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Povijest Washingtona, D.C.

Povijest Washingtona, D.C.



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Okrug Columbia utjelovljuje kompromis. Philadelphia je bila vodeći grad, ali južne države nisu htjele da glavni grad bude tu zbog kvekerskog protivljenja ropstvu. Virginia je bila najmnogoljudnija država, ali Sjevernjaci pak nisu željeli da se čini da Sjedinjene Države podržavaju ropstvo. Thomas Jefferson smislio je kompromis. Izbor točnog mjesta prepušten je Georgeu Washingtonu, koji je odabrao mjesto u obliku dijamanta deset milja sa svake strane, uzvodno od svog imanja u Mount Vernonu. Većina je ležala na obali rijeke Maryland. Sam grad nazvan je Washington u njegovu čast. Zadatak projektiranja glavnog grada dobio je Francuz, Pierre L'Enfant. Većina zemljišta uz rijeku bila je močvarna, pa je L'Enfant za zgradu kapitola odabrao brdo, sada poznato kao Capitol Hill. Kao odgovor, Kongres se predomislio i kupio močvarno zemljište na zapadu. Britanske snage zauzele su Washington u ratu 1812. i spalile nekoliko zgrada, uključujući i Bijelu kuću. 1846. Kongres je unaprijedio onaj dio distrikta Columbia koji je ležao na strani Virginije od Potomaca, koji je postao okrug Arlington. Tijekom građanskog rata, neposredna blizina Washingtona Konfederaciji - odvojenoj samo rijekom Potomac - učinila je njegovu obranu nesigurnom. U povodu stote obljetnice grada, Kongres je osnovao povjerenstvo za preispitivanje planova za grad. Na čelu sa senatorom Jamesom McMillanom iz Michigana, njegovo izvješće poziva na obnovu kako bi se uklonili sirotinjski kvartovi i problemi s prijevozom, razvoj The Mall -a i ograničenje visine od 160 stopa. Kao rezultat toga, Washington je uspio sačuvati svoj osnovni integritet dizajna unatoč velikom širenju savezne vlade tijekom 20. stoljeća. Mjesta od povijesnog, kulturnog i obrazovnog interesa u Washingtonu uključuju:

  • Bijela kuća
  • Zgrada Kapitola
  • Lincolnov memorijal
  • Jefferson Memorial
  • Smithsonian Institucija
  • Sveučilište George Washington
  • Kongresna knjižnica
  • Nacionalna umjetnička galerija
  • Umjetnička galerija Freer
  • Fordovo kazalište
  • Washington katedrala
  • Nacionalno svetište Bezgrešnog začeća
  • Sveučilište Howard
  • Koledž Gallaudet
  • Umjetnička galerija Corcoran
  • National Mall
  • Japansko cvjetajuće trešnje

Vidi DC.


Washington DC.

David R. Frazier Photolibrary, Inc. / Alamy

Registarska oznaka Washington D.C

Povezano

Možda ste američki državljanin, plaćate savezne poreze, čak i služite vojsku. Ali ako živite u glavnom gradu zemlje, što se tiče Kongresa, možda i ne biste postojali.

Okrug Columbia nikada nije imao svog senatora ili predstavnika, unatoč broju stanovnika (gotovo 600.000) većim od Wyominga. To bi se znatiželjno obespravljivanje moglo uskoro promijeniti, budući da kroz Kongres napreduje prijedlog zakona koji bi DC -u konačno dao člana Doma. Senat je 24. veljače izglasao dopuštanje rasprave o planu, kojim će se Dom proširiti na 437 članova, što je njegovo prvo proširenje u gotovo 100 godina. Zakon bi također dao Utahu još jedan glas do sljedeće ponovne dodjele 2012., čime bi se održala stranačka ravnoteža tijela jer bi DC -ov dodatak gotovo sigurno bio demokrata, a Utah republikanac. (Pogledajte slike s povijesnog izbornog dana 2008.)

