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Timmpanonova vremenska traka

Timmpanonova vremenska traka


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  • c. 1700 pr

    Najraniji pisani nagovještaj ručnog bubnja: židovski tof koji je u Izlasku svirala Mojsijeva sestra Mirjam.

  • c. 750. pr

    Najraniji prikaz timpanona na brončanom disku pronađen u Idejskoj špilji na Kreti.

  • c. 575. pr

    Skitski filozof Anaharzis svira timpanon u svojoj proslavi Eleuzinskih misterija, prema Herodotu.

  • c. 525. pr

    Timpanon se prvi put pojavljuje na grčkoj keramici.

  • c. 499. pne - c. 456. pr

    Eshil u Edonjanima govori o zvuku timpanona koji buči bikovima u obredima božice Mjeseca, Kotys.

  • c. 405. pr

    Euripid u Bacchaiu Dionysos nam govori kako su timpanon izmislili on i njegova božica Majka, Rhea.

  • c. 205. pr

    Timpanon usvajaju Rimljani zajedno s kultom Magna Matera.


Reims

Reims ( / r iː m z / REEMZ , SAD također / r æ̃ s /, [3] Francuski: [ʁɛ̃s] (slušaj) također se piše Rheims na engleskom nizozemskom: Riemen) je najnaseljeniji grad u departmanu Marne, u francuskoj regiji Grand Est. Njegovo je stanovništvo 2013. godine u samom gradu imalo 182 592 stanovnika (komuna) i 317.611 u gradskom području (aire urbaine) što Reims čini najnaseljenijom pod-prefekturom u Francuskoj. Grad se nalazi 129 km (80 mi) istočno-sjeveroistočno od Pariza. Njegova primarna rijeka, Vesle, pritoka je Aisne.

Osnovali Gali, Reims je postao veliki grad u doba Rimskog Carstva. [4] Reims je kasnije odigrao istaknutu ceremonijalnu ulogu u francuskoj monarhijskoj povijesti kao tradicionalno mjesto krunidbe francuskih kraljeva. Kraljevsko pomazanje obavljeno je u katedrali u Reimsu, u kojoj se nalazila Sveta ampula krizme koju je navodno donio bijeli golub na krštenju franačkog kralja Clovisa I. 496. Zbog toga se Reims na francuskom često naziva la cité des sacres ("Krunidbeni grad").

Pridruživši se nacionalnoj mreži "Gradovi i zemlje umjetnosti i povijesti" od 1987. godine, Reims je prepoznat po raznolikosti svoje baštine, u rasponu od romanike do Art-déca, te po važnosti svojih mjesta koja je UNESCO priznao kao svjetsku baštinu. Od 1991. godine amblematične građevine Reimsa (katedrala Notre-Dame, palača Tau, bivša opatija Saint-Remi) uvrštene su na popis svjetske baštine. Godine 2015. brdo Saint-Nicaise, koje je dio nekretnina navedenih pod Coteaux maisons et caves de Champagne, identificirano je kao predstavnik agroindustrijskog sustava povezanog s teritorijalnom, gospodarskom i društvenom organizacijom Champagne.


Tekstualni način

Ova web stranica koristi kolačiće.

Koristimo strogo potrebne kolačiće za analizu. Kolačići za analizu koriste se samo uz vaš pristanak i isključivo u statističke svrhe. Pojedinosti o pojedinačnim kolačićima mogu se pronaći pod “Postavke kolačića”. Dodatne informacije možete pronaći i u našoj izjavi o zaštiti podataka.

Postavke kolačića Prihvatite sve kolačiće

Habsburška dinastija: Ovdje možete pročitati životopise u loncima, pregledati portrete iz sedam stoljeća i zaroniti u povijesni kontekst prošlih epoha.

Odaberite razdoblje u povijesti Habsburga, od početaka habsburške vladavine u srednjem vijeku do sloma Monarhije tijekom Prvog svjetskog rata.

Karta prikazuje teritorijalni razvoj Habsburške Monarhije koja se razvila u prostrano, zemljopisno rascjepkano carstvo.

Monarhijska vladavina ozakonjena je podrijetlom. Klasičan oblik predstavljanja ovih odnosa je genealoška tablica ili obiteljsko stablo.


Sadržaj

Ministrica u Bernu nalazi se na južnoj strani poluotoka Aare. Katedrala je orijentirana istočno i zapadno poput ostatka starog grada Berna. Na sjeveru, Münstergasse prolazi uz bočnu stranu zgrade. Zapadno pročelje Münstera dominira Münsterplatzom. Na južnoj strani katedrale nalazi se Münsterplattform.

To je trobrodna bazilika bez transepta. Cijela je katedrala duga 84,2 metra (276 stopa) i široka 33,68 metara (110,5 stopa). Središnji brod dugačak je 39,37 m (129,2 ft), širok 11,10 m (36,4 ft), a visok 20,70 m (67,9 ft). Dva bočna broda vrlo su sličnih dimenzija, sjeverni brod dugačak je 52,50 m (172,2 ft), dok je južni malo duži na 52,72 m (173,0 ft). Oboje su široki 6,45 m (21,2 ft) i visoki 10,40 m (34,1 ft). Oltarska kuća i zbor zajedno su dugački 25,20 m (82,7 ft), široki 10,92 m (35,8 ft) i visoki 19,40 m (63,6 ft). Katedrala ima jedan toranj na zapadu, visok 100,60 m (330,1 ft). Ispod tornja nalazi se dvorana tornja 10,15 m (33,3 ft) duga i 10,46 m (34,3 ft) široka. [2]

U zgradi se nalazi ukupno deset uvala. Središnji brod ima pet ovih uvala. Svaki od bočnih brodova ima dvije uvale, s bočnim kapelicama izgrađenim uz vanjske zidove. Posljednji zaljev nalazi se unutar zbora. [2]

Zidove središnje lađe podupire četrnaest letećih kontrafori. Svaka potpornja započinje ukrašenim stupom koji se uzdiže iznad krova bočnih brodova i bočnih kapela. Oslonci se podižu pod kutom od 43 ° 30 ’. Donja strana kontrafora ukrašena je izrezima u obliku jajeta, s vesica piscis i šarenim uzorcima. [3]

Većina zgrada izgrađena je od lokalnog pješčenjaka. Svodovi su građeni od opeke. U 18. stoljeću na stupove je dodana vapnenačka obloga. Većina pješčenjaka dolazi iz kamenoloma u Ostermundingenu. Dodatni materijal došao je iz tri druga kamenoloma, svaki različite boje i kvalitete. Različite vrste kamena korištene su manje -više nasumično u cijeloj zgradi. Osnove stupova, kapiteli, prozori i skulpture izrađeni su od najkvalitetnijeg plavog pješčenjaka iz kamenoloma Gurten, južno od Berna. Tijekom projekata obnove u 19. i 20. stoljeću korišteno je nekoliko drugih vrsta pješčenjaka. [4]

Zapadno pročelje i toranj Edit

Tri zapadna ulaza u katedralu nalaze se na stražnjoj strani tri velika portala. Svaki od portala različite je visine i različito je oblikovan i uređen. [5] Središnji portal ukrašen je nizom kipova koji predstavljaju Posljednji sud u kršćanskoj teologiji.

Zvonik je rastao u nekoliko faza. Donja, pravokutna kula bila je izvorna kula. Osmerokutni gornji toranj dograđen je u 19. stoljeću. Donju kulu okružuju dvije okrugle kule i osam stupova. Na sjeveru i jugu podupiru ga kontrafori koji se uzdižu iznad sjevernih i južnih glavnih portala. Zapadna strana tornja uzdiže se iznad galerije iznad središnjeg, zapadnog portala. Istočna strana oslonjena je na središnji brod. [6] Dekoracija na zapadnoj strani tornja mijenjala se nekoliko puta kroz stoljeća. [7] Donji, zapadni prozor prilično je kratak, ali širok.

Gornji dio pravokutnog tornja uzdiže se iznad druge galerije. Ima 12 m (39 ft) visok, ali uski prozor neposredno iznad galerije. Dekoracije ovog odjeljka djelo su dva majstora klesara, Erharta Künga [de] i Burkharta Engelberga [de] Ovaj odjeljak pokazuje mnogo manje varijacija u dizajnu jer je izgrađen u potpunosti pod vodstvom ova dva čovjeka. [7] Izvorni toranj bio je pokriven piramidalnim krovom, čiji elementi još postoje.

