruption, the hippies were an endless source of inspiration for new trends, silhouettes, and colors for fashion designers. Their rebelliousness and stylistic emphasis on drawing attention would pave the way for a decade of groovy 1970s individuality, loudness, and casualwear.

Influences and Motifs of 1960s Hippie Fashion

The evolution of hippie fashion was sculpted by the passions, perspectives, and backgrounds found within the movement. While it would be impossible to name everything to ever influence their clothing style, the primary ones were as follows:

Azija. Like beatniks, hippies took heavy inspiration from the East – particularly its religion and iconography. Silhouettes went loose and flowy with tunics, kaftans, kimono shawls, and light crisp fabric clothes. Rich ethnic prints were popular for any article of clothing, and Eastern dyeing techniques were adapted to make the iconic hippie tie dye. Dharmic symbols, Buddha, and the Taoist yin-yang were used often in fabric prints, art, stencils, and jewelry. In 1968, The Beatles took a trip to India that would make the Asian influence even more popular, both with hippies and in mainstream fashion.

Indian print vests ad a touch of hippie style

Psychedelia. Hippie culture was heavily immersed in psychedelic substances such as LSD and psilocybin (magic mushrooms). From the widespread use of these psychedelics came an appreciation for “trippy” art, which in turn popularized bright colors and kaleidoscopic, far-out patterns. Clothes were also lightened for both comfort and ease of functioning while high.

(1968) Short dresses with bright patterns, a fitted bodice, and movement at the hem took off in the fashion industry.

Mother Nature. Prairie dresses and flower power were key to making a statement in both anti-war and environmental protesting. Flowers, feathers, hemp rope, leather, linen, straw, and recycled fabrics gave even more earthy and natural aspects to wardrobes as hippies began living closer to nature. This eco movement came from both environmentalism and a psychedelic feeling of oneness with the world.

Flower children in homemade peasantry

Militaria and Bikers. Many Vietnam veterans who returned home joined the hippie movement, introducing field jackets, vests, utility coveralls, and patches into hippie style. Bikers, a fellow counterculture group with a heavy veteran presence, also wore practical clothes and introduced rugged biker boots, leather goods, vests, and jackets. Military surplus stores were cheap, accessible, and the best source for clothes endorsed by both groups. The iconic hippie bell bottom jeans began as Navy bell-bottom trousers sold at surplus stores.

Western Clothes and Workwear. Chambray shirts, bolo ties, henleys, mechanic’s trousers, and Western shirts were accessible, baggy, and durable. Westernwear with more Native American style such as fringe jackets and moccasins had even greater appeal for their ruggedness and unconventional appeal. Denim, both pants and jackets, became a staple of hippie clothing for men and women.

Contrarianism. When the Hell’s Angels were the meanest thing to ride the streets in 1964, hippies befriended and associated with them. When a man was arrested in 1968 for wearing an American flag patch, hippies across the nation began wearing the stars and stripes. Antique clothing was very out of style and could be found cheap, so it was worn often. Whatever the populace rejected, the hippies embraced. A surprising amount of savvy went into being the antithesis of society!

Hippies often chose imagery meant to incite, like these two hippie women wearing dresses with the American flag and Che Guevara in 1968.

Mainstream hippie fashion. By 1970, you could head to your favorite department store and find light blue flare jeans, a groovy paisley shirt, and maybe even a purple bandanna or printed shawl. Hippie-style clothes were the next big thing, and finding certain aspects of it grew much easier when they caught on with designers. In addition to adding some uniformity to the hippie look, it also sanitized hippie fashion into something far less chaotic to appeal to a wider buyer base.

Pictures of 60s Hippies:

“Flower Power” from across the pond – A British hippie man dressed for a festival in 1967 Tie dye shirts are an iconic blend of Eastern and psychedelic influence. The shirts are shown here for sale at Woodstock.
An American flag bandanna, tie dye shirt, tie dye stockings, moccasin boots, “bug-man” aviators, and a cropped vest doesn’t turn heads at Woodstock 1969. Joe Crocker performs at Woodstock 1969 in a tie dyed henley shirt and vertical striped pants.
1966 hippies adapt mainstream clothing into unique pieces (1967) Pattie Boyd embraced the hippie spirituality and its eccentric, Eastern inspired fashion.
George Harrison and Pattie Boyd-Harrison Pattie Boyd and George Harrison in San Francisco

Up next, we will dive into the specifics of Hippie Fashion for women and men.


We are Debbie and Oscar, your guides to dressing up like decades past. We are here to help you find clothing online and learn about vintage fashions as worn by everyday people, just like you. Need help with your outfit? Ask us anytime.

History of The Hippie Movement - 1970-present - Festivals

The tradition of hippie festivals began in the United States in 1965 with Ken Kesey's Acid Tests, where the Grateful Dead played under the influence of LSD and initiated psychedelic jamming. For the next several decades, many hippies and neo-hippies became part of the Deadhead and Phish Head communities, attending music and art festivals held around the country. The Grateful Dead toured continuously, with few interruptions between 1965 and 1995. Phish toured sporadically between 1983 and 2004. With the demise of the Grateful Dead and Phish, the nomadic touring hippies have been left without a main jam band to follow. Instead, they attend a growing series of summer festivals, the largest of which is called the Bonnaroo Music & Arts Festival, which premiered in 2002.