Uvijek čudno savezno siroče, Distrikt Columbia borio se odvikavati od kongresne kontrole otkad je prvi put spojen 1790. Stanovnici su mogli glasovati za članove Doma u susjednoj Virginiji i Marylandu do 1801., ali je čelnike gradova izvorno imenovao predsjednik . Grad je većim dijelom 19. stoljeća uživao određenu samoupravu, ali većina je uklonjena 1874. Glasači uopće nisu mogli sudjelovati na predsjedničkim izborima sve dok 23. amandman nije ratificiran 1963. Nakon upornog lobiranja stanovnika &# 151 njihovih susjeda, nakon što je — zakonodavac donio Zakon o kućnom redu iz 1973. godine, dopuštajući glasačima da izravno biraju gradonačelnika i gradsko vijeće. No, Kongres i dalje djeluje kao malo udaljeni roditelj Distrikta, ima konačnu proračunsku kontrolu i pregledava sve lokalne zakone. To je umanjilo napore da se stanovnicima Marylanda i Virginije nametne "pristojba za prijevoz" i zabranilo zgrade veće od kupole Kapitola.

1971. Kongres je dopustio D.C. -u da pošalje delegata bez prava glasa u Zastupnički dom (mjesto koje trenutno popunjava vatrena zagovornica Eleanor Holmes Norton), a nastavak pritiska doveo je do ustavnog amandmana iz 1978. koji bi Distriktu dao puni glas u Kongresu. No, amandman je propao, osvojivši potporu u manje od polovice potrebnih država. Godine 1980. birači Distrikta čak su odobrili vlastiti ustav — za 51. državu koja će se zvati Nova Kolumbija. Taj plan nije otišao nikamo. (Pogledajte slike strojeva za glasanje.)

Usred sve veće frustracije, Distrikt je 2000. godine ponovno oživio revolucionarni okupiteljski poklič, ugraviravši izraz "oporezivanje bez zastupanja" na registarskim tablicama na prijedlog umornog slušatelja radijskog talk-showa iz DC-a. (Oni su sada zadana opcija licence, iako se neutralne tablice izdaju na zahtjev.) Bill Clinton brzo je dodao tablice svojoj predsjedničkoj limuzini, iako je jedan od prvih službenih radnji Georgea W. Busha bio njihovo uklanjanje. Prosvjedne ploče nisu se vratile na vožnju predsjednika Baracka Obame, a neki mještani postaju nestrpljivi. "[To je ] samo nešto do čega predsjednik još nije stigao", nedavno je ustrajao glasnogovornik Bijele kuće.

Glavni argument protiv odobravanja DC -a glasovanjem u Kongresu je jednostavan: to nije država. Članak I, odjeljak 2 Ustava kaže da predstavnike bira "narod nekoliko država". "Ustav Sjedinjenih Država ne može biti jasniji", rekao je nedavno na senatu senator Arizone Jon Kyl. I dok njegovo protivljenje može imati isto toliko veze s politikom koliko i zakon, republikanci su škrti oko skliske padine koja bi dovela do američkih senatora iz D.C. -a, demokratskog uporišta i definicije države je iznenađujuće teško odrediti. Dok američka zastava ima samo 50 zvjezdica, DC se smatra državom u drugim pravnim referencama, poput ustavne odredbe koja dopušta Kongresu da regulira međudržavnu trgovinu. (Pogledajte 50 autentičnih američkih doživljaja putovanja.)

Podržavatelji trenutnih napora bili su ohrabreni očitim porastom interesa za tu ideju, pogotovo otkad je slična mjera zaustavljena u Senatu prije dvije godine. I što je najvažnije, Obama podržava tu ideju, za razliku od svog prethodnika. No, račun se suočava s usponom, čak i ako dođe do predsjednikova stola. Dugi pravni izazovi su izvjesnost i mnogi promatrači, uključujući uglednu Kongresnu istraživačku službu, smatraju da bi Vrhovni sud mogao smatrati da je zakon prekoračenje. "Pod tom moći mogli bi stvoriti 20 mjesta za vojna područja. Ili bi mogli dati 10 mjesta Portoriku", rekao je profesor prava sa sveučilišta George Washington Jonathan Turley Političko. I predsjednik čini imati druge stvari na tanjuru. Unatoč svojoj podršci, Obama je nedavno rekao da se možda neće oduprijeti ideji, rekao je to Washingtonu Post njegov zakonodavni plan već je "pun".