Dvije male stubišne kule izgrađene su u sklopu tornja, ali su potpuno obnovljene u 17. i 18. stoljeću. [8]

Donja osmerokutna kula izgrađena je u 16. stoljeću. Ima osam okruglih lučnih prozora. Dvije šesterokutne stubišne stube izgrađene su izvan tornja blizu sjeveroistočnih i jugoistočnih prozora. Mali tornjevi potpuno su samonosivi. [8]

Gornji osmerokutni toranj izgrađen je u 19. stoljeću u gotičkom stilu. Međutim, neki ukrasi temelje se na nacrtima ranog 15. stoljeća i ističu se u odnosu na donji osmerokutni toranj iz 16. stoljeća. [8]

Prva crkva na ovom mjestu vjerojatno je bila mala kapela (Leutkirche) sagrađena tijekom osnivanja Berna (1191.). Prva crkva u Bernu bila je romanička građevina koja je vjerojatno sagrađena između 1155. -1160., Ali se prvi put spominje 1224. Ova je crkva bila izvan gradskih zidina, u blizini današnjeg Kreuzgassea. Lađa prve crkve bila je dugačka oko 16,5 m (54 stope) i široka 6 m (20 stopa). [9]

Godine 1276. Bern se otcijepio od župe Köniz i postao neovisna župa. Za ovu novu ulogu bila bi potrebna veća crkva. Čini se da je izgradnja druge crkve započela odmah. Međutim, spominje se tek 1289. u spisima biskupa Benvenuta von Eugubija. Ova nova crkva bila je trobrodna građevina, duljine 29,5 m (97 stopa), širine 24,5 m (80 stopa), od čega je srednja lađa bila široka 11,1 m (36 stopa). Zvonik se nalazio na sredini sjeverne bočne lađe, a ispunjavao je dio središnje lađe.

Potres u Baselu 1356. nanio je velika oštećenja zidovima crkve, lukovima i tornju. Popravci su se sporo odvijali. Zbor je obnovljen 1359., a krov 1378–80. U prvim fazama izgradnje Ministra ova se crkva još uvijek koristila. Naos je konačno srušen između 1449. i 51. godine, a toranj je ostao do 1493. [9]

Do 15. stoljeća Bern se proširio i postao glavni grad-država sjeverno od Alpa. Kako bi se proslavila njihova rastuća moć i bogatstvo, napravljeni su planovi za izgradnju nove i veće crkve. Dana 11. ožujka 1421. započela je izgradnja katedrale pod vodstvom strazburškog majstora graditelja Matthäusa Ensingera [de], koji je već sagradio tri druge katedrale. Tijekom izgradnje službe su se služile u staroj kapeli, dok je nova katedrala izgrađena oko nje. [10] Tijekom 1440 -ih neizgrađeni je zbor korišten za usluge nakon što je izgrađen jednostavan krov i postavljeni vitraji. Nakon rata u Starom Zürichu 1440–1446. Brod stare kapele uklonjen je i započeli su radovi na brodu i zapadnom kraju, pod vodstvom masona Stefana Hurdera, a zatim Niklausa Birenvogta.

1483. Erhart Küng [de] (koji je klesao kipove Posljednjeg suda) postao je mason. Pod njegovim vodstvom podignuti su zidovi lađe, a kula je izgrađena do donjeg osmerokuta. Gradnja donjeg pravokutnog tornja započela je 1481. ili 1483. i nastavila se do 1489. Gornji pravokutni dio izgrađen je između 1489. i 1518. Nakon Küngove smrti 1506., Peter Pfister [de] je vodio gradnju i završio svod u zboru. Donji osmerokutni toranj i krov završeni su između 1518. i 1521. godine. [9] Godine 1571. Daniel Heintz [de] doveden je kao majstor zidar da završi nadsvođenje lađe i završi posao. [11] Središnji brod dovršen je do 1575. godine i u ovom je trenutku gradnja prestala gotovo tri stoljeća. Orgulje su instalirane u tri stupnja između 1727. i 1783. [9] Zvonik, s najvećim zvonom u Švicarskoj, dovršen je tek 1893. godine.

Reformacija u Bernu Edit

Godine 1515. Thomas Wyttenbach, učitelj Huldrycha Zwinglija, postao je svećenik u Ministru u Bernu. U posljednjem dijelu boravka Wyttenbacha u Bernu s njim je živio lokalni svećenik Berchtold Haller. Otprilike u vrijeme kad je Wyttenbach napustio Bern 1520. kako bi postao reformator svog rodnog mjesta Biel, Haller je izabran za kanonika katedrale. Godine 1521. sprijateljio se sa Zwinglijem u Zürichu i počeo propovijedati više protestantskih propovijedi. U veljači 1522. u Bernu su izvedene dvije predstave Fastnachta koje su napale Katoličku crkvu. Zbog rastućih reformističkih osjećaja, gradsko je vijeće u lipnju 1523. naredilo da se propovijedaju biblijske riječi. Do 20. studenoga te godine časne sestre napustile su samostan u Bernu. No 1524. svećenik Meier, koji je simpatizirao Hallera, bio je prisiljen napustiti Bern. Time je Haller ostao jedini protestant među svećenicima. Zatim je 7. travnja 1525. vijeće donijelo novu uredbu kojom se obnavlja katoličko bogoslužje, iako s nekoliko promjena.

Sljedeće godine kuga je stigla u Bern. Smrti uslijed kuge mnoge su građane preobratile u reformaciju. Godine 1527. reformirana stranka stekla je kontrolu nad velikim vijećem i naredila je da se propovijeda nova vjera. Ipak je došlo do sukoba oko mise, jer su je neke skupštine i dalje promatrale. Odlučeno je da bi se u Bernu, 6. siječnja 1528., trebao riješiti vjerski spor kako bi se riješila ta pitanja.

Vijeće je 27. siječnja 1528. naredilo da se u cijelom gradu zaustave sve mise i izbaci sve ikone. Dana 7. veljače 1528. naredio je isto za cijeli kanton. U travnju 1528. protestantska je služba prvi put proslavljena u Minsteru. [12] Današnja kongregacija čini dio reformiranih crkava kantona Bern-Jura-Solothurn.

Preko glavnog portala nalazi se jedna od najcjelovitijih zbirki kasnogotičkih skulptura u Europi. Ova zbirka predstavlja kršćansko vjerovanje u posljednji sud gdje će se zli odvojiti od pravednika. Ova skulptura prikazuje zle gole s desne strane, dok pravednici stoje odjeveni u bijelo s lijeve strane. U središtu je Pravda sa svecima i mudrim i ludim djevicama oko sebe. U središtu stoji Mihael Arkanđeo s podignutim mačem.

Skulpture posljednjeg suda bile su jedine statue u Minsteru koje su preživjele ikonoklazam protestantske reformacije. 47 velikih samostojećih kipova replike su (originali se nalaze u Bernskom povijesnom muzeju), a 170 manjih figura su svi originalni. [13] Posljednji sud djelo je jednog kipara, Erharda Künga iz Stadtlohna, Vestfalija, što zbirci daje jedinstvo dizajna. Skulptura Pravde jedina je koju je izradio drugi umjetnik. Potpisuje ga Daniel Heintz, koji je bio majstor graditelj nakon 1571. Ostali kipovi isklesani su neko vrijeme između 1460. i 1501., najvjerojatnije između 1460. i 1480. [14]

The trumeau sa svake strane i između vrata ima trinaest figura u prirodnoj veličini. Srednja figura i dvije figure sa svake strane vrata podignute su za približno polovinu svoje visine iznad ostalih figura. Slike s lijeve strane vrata predstavljaju pet glupih djevica, dok su s desne strane mudre djevice. Ispod vanjske dvije Mudre Djevice i dvije Glupe Djevice, dva lica vire iz zida sa svake strane. S mudre strane, oni predstavljaju kraljicu od Sabe i kralja Solomona. S glupe strane, oni predstavljaju Sofoniju i, možda, Izaiju. U sredini, između dvoja vrata, Pravda je okružena sa dva anđela. Ispod Pravde i anđela nalazi se svitak u spomen na polaganje kamena temeljca 1421. godine. [15]