The Oregon Country Fair began in 1969 as a benefit for an alternative school. Currently, the three-day festival features handmade crafts, educational displays and costumed entertainment in a wooded setting near Veneta, Oregon just west of Eugene. Each year the festival becomes the third largest city in Lane County.

The annual Starwood Festival, founded in 1981, is a six-day event held in Sherman, New York indicative of the spiritual quest of hippies through an exploration of non-mainstream religions and world-views. It has offered performances and classes by a variety of hippie and counter-culture icons, from musical guests like Big Brother and the Holding Company, Merl Saunders and Babatunde Olatunji to speakers such as Timothy Leary, Terence McKenna, Paul Krassner, Stephen Gaskin, Robert Anton Wilson, Harvey Wasserman and Ralph Metzner.

The Burning Man festival began in 1986 at a San Francisco beach party. Now an annual gathering, the event is held in the Black Rock Desert northeast of Reno, Nevada. Though few participants would accept the "hippie" label, Burning Man is a contemporary expression of alternative community in the same spirit as early hippie events. The gathering becomes a temporary city (36,500 occupants in 2005), with elaborate encampments, displays and many art cars.

Held annually in Manchester, Tennessee, the Bonnaroo Music and Arts Festival has become a tradition for many music fans, since its sold-out premiere in 2002. Approximately 70-80,000 attend Bonnaroo yearly. The festival producers have made investments in their property, constructing vast telecommunications networks, potable water supplies, sanitation facilities, and safety features such as first aid shelters for every 200-300 fans.

The 10,000 Lakes Festival is an annual three-day music festival in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota. Also referred to as '10KLF' (K for thousand, LF for Lakes Festival), the festival began in 2003. Attendance in 2006 was around 18,000.

In the UK, there are many new age travellers who are known as hippies to outsiders, but prefer to call themselves the Peace Convoy. They started the Stonehenge Free Festival in 1974, especially Wally Hope, until the English Heritage legally banned the festival, resulting in the Battle of the Beanfield in 1985. With Stonehenge banned as a festival site new age travellers gather at the annual Glastonbury Festival to see hundreds of live dance, comedy, theatre, circus, cabaret and other performances. Others argue that it has now become too much of a commercial event, and instead opt for smaller festivals such as Beautiful Days, Sunrise Celebration, or The Big Green Gathering. In 2005, Glastonbury festival covered 900 acres (3.6 km²) and attracted 150,000 people.

In Australia the hippie movement originated at the Aquarius Festival held in 1971 in Canberra and again in Nimbin two years later. Many festival goers stayed in Nimbin, transforming the town and local area. It also resulted in the formation of one of Australia's largest and most successful communes.

Between 1976 and 1981, hippie music festivals were held on large farms around Waihi and Waikino in New Zealand- Aotearoa. Named Nambassa, the festivals focused on peace, love, and a balanced lifestyle, featuring workshops and displays advocating alternative lifestyles, clean and sustainable energy, and unadulterated foods. Nambassa is also the tribal name of a trust that has championed sustainable ideas and demonstrated practical counterculture and alternative lifestyle methods since the early 1970s.

Many of the bands performing at hippie festivals, and their derivatives, are called jam bands, since they play songs that contain long instrumentals similar to the original hippie bands of the 1960s. Psychedelic trance or "psytrance," a type of techno music influenced by 1960s psychedelic rock and hippie culture is also popular among neo-hippies worldwide. Psytrance hippies usually attend separate festivals where only electronic music is played.


The Impact of the Hippie Movement

The impact of the hippie movement
The impact, good and bad, of the 1960’s hippie movement cannot be denied. The movement influenced popular music, television, film, literature, and the arts. The music industry, particularly the rock music segment, experienced an explosion in sales that has continued to this day. In subsequent years, unmarried couples no longer felt persecuted for living together. Frankness regarding sexual matters was common. Religious and cultural diversity gained greater acceptance. Even fashion was impacted as the popularity of the necktie and other business apparel declined and was replaced by more casual dress standards. Some changes were not as positive though. Some argue that the movement ushered in more liberal press and movies which has led to a degradation of our cultural values and ethics. Youth fashions became more and more bizarre , and sexual, in an attempt to rebel against the mainstream values. Some argue that the embrace of spontaneity and worship of the “primitive” have turned us towards mindlessness and violence. Hippie trends and values have had major effects on culture by influencing film, literature, music and the arts. The values of diverse cultural and religious adoption, propagated by hippies have travelled wide and far as an accepted norm. Their attitudes have posed many challenges to a conformist society. A trademark characteristic of a hippie was their attitude to relieve themselves of societal regulations, free to choose their own way and thereby find the actual meaning of life. An expression of this attitude was observed in their body language, dress code and grooming style. These parameters helped to serve as universal visual reminders of their fight for individual rights. Woodstock was the pop culture music event of the decade and arguably to this day the single most profound event in the history of music. Acts from all around the world met at Max Yasgur's Farm in Bethel, NY on August 15-18, 1969 for a celebration.


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Komentari:

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