Povijest Washingtona D.C.

Jeste li znali da glavni grad SAD -a nije uvijek bio u Washingtonu, ili da je Vrhovni sud dijelio prostor u zgradi Capitol gotovo 50 godina? Što kažete na to da je soba za brifinge Bijele kuće nekada bila zatvoreni bazen?

Jared je razgovarao s novinarom, povjesničarom i višim urednikom časopisa National Review, Richardom Brookhiserom kako bi objasnio kako je Washington D.C. izabran za glavni grad države.

Ravnatelj javnih programa i glavni vodič za Povijesno društvo Kapitola SAD -a, Steve Livengood, Jaredu je svakodnevno obilazio zgradu u kojoj radi.

Dopisnik Bijele kuće FOX -a#8217s, Jon Decker provodi puno vremena na 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue i objašnjava evoluciju Bijele kuće, kako je dobila ime i još mnogo toga.

Dopisnica Washingtona iz FOX -a, Rachel Sutherland, razgovarala je s producentom Vrhovnog suda FOX -a, Billom Mearsom, kako bi razgovarali o povijesti i tradiciji najvišeg suda u zemlji.


Washington, DC - Povijest i baština

Washington, DC nalazi se na pola puta duž istočne obale Sjedinjenih Država, oko 90 milja u unutrašnjosti od Atlantskog oceana, južno od Marylanda, sjeverno od Virginije i 233 milje južno od New Yorka. Smješten na sjevernoj obali rijeke Potomac, njegova veličina je otprilike 68 četvornih milja, isklesana je od zemlje koju je donirala država Maryland. Podijeljen u četiri kvadranta: sjeverozapadni, jugozapadni, sjeveroistočni, jugoistočni. Zgrada američkog Kapitola označava središte gdje se susreću kvadranti.

Povezani sadržaj

Osnovana je 1791. godine i dobila je ime po predsjedniku Georgeu Washingtonu. "Columbia" u "District of Columbia" odnosi se na Kristofora Kolumba. Washington, Distrikt Columbia nije država, niti je dio bilo koje države. To je jedinstveni "savezni okrug" stvoren posebno da bude sjedište vlade. Stvarno stanovništvo u DC -u je približno 553 500, ali ako uključite cijelo područje metroa, stanovništvo je oko 5,8 milijuna. "Metropolitansko područje Washington" odnosi se na okrug Columbia plus sedam okruga Maryland (Anne Arundel, Charles, Calvert, Frederick, Howard, Montgomery i Prince George's), pet okruga Virginia (Arlington, Fairfax, Loudon, princ William i Stafford) i pet gradova u Virginiji (Alexandria, Falls Church, Fairfax City, Manassas i Manassas Park).

Washington, DC, jedinstven je među američkim gradovima jer je osnovan Ustavom Sjedinjenih Država da služi kao glavni grad države. Od početka je uključen u političko manevriranje, sukobe u segmentima i pitanja rase, nacionalnog identiteta, kompromisa i, naravno, moći.

Odabir mjesta Washington uz rijeke Potomac i Anacostia rezultat je kompromisa između Alexandera Hamiltona i sjevernih država koji su htjeli da nova savezna vlada preuzme dugove za Rat za nezavisnost i Thomasa Jeffersona i južnih država koji su željeli da se glavni grad smjesti na lokaciju robovlasnički poljoprivredni interesi.