Arhivolta sadrži tri reda figura. Unutarnja dva reda pričvršćena su na zid i leže pod kutom koji slijedi krivulju portala. Vanjski, treći red sadrži kipove koji stoje uspravno na pojedinim platformama. Unutarnji red sadrži pet anđela s instrumentima Muke. Drugi red sadrži osam starozavjetnih proroka. Vanjski red su Isus, Marija i apostoli, uključujući Ivana Krstitelja i Pavla, ali ne i Judu Iskariotskog. [15]

Timpan je širine 4,75 m (15,6 stopa) pri dnu. Sastoji se od trinaest zasebnih odjeljaka. Donji red čine tri ploče smještene oko 10 cm (3,9 in) iznad nadvratnika. Dubina je 38 cm (15 inča), a visina oko 50-60 cm (20-24 inča). Na lijevoj strani timpanona sadrži dva reda figura, a na desnoj tri. Donji likovi su gotovo potpuno trodimenzionalni, dok su gornji likovi uglavnom reljefno isklesani, a samo glava i ramena strše iz kamena. Iznad ove tri ploče preostalih deset ploča raspoređeno je u tri reda. Donji red sastoji se od četiri ploče koje se oslanjaju na 30-40 cm (12-16 inča) visoku podlogu. Ploče su visokoreljefne rezbarije, svaka duboka oko 38 cm (15 in) i visoka prosječno oko 1 m (3,3 ft). Sve su figure isklesane kamenom. U središtu timpanona je arhanđeo Mihael. On stoji na svojoj platformi koja je isturena naprijed od ostalih figura. Cijeli timpanon predstavlja raj i pakao na posljednjem sudu. [15]

Minster je izgradio grad Bern kao simbol rastuće moći ovog grada-države. [16] Unutrašnjost je stoga dizajnirana da zadivi građane, kao i strane posjetitelje. Središnja lađa izgrađena je u čipkasto -gotičkom stilu s ogromnim vitražima i brojnim oltarima u bočnim kapelicama. Gotički stil omogućio je viši središnji brod i veće prozore nego što je to bilo moguće prije, stvarajući impresivnu i (za to vrijeme) laganu i prozračnu strukturu.

Oltari Uređivanje

Mnoge su oltare financirale lokalne obitelji, stvarajući bogatstvo umjetnosti i kiparstva u katedrali. Međutim, 1528. tijekom ikonoklazma protestantske reformacije uklonjena su sva 43 bočna oltara. [17] Gotovo sve unutarnje slike i ukrasi uklonjeni su i bačeni u susjednu Münsterplattform. Prazne kapele bile su ispunjene dodatnim klupama, stvarajući tri lađe. Od tada je unutrašnjost katedrale ostala relativno prazna i škrta.

Vitraj Edit

Vitraji katedrale smatraju se najvrjednijim u Švicarskoj. [17] Neki od prozora datiraju iz 1441–1450. Desni prozori oštećeni su tijekom tuče 1520., a zamijenjeni 1868. [10] Mnogi prozori sadrže i heraldičke simbole i vjerske slike postavljene jedan pored drugog. Prozori su široki 2,92 m (9 ft 7 inča) u sredini i 13,15 m (43 ft 2 in) visoki. Većina prozora ima dvadeset donjih panela, svaki veličine 61 cm (24 inča) po 92 cm (36 inča), i dvadeset gornjih ploča, svaki 61 cm (24 inča) po 105 cm (41 inča). [18]

U zboru Minstera ima sedam prozora. Neki su paneli premješteni ili zamijenjeni otkako su prvobitno izgrađeni prozori. Okrenuti prema zboru, slijeva nadesno, trenutni prozori su: Hostienmühle, Tri kralja, biblijske scene, Stradanje/Deset tisuća mučenika, Krist, Stephanus i grbovni prozori. Ostali su samo dijelovi prozora Muke i deset tisuća mučenika, pa su spojeni u jedan prozor. Kristov prozor dodan je kako bi zamijenio oštećeni prozor od deset tisuća mučenika. Stephanus i Grb prozori zamijenili su ranije, nepoznate prozore. [19]

The Hostienmühle prozor je izgrađen između 1448. -1453., a financirao ga je grad Bern. Prozor Tri kralja izgrađen je između 1447. i 1455. godine za Rudolfa von Ringoltingena, vjerojatno u Constanceu ili regiji Oberrhein. Prozor biblijskih scena prvotno je trebao biti samo mladi Krist, ali je promijenjen nakon 1447. Izgrađen je između 1448. i 1451., a financirala su ga tri člana Gesellschaft zum Mittellöwen. Passion prozor izgrađen je između 1438. i 1441. Od izvornog prozora preostala je samo 21 ploča. [18] Sagradio ga je Hans Acker u Ulmu za grad kroz Schultheiß. Prozor od deset tisuća mučenika prvotno je trebao biti Isusova uskrsnuća, ali to se promijenilo nakon 1447. Izgrađen je između 1447. i 1449. godine i financiran je donacijama građana Berna. Izgradili su ga majstor slikar Bernhart i staklar Niklaus Magerfritz u Bernu. Prozor od deset tisuća mučenika 1868. zamijenio je Kristov prozor. The Stephanus prozor je zamijenio raniji prozor 1868. Tema izvornog prozora nije poznata, ali izgrađen je 1449. - 1451. za Kaspara von Scharnachtala, vjerojatno od strane Niklausa Magerfritza u Bernu. Prozor Grb izgrađen je 1820–30 da zamijeni raniji, nepoznati prozor. [19]

Jedan vrlo zanimljiv prozor je prozor "Ples smrti" koji se nalazi u blizini zbora na južnoj bočnoj lađi. Prve predstave Dance of Death nastale su tijekom Crne smrti u 14. stoljeću, a ostale su popularne tijekom 14. i 15. stoljeća. Do 1425. godine figure iz predstava pojavile su se na groblju crkve Svetih nevinih u Parizu. [20] Slike na prozoru u Münsteru izradio je Niklaus Manuel između 1516. i 1519. [21] Vitraj u katedrali izvrstan je primjer ove teme. Na prozoru je prikazana smrt u obliku kostura koji polaže pravo na ljude sa svih stanica u životu. Ples smrti poslužio je podsjetiti gledatelja da će se smrt dogoditi svima bez obzira na položaj ili bogatstvo.

Zborovi štandovi Edit

Zbor, na istočnoj strani katedrale između lađe i svetišta, smjestio je prve renesansne zborske štandove u Švicarskoj. [16] Postoji 21 mjesto na Evangelisten strani i 27 na Epistel strana. Štandovi su bogato izrezbareni i životinjama i slikama svakodnevnog života.

Godine 1517. gradsko je vijeće angažiralo Bernharda Burenfinda iz Solothurna za izgradnju štandova. Počeo je birati i rezati hrastovo drvo za štandove. Međutim, iz nepoznatog razloga nije dovršio posao i od njega se nije tražilo da dovrši druge projekte u Bernu. Bern je 26. rujna 1522. pokušao unajmiti majstora stolara iz Schaffhausena za 30 funti. Iste godine, Niklaus Manuel i još trojica poslani su u Ženevu da pregledaju tamošnje zborske štandove. Dana 5. prosinca 1522., Jacob Ruess i Heini Seewagen iz Schaffhausena angažirani su da dovrše radove na štandovima. Plaćeni su mnogo više od 30 funti koje je Bern želio platiti. Plaćeno im je 300 funti 1522., slijedilo ih je 150 sljedeće godine, 300 1524. Završili su posao 1525. Prvotni štandovi popravljeni su i obnovljeni 1863–64, a rezbarije su popravljene 1897. [22]

Uređivanje organa

Prve orgulje u katedrali izgrađene su gotovo 200 godina nakon završetka izgradnje. Prve velike orgulje izgrađene su 1726–30. Gradsko vijeće izglasalo je izgradnju orgulja 5. lipnja 1726. Angažirali su Gottlieba Leuwa iz Bremgartena u rujnu 1726. Do siječnja 1730. njegov je posao bio gotovo završen i grad je počeo tražiti orguljaša. Dok su glavne orgulje bile gotove 1730., ukrašavanje i završni radovi nastavili su se do 1736. Ove prve orgulje imale su 38 orgulja, s grudima i leđima, kao i odjek s pedalama. [23]