George Washington odabrao je mjesto i imenovao tri povjerenika koji će pomoći u pripremi za dolazak nove vlade 1800. godine. 1800. saveznu vladu činilo je 131 zaposlenika. Pierre Charles L ’Enfant dizajnirao je grad kao hrabru novu prijestolnicu s prostranim bulevarima i svečanim prostorima koji podsjećaju na Pariz iz njegove rodne Francuske. Benjamin Banneker, samouki afroamerički matematički genij, dao je astronomske izračune za pregled i postavljanje grada. Potpuni razvoj Washingtona kao monumentalnog grada dogodio se tek stotinu godina kasnije kada je McMillanova komisija ažurirala svoj plan o uspostavi Nacionalnog trgovačkog centra i spomenika koje većina posjetitelja Washingtona sada poznaje.

U svojih 200 godina koliko je glavni grad države, Washington se razvio kao složen i slojevit grad s više osoba. Kao dom savezne vlade, privukla je raznoliku mješavinu vladinih radnika, članova Kongresa iz svih država, stranih emisara, lobista, podnositelja peticija i prosvjednika.

Washington je oduvijek imao značajno afroameričko stanovništvo. Prije građanskog rata grad je bio dom sve većeg broja slobodnih crnaca koji su radili kao vješti obrtnici, hakirali vozače, poslovne ljude i radnike. Obuhvaćao je i porobljene Afroamerikance i bio je mjesto aukcija robova prije nego što su u gradu zabranjene 1850. Robovi u posjedu Washingtona emancipirani su 16. travnja 1862. godine, devet mjeseci prije Lincolnove proklamacije o emancipaciji od 1. siječnja 1863. godine. Washington je ostao dom velikom afroameričkom stanovništvu koje je stvaralo živahne zajednice i zalagalo se za građanska prava unatoč rasnoj segregaciji i predrasudama. Duke Ellington rođen je i odrastao u Washington's četvrti Shaw i tamo je svirao u svom prvom bendu.

Njegovi su osnivači Washington, DC zamislili kao trgovačko središte, ali i kao sjedište vlade. Položaj na rijeci Potomac dijelom je odabran jer je već uključivao dva postojeća lučka grada Georgetown i Aleksandriju koji su služili kao regionalni pomorski centri za duhan i pšenicu. Kad se Alexandria vratila u Virginiju 1846., stanovnici su tvrdili da je uključivanje u Distrikt Columbia naštetilo poslu, te da gradu Washingtonu nikada neće trebati toliko prostora za rast.

No, nakon građanskog rata Washington je ipak narastao i na kraju je apsorbirao Georgetown i okolne farme i ruralna područja izvan izvornih planova grada za L ’Enfant ’. Početna granica Washington Cityja bila je Florida Avenue, izvorno nazvana Boundary Street. Prva susjedstva bila su ona koja su odrasla oko Kapitola (Capitol Hill), tržnice Center (Downtown) i Bijele kuće (Lafayette Square). Širenje linija tramvaja sredinom 19. stoljeća potaknulo je stvaranje novih predgrađa. Dva rana predgrađa, LeDroit Park i Anacostia, oboje su započeli kao razvoj koji je isključio Afroamerikance, a kasnije su postali pretežno afroameričke zajednice.

Ratovi i nacionalni događaji uvijek su rezultirali rastom savezne vlade i povećanjem broja stanovnika. Tijekom građanskog rata Washington je bio oružani logor s vojnicima posvuda okupiranim i javnim zgradama koje su služile kao bolnice. Kruh za vojnike pekao se u pećnicama koje se nalaze u krugu Bijele kuće. Tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata djevojke iz vlade##8221 regrutirane su da popune uredske poslove kako bi zamijenile muškarce koji su otišli u rat.

Washington je također kozmopolitski grad. Iako je oduvijek imao strana izaslanstva iz zemalja svijeta, također se može pohvaliti sve raznovrsnijim etničkim stanovništvom. Rastuće latino stanovništvo predstavlja svaku središnju i južnoameričku državu s posebno velikom zajednicom Salvadoranaca. Veliki broj etiopskih stanovnika rezultat je tamošnjih političkih previranja. Nove etničke skupine dovele su nove restorane, kao i nove stanovnike. Dok je DC izgubio stanovnike u okolnim predgrađima 1990 -ih, novo stanovanje i revitalizacija grada sada privlače ljude natrag u grad radi renesanse stanovanja, ureda, zabave i noćnog života u centru grada.