Vijeće je 1746. odlučilo da se orgulje moraju obnoviti. Dana 16. rujna 1748. postigli su dogovor s Victorom Ferdinardom Bossartom da to učine. 1. lipnja 1752. potpisali su ugovor s Johannom Augustom Nahlom za vanjsko uređenje novih orgulja. Obnovljene orgulje imale su 43 orguljske stanice, a izgrađene su u kasnobaroknom stilu. Obnovljena je 1827. [23]

Kad su Beat Rudolf von Sinner 1845–48 iznad zapadnog ulaza izgradili novi balkon i ekran za orgulje, orgulje su u potpunosti obnovljene i bile su poznate kao druge orgulje. Graditelj orgulja Friedrich Haas iz Winterthura povećao je broj zaustavljanja na 55. Broj konzola promijenjen je u tri. [23]

Treće orgulje sagradio je 1903./04. Godine Friedrich Groll iz Luzerna. Dok je vanjski dio ostao gotovo netaknut, unutrašnjost je obnovljena. Orgulje su dodane pneumatske cijevi, klizne škrinje i mehaničko djelovanje. Međutim, zvuk koji su proizvele ove nove orgulje bio je neugodan. Unutrašnjost orgulja potpuno je obnovljena 1930. [23]

Orgulje iz 1930. sadašnje su u katedrali. Obnovljena je 1998–1999. [16] Orgulje se trenutno koriste za niz koncerata tijekom cijele godine.

Toranj je otvoren za javnost, uz malu naknadu. Donja platforma za gledanje zahtijeva uspon za 254 stepenice i pruža pogled na Bern i možda čak do Alpa. Gornji toranj također je dostupan penjanjem dodatnih 90 stepenica s donje platforme. [24]

Najveće zvono u tornju je zvono od 10,5 tona koje je izliveno 1611. [25] To je najveće zvono u Švicarskoj. Zvona u tornju zvone svakodnevno u podne i u 18 sati. Moguće je stajati u blizini zvona kad zvone, ali potrebno je pokriti uši kako bi se spriječilo oštećenje sluha.

Ministarska terasa (na njemačkom: Münsterplattform) izgrađena je tijekom 1334. i sredinom 15. stoljeća kao veliko crkveno dvorište. Tijekom protestantske reformacije slike i kipovi oltara katedrale bačeni su u crkveno dvorište. Neki od umjetničkih djela pronađeni su u arheološkim iskopinama provedenim na terasi. [26] Tijekom 20. stoljeća terasa je iz groblja promijenjena u otvoreni trg. Zasađena su stabla lipe i kestena te su položeni putevi koji pružaju ugodan park u starom gradu. Terasa se uzdiže nad Mat dio starog grada i Aare.


Timpani - Povijest

Prve timpane u južnu i zapadnu Europu donijeli su u 13. stoljeću križari i Saraceni, odakle su se brzo proširili na sjever. Ovi instrumenti (poznati na arapskom jeziku kao naqqâra) bili su parovi kotlića promjera 20-22 cm. Ovi mali bubnjevi (draped kettledrums) ostali su u upotrebi do 16. stoljeća. Bili su pričvršćeni za pojas igrača i pretučeni parovima. Drapped kettledrums svirali su se prvenstveno u vojnim kontekstima, na primjer trijumfalnim marševima i povorkama. Kasnije su se našli u ansamblima i pojavljivali na dvorskim svečanostima i plesovima.

Sredinom 15. stoljeća drugi val kotlića proširio se Europom s istoka kontinenta. Ti su instrumenti bili veći timpani.

1457. godine legacija koju je poslao ugarski kralj Ladislav krenula je na dvor Karla VII u Francusku. Njihovi su konji nosili velike kotliće. Instrumenti ove veličine nikada prije nisu bili viđeni u Europi. Ovi glasni i snažni bubnjevi svirali su u kraljevskim bendovima na Bliskom istoku od 12. stoljeća, a u Europi su ubrzo zajedno s trubama postali suštinski instrument konjice i simbol dvorskog života i viteštva.

Tijekom 15. stoljeća u kotliću su napravljena brojna tehnička poboljšanja, uključujući promjenu u načinu na koji su velumi napeti, stara metoda učvršćivanja ili zakivanja postupno je zamijenjena kožom prekrivenom obručem. Početkom 16. stoljeća kotlovine u zemljama njemačkog govornog područja počele su biti opremljene vijcima za zatezanje veluma, koji je bio rastegnut preko obruča.

Izraz timpani i francuska riječ timbales izvedeni su iz grčke riječi timpanon (Latinski: timpanon) koji se odnosio na bubanj s kožom.

Snaga timpana i truba

Konjica aristokracije koristila je kotliće i trube kao signalne instrumente, dok su kmetovi i pješaci bili opremljeni bočnim bubnjevima i peticama. Ketgledrumi i trube stoga su se mnogo više cijenili kao oruđa kraljevske obitelji i plemstva nego oni "običnog puka". Iako je izum baruta značio da su kotlići (i trube) izgubili svoju ulogu signalizatora u borbi, ipak su ostali simboli jahanja i nastavili su biti predmet daljnjeg razvoja kao umjetnički instrumenti. Pojavio se oblik dvorske umjetnosti koji je doveo do sviranja tehnika iznimne virtuoznosti.

U skladu s ovom slikom, kotlovine su počele simbolizirati moć monarha i prinčeva. Godine 1542., na primjer, Henry VIII je naredio kupnju bečkih kotlića za svoj dvor, koji su se trebali igrati na konju. Kettlerummers i trubači osnovali su svoje cehove koji su uživali kraljevske privilegije. Godine 1528. car Karlo V. dodijelio je Društvu dvorskih i poljskih trubača, koje se spojilo s Dvorskim i poljskim ketledžerima, status carskog ceha. Lutkači, koji su osim sviranja glazbe bili dužni obavljati i druge poslove za princa i bili su izravno pod njegovom nadležnošću, bili su ljubomorni čuvari tajni svojih tehnika sviranja i improvizacije, tzv. Schlagmanieren, pojedinosti o kojima su prosljeđivali samo svojim nasljednicima unutar ceha. Na taj je način Ceh ketlelmera i trubača, koji se s vremena na vrijeme našao pred konkurencijom Ceha čekača, uspio zadržati određeni monopol.

Kettlesrummers su po rangu bili jednaki časnicima i bili su odjeveni na isti način kao i vitezovi. Dugo godina davanje gradu prava da zadrži gradske trubače i kotlače smatralo se privilegijom.

Tijekom 16. stoljeća kotlići se nisu svirali samo na svečanostima, već su se počeli koristiti u crkvenoj glazbi u društvu orgulja i zborova, posebno za cvatnju trupa i kotlića kao svečano veličanje u misama. Osim toga, kotlovine i trube sve su se češće pojavljivali kao partneri u baletnoj i scenskoj glazbi (intermedije ili intermedije), u kojima su simbolizirali ratno raspoloženje i aristokratsku moć u skladu sa svojim karakterom. Ansambli koji se sastoje od kotlića i truba ostali su samo u razdoblju baroka. Tek kasnije, kada je moć cehova polako jenjavala, kotlovina je prihvaćena kao punopravni član orkestra.

U svojoj operi Thérèse iz 1675. Jean Baptiste Lully postao je prvi skladatelj koji je kotlovinu koristio kao orkestralni instrument u modernom smislu.

Cehovi su se raspali između 1810. i 1831. Do tog trenutka bio je običaj svirati mnoge dodatne note (ukrase) koje zapravo nisu bile u partituri. Ovi ukrasi bili su dio Schlagmanieren. Tek u 19. stoljeću skladatelji su počeli stjecati potpunu kontrolu nad timpanama i počeli su se više zanimati za tehnike sviranja instrumenta.

Vijci, strojevi i pedale

Najranija metoda promjene ugađanja kotlića bila je podupiranje, ali u 16. stoljeću uvedeni su zatezni vijci. Baršun je bio ispružen preko željeznog obruča s očima, a ljuska je također bila opremljena očima. Odgovarajuće ušice obruča i školjke pričvršćene su zajedno s desetak željeznih vijaka koji su promijenili napetost kože, a time i visinu nagiba. Ovaj mehanizam ugađanja ostao je raširen u 19. stoljeću. Problem s ovom metodom bio je dvostruk: s jedne strane bilo je teško ravnomjerno postaviti napetost na sve dijelove veluma, što je vitalno za proizvodnju čistog tona. S druge strane, trebalo je dosta vremena za ponovno namještanje ručno podešenih kotlića. Prednost ručno podešenog kotlića bila je njegova lakoća koja je olakšala transport.

Oko 1812. dvorski timpanist iz Münchena Gerhard Kramer dizajnirao je mehanizam koji je pričvrstio sve vijke na glavni vijak tako da se napetost kože može promijeniti pomoću jedne ručke ili pedale. Stigao je strojni bubanj koji je omogućio brzo ugađanje. Također su razvijeni rotacijski podešeni strojni timpani koji su prenamjenjeni okretanjem zdjele. Nedostatak ove metode bio je u tome što je mjesto na velumu koje se mora udariti da bi se postigao najbolji zvuk (mjesto udaranja) promijenilo svoj položaj.

The bubanj za pedale izumio je 1870 -ih godina C. Pittrich u Dresdenu, a sada je standardni orkestralni kotlić. Pokretanjem pedale energija se prenosi uz vučne rude koje iz unutrašnjosti ili izvana prolaze kroz ljusku do obruča preko kojeg se rasteže vellum i mijenja njegovu napetost. Mjerač za ugađanje daje grubu indikaciju kompasa, a ručka se koristi za fino podešavanje. Od početka 19. stoljeća skladatelji su sve češće zahtijevali brzo podešavanje tijekom sviranja. Taj je zahtjev rezultat kromatizacije, koja je započela na prijelazu u 19. stoljeće, i koju su novi bubnjevi s pedalama mogli s lakoćom zadovoljiti.

A peaceable role as an orchestral instrument

The kettledrum established itself in the orchestra during the 17th century (representational music, church music, opera). As a result its mechanical development was dictated increasingly by the need for rapid and accurate retuning.

In the Baroque era and Classical period it was usual to use hard mallets, sticks with covered heads being used only for tremolo playing. In the works of Purcell, Bach, Handel and their contemporaries the two kettledrums retained the tuning given at the beginning for the duration of the entire work. In the 18th century the bowls had a diameter of between 41 and 62 cm for the smaller drum and 43 and 65 cm for the larger. The difference in size between the pair was relatively small, a ratio of about 4:3, which remains unchanged today.

Beethoven (1770–1827) was the first composer to expand the role of the timpani in the orchestra, which he did in two ways: on the one hand he used tuning intervals other than the fourths or fifths (tonic and dominant) which had hitherto been usual examples of this are the minor sixth A–F in his 7th symphony and the octave Fs in his 8th and 9th symphonies. On the other hand he entrusted the timpani with rhythmic and thematic tasks (in his violin concerto and his 5th piano concerto). Like his “classical” colleagues, Beethoven scored the timpani parts with great precision and unobtrusiveness. Kettledrum rolls are used mainly in the build-up to a climax, solo passages are rare and produce remarkable effects.

The brilliant orchestrator Hector Berlioz (1803–1869) not only revolutionized the art of instrumentation he was also a pioneer of new roles for percussion instruments. He was the first composer to include instructions in the score about the type of mallet to be used. This gave him great influence over the overall sound, because there is an enormous difference between striking the drum with a stick the head of which is covered by sponge, felt or leather or with one that is made of wood. This precise style of notation was adopted by later composers. In his requiem Grande Messe des Morts, which requires an orchestra of enormous size, Berlioz scored no less than sixteen timpani for ten players (six of whom played a pair, while the other four played one each) in his Symphonie Fantastique four timpanists are required.

In the course of the 19th century the earlier tasks of the timpani (emphasizing the rhythm, marking the tonic and dominant) changed and it was given new ones in addition.

In the early 20th century Béla Bartók (1881–1945) was one of those primarily responsible for extending the role of percussion instruments in the symphony orchestra and in chamber music. In particular he increased the timpani’s range of playing techniques, requiring them to perform bass lines at a fast tempo (Concerto for Orchestra, 1944) and pedal glissandos (Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, 1937).


The ManufacturingProcess

Master jig assembly

  • 1 After the design is selected and the pattern is made, dies must be constructed to form the sides of the dulcimer. Only two shapes are involved—the curves of the upper and lower sections of the instrument called bouts and the center violin-like cutout called a waist, which may be any simple curve including a circle. Heavy blocks of wood are used to make the dies. The curves are cut with a band saw and sanded to match exactly.
  • 2 A master jig assembly is also an important preliminary. The jig is a piece of plywood that is used to mount and form the dulcimer. Typically, a piece of 0.75 in (1.9 cm) thick plywood that is about 10 in (25.4 cm) longer than the dulcimer and 4 or 5 in (10.2-13 cm) wider is selected. The pattern is mounted on the center of the board, and fourpenny finishing nails are driven into the board at 2 in (5.1 cm) spacings around the pattern's edge with extra room at the ends. The nails support the inside of the sides of the instrument while it is being shaped.

Sides and internal bracing

  • 3 To shape the sides, 0.125 in (0.32 cm) thick wood is cut in pieces that are as deep as the dulcimer and longer than the curves forming the soundbox. One piece of finish wood backed by a piece of oak is placed in a steam cooker for about 20 minutes to soften the wood. The wood is carefully removed, placed in between the halves of the die, and clamped together. The form with the wood pieces enclosed is then dried in an oven. All the sections are formed this way. Then the outer finish wood piece is glued to the oak backing with polyester or epoxy resin glue. The glued sections are returned to the forming dies and clamped until the glue hardens.
  • 4 When all the curved side sections are formed, the center curves are placed in the master jig assembly. They must be adjusted by eye to be symmetrical. Then, finish nails are driven along the outsides of the sections to hold them in place. The end sections should be fitted to the centerpieces, however all sections were cut long. After the ends are properly fitted, the center sections are removed, cut to their proper lengths, and rasped or sanded for smoothness. The end sections are then refitted. They will overlap the center sections and must be trimmed to mate with the ends of the center sections. Also, the inner oak pieces are trimmed back so they are not exposed on the finished surface. Visual symmetry and tightly fitting joints will produce the most beautiful instrument in sound and appearance.
  • 5 Internal braces are required to make the instrument structurally strong but also to provide the best resonance. Braces are fit to the junctions of the curved sections and also across the centers of the upper and lower curved sections. The braces fit against the back of the dulcimer and the front (sound-board), but they do not extend to the full depth of the instrument. The braces are seated on notches in the side sections. The back braces are glued and clamped into place first. Placement of the front braces offers the final chance to adjust the shape of the instrument.

Tuning head and pegs

  • 6 Dulcimers often have elaborately scrolled tuning heads at the tops of the instruments. The tuning head has to be large enough to allow 1 in (2.54 cm) spacings between the pegs. Care is also taken to arrange the pegs so the string from one does not ride on the peg for another. Corresponding peg holes on the head are cut and tapered to match.
  • 7 The head consists of three pieces of finish wood that will be sandwiched together. The overall dimension is about 7 in (18 cm) in length and 4 in (10.2 cm) in width. The pieces are clamped or lightly glued together and cut with a band saw to shape the scroll. The pieces are taken apart, a string slot is cut in the bottom of the center section, and the pieces are then permanently glued together. After the glue has hardened, the peg holes are drilled. The instrumentend of the tuning head must then be mortised to fit the instrument and the taper of the tuning head is shaped by careful wood-working and smooth sanding.
  • 8 Four tuning pegs are required. Pieces of 1 in (2.54 cm) square rosewood are cut to 4 in (10.2 cm) lengths. Two inches of the total length are turned to form a tapered peg, and the heads are flattened and shaped so they are easy to grip. The pegs must be individually fitted to the tuning head because the tapers will vary. A tapered reamer is used to ream the holes that were previously drilled through the tuning head. The tuning head can be fitted to the sides of the sound box by carefully matching and fitting the mortises. A fitted block is made to match the base of the tuning head and reinforce the upper end of the sound box. The joints are then glued and clamped securely. For the lower end of the sound box, a tail section is made with mortises to fit the sides of the soundbox. A similar reinforcing block is made for the tail section.