Kao glavni grad najmoćnije demokracije na svijetu, ironično je što stanovnicima Washingtona nedostaje puna samouprava, a ograničena samouprava vraćena je tek 1974. godine nakon gotovo 100 godina uz postavljeni sustav povjerenika. Zastupljenost u Kongresu ograničena je na izaslanika u Zastupničkom domu bez prava glasa i senatora u sjeni. 1964. bili su prvi predsjednički izbori na kojima su stanovnici Washingtona mogli glasovati.

Nakon 200 godina kao glavni grad države, Washington je mjesto prepuno vlastite jedinstvene povijesti. Dok izabrani i imenovani dužnosnici dolaze i odlaze, dajući gradu reputaciju prolazne zajednice, mnogi stanovnici grada već nekoliko generacija nazivaju Washington domom. Njihove priče daju Washingtonu osebujan karakter i nacionalnog i lokalnog grada.


Kretanje po gradu

Obilasci kolica po starom gradu. Jedan od najboljih načina za kretanje po Washingtonu DC je ukrcavanje na Old Town Trolley. Vaš obrazovani vozač podijelit će povijest Washington DC -a i zanimljive zabavne činjenice na ruti. Ovo je sjajno iskustvo za obitelj koje će zasigurno zabaviti mališane. Savršen je za putnike koji uživaju u javnom prijevozu, ali traže osobniji dodir. Druga je mogućnost kupnja aranžmana za još veću uštedu i zabavu!

Metrotrail Sustav javnog prijevoza Washington DC iznimno je prikladan i nudi vam mnogo načina za kretanje. Sustav Metrorail je jeftina metoda i uključuje 86 postaja i proteže se oko 106 milja. U blizini grada nalaze se stanice metroa označene smeđim stupom sa slovom M. Postoji 5 različitih ruta, crvena, plava, žuta, narančasta i zelena, koje se međusobno povezuju na različitim točkama. SmarTrip karticu možete kupiti na bilo kojoj stanici metroa i omogućuje vam vožnju željeznicom ili javnim autobusima DC -a.

Metrobus Uz Metrorail, Washington DC ima i brojne autobusne linije s 1.500 autobusa koji vam pomažu da se lakše krećete. Crveni, bijeli i plavi natpisi po cijelom gradu identificiraju autobusne stanice, a upotrebom kartice SmarTrip kartice cijene su jeftine. Autobusi putuju na 325 različitih ruta, koje uključuju glavna područja i arterije grada, kao i Maryland i Virginia.


Devetnaesto stoljeće

Ekonomski razvoj

Grad Washington iz Beyond the Navy Yard -a autor George Cooke, 1833., izložen u Ovalnom uredu Bijele kuće. / Bijela kuća, Wikimedia Commons

Distrikt Columbia oslanjao se na Kongres za podršku kapitalnim poboljšanjima i inicijativama gospodarskog razvoja. [53] Međutim, Kongresu je nedostajala lojalnost prema stanovnicima grada i nije bio voljan pružiti podršku. [53] Kongres je ipak osigurao financiranje Washington City Canala 1809. godine, nakon što su raniji napori privatnog financiranja bili neuspješni. Izgradnja je započela 1810., a kanal je otvoren krajem 1815. godine, povezujući rijeku Anacostiu s Tiber Creekom. [54]