Soundboard and soundbar

  • 9 The soundboard works as a diaphragm that allows air (and sound) to resonate in the instrument. Grains in the wood should extend the full length of the soundbox. The soundboard is made in two sections with a gap of about 1 in (2.54 cm) between the two halves to allow for the hollow portion of the soundbar. The soundboard is also cut to extend about 0.125 in (0.32 cm) beyond the sides of the dulcimer. The two halves are fitted to the sides with the overhanging lip and glued and clamped in place.
  • 10 The soundbar is the length of the soundbox plus 0.5 in (1.3 cm), extending up into the tuning head. It is constructed of three pieces of wood to be semihollow. That is, two pieces of finish wood form the sides and the top piece forms the finger-board, leaving a three-sided center tunnel or tube down the middle of the soundboard. Finish pieces are cut to close the top and bottom ends of the soundbar, and the whole assembly is fitted and glued into place. Edges and ends are checked for squareness and are smoothed. The hole for the nut used to fix the soundbar to the soundbox is drilled several inches below the junction of the soundbar with the tuning head so the two are not acoustically connected. The nut is the only connection attaching the soundbar to the soundbox, again allowing for vibration and resonance.
  • 11 Frets are positioned on the fingerboard of the soundbar based on calculations related to the string length of the instrument. The fret positions are usually tempered by comparing tones with a tuned piano and repositioning the frets before they are permanently placed. Prefabricated metal fret material is hammered into saw cuts at the locations of the frets. The saw cuts are extremely thin and about 0.0625 in 0.16 cm) deep. Overcutting causes the frets to rattle. The edges of the finished frets are filed for smoothness and level. A bridge is also cut from hard maple. It is placed at the tail end of the dulcimer to support the strings and is allowed to float in place, rather than being glued, to permit fine adjustment of the strings and optimal sound.

Soundbox and strings

  • 12 Finally, the back of the soundbox is cut from the finish wood in a single piece and with a 0.125 in (0.32 cm) overlap around the edge. The back is glued to all the edges and braces on the backside of the instrument.
  • 13 The strings are fitted to the instrument before the wood is finished. Holes are drilled in the tailpiece and the tuning pegs. Fine, equally spaced notches are cut in the bridge and the nut to support the strings when they are tightened. Three steel strings that are each 0.012 in (0.03 cm) in diameter and one 0.022 in (0.56 cm) wound steel string are typically used on a four-string dulcimer. The strings are threaded individually through the tailpiece, over the bridge and nut, and through the holes in the tuning pegs. Each peg is turned until the string is tight. The clearance of the string at each position is checked and the strings are lowered at the nut by cutting deeper notches. The bridge is also adjusted to correct the string length.

Završavanje

  • 14 The strings, bridge, and tuning pegs are removed before the instrument is finished. The finish that is selected is essentially a part of the design of the instrument because the type of wood, its grain, the desired sound effects, and the final appearance are all considerations. Some dulcimers are left completely unfinished. Rubbing fine wood with linseed oil or applying superb varnish finishes are options. Hand-rubbing and oiling or waxing can take hundreds of hours to fill the wood pores. Application of a sealer followed by wax will produce a similar appearance with less labor.

7. Catapults

An ancient Greek-style catapult

As much as the ancient Greeks loved sitting around for a drink and a discussion at symposia , they also loved to fight. From Marathon to Thermopylae, their battles are the stuff of legend, and it is no wonder that they developed a number of catastrophic weapons. Alongside its spears, swords, and shields, the ancient Greek armory also contained another weapon with huge destructive potential.

Around 400 BC, a Syracusan named Dionysius the Elder used the principles of tension, torsion, and leverage behind the crossbow to construct an immense stone-thrower, now recognized as the first example of a catapult. The Greeks soon took up the new technology, using it to great effect in their military conflicts: some catapults could throw incredibly heavy stones over a distance of 100m or more! This brought a lot of sieges to a swift end. They later developed the technology further, using it to create the ballista, which shot huge arrows across even greater distances. Dionysius’ invention revolutionized warfare, and the general principles behind his catapult remained in use for many centuries .


Cochlear Sac

  • generates coiled cochlear duct (humans 2 1/2 turns)
  • remainder forms saccule
  • epithelia lining generates
  • hair cells
  • structures of organ of corti
  • saccular macula

Scala Media

(Latin, medius = middle) spiral of middle cochlear duct lying between scala vestibuli and scala tympani, containing endolymph.

Scala Tympani

(Latin, tympanon = drum) the spiralling cochlear duct below spiral lamina, containing perilymph and ending at round window near tympanic membrane.

Scala Vestibuli

(Latin, vestibulum = cavity at beginning of canal) the spiralling cochlear duct above spiral lamina, containing perilymph, beginning near the vestbule and ending where it communicates with the scala tympani at the helicotrema.

Endolymph

  • extracellular fluid secreted by the stria vascularis.
  • potassium is the main cation required for depolarizing electrical current in the hair cells.

Perilymph

  • extracellular fluid similar in composition to either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid.
  • sodium is the main cation.

Stria Vascularis

Mouse SEM

The gallery below shows scanning electron micrographs of the developing mouse (E18.5) cochlea. ⎟]


Event #5381: Phrygians appear in historical record migrate from southern Balkans to Anatolia upon collapse of Hittite empire

The Phrygians were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.

From tribal and village beginnings, the state of Phrygia arose in the eighth century BC with its capital at Gordium. During this period, the Phrygians extended eastward and encroached upon the kingdom of Urartu, the descendants of the Hurrians, a former rival of the Hittites.

Meanwhile, the Phrygian Kingdom was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders around 690 BC, then briefly conquered by its neighbour Lydia, before it passed successively into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great and the empire of Alexander and his successors, was taken by the Attalids of Pergamon, and eventually became part of the Roman Empire. The last mention of the language in literature dates to the fifth century CE and it was likely extinct by the seventh century.

The Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language. Some contemporary historians, among which Strabo is the most known, consider the Phrygians a Thracian tribe, part of a wider “Thraco-Phrygian” group. Other linguists dismiss this hypothesis since Thracian (and hence Daco-Thracian) seem to belong to the Satem group of Indo-European languages, while Phrygian shared several similarities with other Indo-European languages of the Centum group (like Latin, Greek or the Anatolian languages). According to the latter group, of all the Indo-European languages, Phrygian seems to have been most closely linked to Greek, suggesting that the two languages belonged to the same dialectal subgroup of early Indo-European. Although the Phrygians adopted the alphabet originated by the Phoenicians, only a few dozen inscriptions in the Phrygian language have been found, primarily funereal, and so much of what is thought to be known of Phrygia is second-hand information from Greek sources.

After the collapse of the Hittite Empire at the beginning of the twelfth century BC, the political vacuum in central-western Anatolia was filled by a wave of Indo-European migrants and “Sea Peoples”, including the Phrygians, who established their kingdom with a capital eventually at Gordium. It is presently unknown whether the Phrygians were actively involved in the collapse of the Hittite capital Hattusa or whether they simply moved into the vacuum left by the collapse of Hittite hegemony. The so-called Handmade Knobbed Ware was found by archaeologists at sites from this period in Western Anatolia. According to Greek mythographers, the first Phrygian Midas had been king of the Moschi (Mushki), also known as Bryges (Brigi) in the western part of archaic Thrace.

A conventional date of c. 1180 BC is often used for the influx (traditionally from Thrace) of the pre-Phrygian Bryges or Mushki, corresponding to the very end of the Hittite empire. Following this date, Phrygia retained a separate cultural identity. E. g. in classical Greek iconography the Trojan Paris is represented as non-Greek by his Phrygian cap, which was worn by Mithras and survived into modern imagery as the “Liberty cap” of the American and French revolutionaries.

Phrygia developed an advanced Bronze Age culture. The earliest traditions of Greek music are in part connected to Phrygian music, transmitted through the Greek colonies in Anatolia, especially the Phrygian mode, which was considered to be the warlike mode in ancient Greek music. Phrygian Midas, the king of the “golden touch”, was tutored in music by Orpheus himself, according to the myth. Another musical invention that came from Phrygia was the aulos, a reed instrument with two pipes. Marsyas, the satyr who first formed the instrument using the hollowed antler of a stag, was a Phrygian follower of Cybele. He unwisely competed in music with the Olympian Apollo and inevitably lost, whereupon Apollo flayed Marsyas alive and provocatively hung his skin on Cybele’s own sacred tree, a pine.

It was the “Great Mother”, Cybele, as the Greeks and Romans knew her, who was originally worshipped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as “Mountain Mother”. In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos (a high cylindrical headdress), and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele was established by a pupil of Phidias, the sculptor Agoracritus, and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele’s expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon, a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine.

The Phrygians also venerated Sabazios, the sky and father-god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus, representations of him, even at Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull, may be surmised in the way that Sabazios’ horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Assyrian sources from the 8th century BC speak of a king Mita of the Mushki, identified with king Midas of Phrygia. An Assyrian inscription records Mita as an ally of Sargon of Assyria in 709 BC. A distinctive Phrygian pottery called Polished Ware appears in the 8th century BC. The Phrygians founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until the Lydian ascendancy (7th century BC). Under kings alternately named Gordias and Midas, the independent Phrygian kingdom of the 8th and 7th centuries BC maintained close trade contacts with her neighbours in the east and the Greeks in the west. Phrygia seems to have been able to co-exist with whatever power was dominant in eastern Anatolia at the time.

The name of the earliest known mythical king was Nannacus (aka Annacus). This king resided at Iconium, the most eastern city of the kingdom of Phrygia at that time, and after his death, at the age of 300 years, a great flood overwhelmed the country, as had been foretold by an ancient oracle. The next king mentioned in extant classical sources was called Manis or Masdes. According to Plutarch, because of his splendid exploits, great things were called “manic” in Phrygia. Thereafter the kingdom of Phrygia seems to have become fragmented among various kings. One of the kings was Tantalus who ruled over the north western region of Phrygia around Mount Sipylus. Tantalus was endlessly punished in Tartarus, because he allegedly killed his son Pelops and sacrificially offered him to the Olympians, a reference to the suppression of human sacrifice. Tantalus was also falsely accused of stealing from the lotteries he had invented. In the mythic age before the Trojan war, during a time of an interregnum, Gordius (or Gordias), a Phrygian farmer, became king, fulfilling an oracular prophecy. The kingless Phrygians had turned for guidance to the oracle of Sabazios (“Zeus” to the Greeks) at Telmissus, in the part of Phrygia that later became part of Galatia. They had been instructed by the oracle to acclaim as their king the first man who rode up to the god’s temple in a cart. That man was Gordias (Gordios, Gordius), a farmer, who dedicated the ox-cart in question, tied to its shaft with the “Gordian Knot”. Gordias refounded a capital at Gordium in west central Anatolia, situated on the old trackway through the heart of Anatolia that became Darius’s Persian “Royal Road” from Pessinus to Ancyra, and not far from the River Sangarius.

Later mythic kings of Phrygia were alternately named Gordias and Midas. Myths surround the first king Midas connecting him with a mythological tale concerning Attis. This shadowy figure resided at Pessinus and attempted to marry his daughter to the young Attis in spite of the opposition of his lover Agdestis and his mother, the goddess Cybele. When Agdestis or Cybele appear and cast madness upon the members of the wedding feast. Midas is said to have died in the ensuing chaos.

The famous king Midas was said to be a son of the kind Gordius mentioned above. He is said to have associated himself with Silenus and other satyrs and with Dionysus, who granted him the famous “golden touch”.

The mythic Midas of Thrace, accompanied by a band of his people, traveled to Asia Minor to wash away the taint of his unwelcome “golden touch” in the river Pactolus. Leaving the gold in the river’s sands, Midas found himself in Phrygia, where he was adopted by the childless king Gordias and taken under the protection of Cybele. Acting as the visible representative of Cybele, and under her authority, it would seem, a Phrygian king could designate his successor.

According to the Iliad, the Phrygians were Trojan allies during the Trojan War. The Phrygia of Homer’s Iliad appears to be located in the area that embraced the Ascanian lake and the northern flow of the Sangarius river and so was much more limited in extent than classical Phrygia. Homer’s Iliad also includes a reminiscence by the Trojan king Priam, who had in his youth come to aid the Phrygians against the Amazons (Iliad 3.189). During this episode (a generation before the Trojan War), the Phrygians were said to be led by Otreus and Mygdon. Both appear to be little more than eponyms: there was a place named Otrea on the Ascanian Lake, in the vicinity of the later Nicaea and the Mygdones were a people of Asia Minor, who resided near Lake Dascylitis (there was also a Mygdonia in Macedonia). During the Trojan War, the Phrygians sent forces to aid Troy, led by Ascanius and Phorcys, the sons of Aretaon. Asius, son of Dymas and brother of Hecabe, is another Phrygian noble who fought before Troy. Quintus Smyrnaeus mentions another Phrygian prince, named Coroebus, son of Mygdon, who fought and died at Troy he had sued for the hand of the Trojan princess Cassandra in marriage. King Priam’s wife Hecabe is usually said to be of Phrygian birth, as a daughter of King Dymas.

The Phrygian Sibyl was the priestess presiding over the Apollonian oracle at Phrygia.

Herodotus, claims the priests of Hephaestus told him a story that the Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus had two children raised in isolation in order to find the original language. The children were reported to have uttered bekos meaning “bread” in Phrygian. It was then acknowledged by the Egyptians that the Phrygians were a nation older than the Egyptians.

The invasion of Anatolia in the late 8th century BC to early 7th century BC by the Cimmerians was to prove fatal to independent Phrygia. Cimmerian pressure and attacks culminated in the suicide of its last king, Midas, according to legend. Gordium fell to the Cimmerians in 696 BC and was sacked and burnt, as reported much later by Herodotus.

A series of digs have opened Gordium as one of Turkey’s most revealing archeological sites. Excavations confirm a violent destruction of Gordion around 675 BC. A tomb of the Midas period, popularly identified as the “Tomb of Midas” revealed a wooden structure deeply buried under a vast tumulus, containing grave goods, a coffin, furniture, and food offerings (Archaeological Museum, Ankara). The Gordium site contains a considerable later building program, perhaps by Alyattes, the Lydian king, in the 6th century BC.

Minor Phrygian kingdoms continued to exist after the end of the Phrygian empire, and the Phrygian art and culture continued to flourish. Cimmerian people stayed in Anatolia but do not appear to have created a kingdom of their own. The Lydians repulsed the Cimmerians in the 620s, and Phrygia was subsumed into a short-lived Lydian empire. The eastern part of the former Phrygian empire fell into the hands of the Medes in 585 BC.

Under the proverbially rich King Croesus (reigned 560–546 BC), Phrygia remained part of the Lydian empire that extended east to the Halys River. There may be an echo of strife with Lydia and perhaps a veiled reference to royal hostages, in the legend of the twice-unlucky Adrastus, the son of a King Gordias with the queen, Eurynome. He accidentally killed his brother and exiled himself to Lydia, where King Croesus welcomed him. Once again, Adrastus accidentally killed Croesus’ son and then committed suicide.

Lydian Croesus was conquered by Cyrus in 546 BC, and Phrygia passed under Persian dominion. After Darius became Persian Emperor in 521 BC, he remade the ancient trade route into the Persian “Royal Road” and instituted administrative reforms that included setting up satrapies. The capital of the Phrygian satrapy was established at Dascylion.

Under Persian rule, the Phrygians seem to have lost their intellectual acuity and independence. Phrygians became stereotyped among later Greeks and the Romans as passive and dull. Phrygians remained subjects to the Hellenistic kingdoms that ruled the area and later to the Roman Empire, but the Phrygians retained their culture and their language until it became extinct in the 5th Century.

Text #9349

The Mushki were an Iron Age people of Anatolia, known from Assyrian sources. They do not appear in Hittite records. Several authors have connected them with the Moschoi (Μόσχοι) of Greek sources and the Georgian tribe of the Meskhi. Two different groups are called Muški in the Assyrian sources (Diakonoff 1984:115), one from the 12th to 9th centuries, located near the confluence of the Arsanias and the Euphrates (“Eastern Mushki”), and the other in the 8th to 7th centuries, located in Cappadocia and Cilicia (“Western Mushki”). Assyrian sources identify the Western Mushki with the Phrygians, while Greek sources clearly distinguish between Phrygians and Moschoi.