Izgradnja kanala Chesapeake i Ohio (C & ampO) započela je u Georgetownu 1828. Gradnja prema zapadu kroz Maryland odvijala se sporo. Prvi dio, od Georgetowna do Senece, Maryland, otvoren je 1831. [55] 1833. izgrađen je produžetak od Georgetowna prema istoku, koji se povezuje s Gradskim kanalom. C & ampO je dospio u Cumberland u Marylandu 1850. godine, iako je do tada već bio zastario jer je željeznica Baltimore i Ohio (B & ampO) stigla u Cumberland 1842. [56]: 1 Kanal je imao financijskih problema, a planovi za daljnju izgradnju trebali bi stići rijeka Ohio je napuštena. [57]: 7

Rat 1812

Kapitol Sjedinjenih Država nakon spaljivanja Washingtona u ratu 1812. Prikaz akvarela i tinte iz 1814., obnovljen. / Kongresna knjižnica, Wikimedia Commons

Tijekom rata 1812. britanske su snage provele ekspediciju između 19. i 29. kolovoza 1814. koja je zauzela i spalila glavni grad. Dana 24. kolovoza Britanci su razbili američku miliciju koja se okupila u Bladensburgu u Marylandu radi zaštite glavnog grada (vidi Bitka za Bladensburg). Milicija je tada napustila Washington bez borbe. Predsjednik James Madison i ostatak američke vlade pobjegli su iz glavnog grada neposredno prije dolaska Britanaca.

Britanci su tada ušli i spalili glavni grad tijekom najozbiljnijeg ratovanja u ratu. Britanski vojnici zapalili su najvažnije javne zgrade glavnog grada, uključujući Predsjednički dvorac (Bijela kuća), Kapitol Sjedinjenih Država, Arsenal, Mornaričko dvorište, zgradu riznice i ratni ured, kao i sjever kraj Dugog mosta koji je prelazio rijeku Potomac u Virginiju. Britanci su, međutim, poštedjeli Ured za patente i pomorsku vojarnu. Dolley Madison, prva dama, ili možda članovi kućnog osoblja, spasila je Lansdowneov portret, cjelovečernju sliku Georgea Washingtona koju je napisao Gilbert Stuart, dok su se Britanci približavali vili. [58]

Posljedice rata započele su blagu krizu sa mnogim sjevernjacima koji su se zalagali za preseljenje glavnog grada glasovanjem na kongresu predlažući smjenu vlade u Philadelphiji. Poraženo je 83 prema 74 glasa, a sjedište vlade ostalo je u Washingtonu, DC [59]

Retrocesija

Karta okruga Columbia 1835. godine, prije retrocesije. / Kongresna knjižnica, Wikimedia Commons

Gotovo odmah nakon polaganja “Federalnog grada ” sjeverno od Potomaca, neki stanovnici južno od Potomaca u Aleksandrijskoj županiji, DC, počeli su peticirati za vraćanje u nadležnost Virginije. S vremenom je narastao veći pokret za odvajanje Aleksandrije od Distrikta iz nekoliko razloga:

  • Aleksandrija je bila središte trgovine robljem. Sve se više govorilo o ukidanju ropstva u glavnom gradu zemlje. Ekonomija Aleksandrije patila bi da je ropstvo zabranjeno u Distriktu Columbia. (1848. kongresmen Abraham Lincoln podnio je zakon o ukidanju ropstva unutar Distrikta, što nije uspjelo.)
  • Gospodarstvo Aleksandrije stagniralo je jer je konkurencija s lukom Georgetown, DC, počela favorizirati sjevernu stranu Potomaca, gdje je boravila većina članova Kongresa i lokalnih saveznih dužnosnika.
  • Zakon o prebivalištu zabranio je saveznim uredima da se nalaze u Virginiji.
  • Aleksandrijski kanal, koji je povezivao kanal C & ampO s Aleksandrijom, trebao je popravke, što savezna vlada nije voljela financirati.