Identification of the Eastern with the Western Mushki is uncertain, but it is of course possible to assume a migration of at least part of the Eastern Mushki to Cilicia in the course of the 10th to 8th centuries, and this possibility has been repeatedly suggested, variously identifying the Mushki as speakers of a Georgian, Armenian or Anatolian idiom. The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture notes that “the Armenians according to Diakonoff, are then an amalgam of the Hurrian (and Urartians), Luvians and the Proto-Armenian Mushki (or Armeno-Phrygians) who carried their IE language eastwards across Anatolia.”

The Eastern Muski appear to have moved into Hatti in the 12th century, completing the downfall of the collapsing Hittite state, along with various Sea Peoples. They established themselves in a post-Hittite kingdom in Cappadocia.

Whether they moved into the core Hittite areas from the east or west has been a matter of some discussion by historians. Some speculate that they may have originally occupied a territory in the area of Urartu alternatively, ancient accounts suggest that they first arrived from a homeland in the west (as part of the Armeno-Phrygian migration), from the region of Troy, or even from as far as Macedonia, as the Bryges.

Together with the Hurrians and Kaskas, they invaded the Assyrian provinces of Alzi and Puruhuzzi in about 1160 BC, but they were pushed back and defeated, along with the Kaskas, by Tiglath-Pileser I in 1115 BC, who until 1110 BC advanced as far as Milid.

In 709 BC, the Mushki re-emerged as allies of Assyria, Sargon naming Mita as his friend. It appears that Mita had captured and handed over to the Assyrians emissaries of Urikki, king of Que, who were sent to negotiate an anti-Assyrian contract with Urartu, as they passed through his territory.

According to Assyrian military intelligence reports to Sargon recorded on clay tablets found in the Royal Archives of Nineveh by Sir Henry Layard, the Cimmerians invaded Urartu from Mannai in 714 BC. From there they turned west along the coast of the Black Sea as far as Sinope, and then headed south towards Tabal, in 705 BC defeating an Assyrian army in central Anatolia, resulting in the death of Sargon. Macqueen (1986:157) and others have speculated that the Mushki under Mita may have participated in the Assyrian campaign and were forced to flee to western Anatolia, disappearing from Assyrian accounts, but entering the periphery of Greek historiography as king Midas of Phrygia.

Rusas II of Urartu in the 7th century fought the Mushki-ni to his west, before he entered an alliance with them against Assyria.

Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 550 - 476 BCE) speaks of the Moschi as “Colchians” (perhaps, Georgian speaking), situated next to the Matieni (Hurrians).

According to Herodotus, the equipment of the Moschoi was similar to that of the Tibareni, Macrones, Mossynoeci and Mardae, with wooden caps upon their heads, and shields and small spears, on which long points were set. All these tribes formed the 19th satrapy of the Achaemenid empire, extending along the southeast of the Euxine, or the Black Sea, and bounded on the south by the lofty chain of the Armenian mountains.

Strabo locates the Moschoi in two places. The first location is somewhere in modern Abkhazia (Georgia) on the eastern shore of the Black Sea, in agreement with Stephan of Byzantium quoting Hellanicus. The second location Moschice (Moschikê) – in which was a temple of Leucothea, once famous for its wealth, but plundered by Pharnaces and Mithridates – was divided between the Colchians, Armenians, and Iberians (cf. Mela, III. 5.4 Pliny VI.4.). These latter Moschoi were obviously the Georgian Meskhi or Mesx’i (where Greek χ, chi, is Georgian ხ, x). Procopius calls them Meschoi and says that they were subject to the Iberians (i.e., Georgians), and had embraced Christianity, the religion of their masters. According to Professor James R. Russell of Harvard University, the Georgian designation for Armenians Somekhi, preserves the old name of the Mushki.

Pliny in the 1st century AD mentions the Moscheni in southern Armenia (“Armenia” at the time stretching south and west to the Mediterranean, bordering on Cappadocia). In Byzantine historiography, Moschoi was a name equivalent to or considered as the ancestors of “Cappadocians” (Eusebius) with their capital at Mazaca (later Caesarea Mazaca, modern Kayseri).

The ancient city of Mtskheta, near Tbilisi, is believed by Georgian experts to be the former capital of the Mushki state. According to the medieval Georgian Chronicles, the city was built by the legendary patriarch Mtskhetos, one of five sons of Kartlos, the legendary patriarch of the Georgian nation (who was in turn said to be a son of Torgom, the Georgian spelling of Biblical Togar Mah, son of Gomer, son of Japheth, son of Noah). According to the Chronicles, during Mtskhetos’ lifetime the descendants of Torgom (including Georgians, Armenians and other South Caucasian nations) were united and successfully resisted the attacks of the “Nimrodians”, which Georgian experts interpret as a reference to ancient conflict between the Mushki and Assyria. Excavations in Mtskheta have confirmed the town dates back at least as far as 1000 BC.

The Chronicles, the older Conversion of Kartli, and the older still Armenian chronicles of Moses of Chorene all give conflicting accounts of Mtskheta’s history prior to and during the conquests of Alexander the Great. According to the Conversion, Mtskheta remained the chief city of “Kartli”, the medieval native name for Georgia, up until Alexander’s arrival, who changed the ruling dynasty in Mtskheta by installing Azo, said to be a prince from Arian Kartli. According to the Chronicles, after Mtskhetos’ death, Kartli broke up into several smaller, warring regions, until unity was restored by Azo, said to be one of Alexander’s Macedonian generals, who was in turn expelled by the (half-Persian) local prince Parnawaz, and it was Parnawaz who founded the new ruling dynasty of Kartli. Moses of Chorene says that Alexander installed a Persian satrap named Mithridates in Mtskheta.

While Georgian experts disagree over the details of their interpretations of these accounts, they generally agree that they reflect a decline of the Mushki state and rise of Persian influence before the arrival of Alexander, who, perhaps more as a side-effect than by any effort on his part, ushered in a new era of unity in much of the Mushki state’s former territories under a new dynasty, who preferred the name Kartli over Mushki. Mtskheta remained the capital of the Kartli state, which became known in most languages as Iberia, until the 5th century AD.

People in what is now a south-central Georgian region continued to favor a variant of the old Mushki name, and today call themselves Meskhs and their region Meskheti. They speak a dialect of Georgian called Meskhuri, which among Georgia’s regional dialects is relatively close to official Georgian. The town of Mtskheta is not in today’s Meskheti region, but lies about 100 km to its northeast, in the Kartli region.

Massagetae

Georgian historians believe the Massagetae is another name for the Mushki, in contradiction to prevailing opinion which places the Massagetae in Central Asia. They base their argument on statements by Herodotus that the Massagetae lived “beyond the Araxes” (1.201) and that “after crossing the Araxes, Cyrus was sleeping on the territory of the Massagetae” (1.209), while rejecting as a mistake a third statement by Herodotus that “on the west the Caspian is bounded by the Caucasus eastwards lies an immense tract of flat country … the greater part of this region is occupied by the Massagetae” (1.204). Georgian historians also point to the similarity of the names Massagetae, Mtskheta and Meskheti, and to the lack of archeological evidence for a Massagetae state in Central Asia.

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Povijest

F. H. af Chapman ritade byggnaden 1782 och den tros ha uppförts 1784-1786. Mönstersalen på bottenvåningen användes för inmönstring av fartygsbesättningar. I modellsalen en våning upp fanns just fartygsmodeller, tredimensionella läroböcker och diverse studieobjekt. Övriga delen av byggnaden bestod av kontors- och verkstadslokaler. I början av 1800-talet tillkom ett trapphus vid östra gaveln, vilket revs vid en renovering 1946-1947. Taket har flera gånger renoverats och bytts ut. Från 1907 och en period framåt kom Mönstersalen att användas som arkiv och nya fönster slogs därför upp på norra sidan. Under 1970-talet skedde en genomgripande inre ombyggnation inför inflyttandet av örlogsbasens stab. Idag brukas modellsalen som konferenslokal.



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