Nakon referenduma, građani Aleksandrijske županije podnijeli su peticiju Kongresu i Virginiji da se to područje vrati Virginiji. Aktom Kongresa 9. srpnja 1846. i uz odobrenje Generalne skupštine Virginije, područje južno od Potomaca (39 četvornih milja ili 100 četvornih kilometara) vraćeno je ili “odstupljeno, ” u Virginiju na snazi godine 1847. [62]

Zemljište s retrovizorima tada je bilo poznato pod imenom Alexandria County, Virginia, a sada uključuje dio neovisnog grada Alexandrije i cijelu Arlington County, nasljednicu Alexandria County. Veliki dio retrocentriranog zemljišta u blizini rijeke bilo je imanje Georgea Washington Parke Custisa, koji je podržao retrocesiju i pomogao u razvoju povelje u Općoj skupštini Virginije za okrug Alexandria, Virginia. Imanje (Arlingtonova plantaža) prenijelo bi se na njegovu kćer (suprugu Roberta E. Leeja), a na kraju bi postalo Arlingtonsko nacionalno groblje.

Doba građanskog rata

Predsjednik Lincoln inzistirao je da se izgradnja američkog Kapitola nastavi tijekom građanskog rata. / Arhiv SAD -a, Wikimedia Commons

Dio Washington Aqueducta otvoren je 1859. godine, opskrbljujući stanovništvo grada pitkom vodom i smanjujući njihovu ovisnost o bunarskoj vodi. Akvadukt, koji je sagradio inženjerski korpus američke vojske, otvoren je za puni rad 1864. godine, koristeći rijeku Potomac kao izvor. [63]

Washington je ostao mali grad od nekoliko tisuća stanovnika, koji je tijekom ljeta bio praktički napušten, sve do izbijanja građanskog rata 1861. Predsjednik Abraham Lincoln stvorio je vojsku Potomaca za obranu glavnog grada savezne države, a tisuće vojnika došle su na to područje . Značajno proširenje savezne vlade na vođenje rata - i njegova naslijeđa, poput braniteljskih mirovina - dovelo je do značajnog porasta gradske populacije - sa 75.000 1860. na 132.000 1870. godine.

Ropstvo je ukinuto u cijelom Distriktu 16. travnja 1862. - osam mjeseci prije nego što je Lincoln izdao Proglas o emancipaciji - usvajanjem Zakona o kompenziranoj emancipaciji. [64] Grad je postao popularno mjesto za okupljanje oslobođenih robova.

Tijekom cijelog rata grad je branio prsten vojnih utvrda koje su vojsku Konfederacije uglavnom odvraćale od napada. Jedna značajna iznimka bila je bitka kod Fort Stevensa u srpnju 1864. u kojoj su vojnici Unije odbili trupe pod zapovjedništvom generala Konfederacije Jubal A. Early. Ova je bitka bila tek drugi put da je američki predsjednik došao pod neprijateljsku vatru tijekom rata kada je Lincoln posjetio utvrdu kako bi promatrao borbe. [65] (Prvi je bio James Madison tijekom rata 1812.) U međuvremenu, više od 20.000 bolesnih i ozlijeđenih vojnika Unije liječeno je u nizu stalnih i privremenih bolnica u glavnom gradu.

14. travnja 1865., samo nekoliko dana nakon završetka rata, John Wilkes Booth tijekom predstave ustrijelio je Lincolna u kazalištu Ford ’s Naš američki rođak. Sljedećeg jutra, u 7:22 sati, predsjednik Lincoln umro je u kući preko puta, prvi američki predsjednik koji je ubijen. Ratni tajnik Edwin M. Stanton rekao je: “Sada pripada godinama. ”

Doba poslije građanskog rata

Redak novina na Aveniji Pennsylvania, Washington, DC, 1874. / Arhiv SAD -a, Wikimedia Commons

Do 1870. godine broj stanovnika Distrikta narastao je 75% u odnosu na prethodni popis na gotovo 132.000 stanovnika. [66] Unatoč rastu grada, Washington je i dalje imao zemljane ceste i nije imao osnovne sanitarne uvjete. Situacija je bila toliko loša da su neki članovi Kongresa predložili premještanje glavnog grada zapadnije, no predsjednik Ulysses S. Grant odbio je razmotriti takav prijedlog. [67]

Kao odgovor na loše uvjete u glavnom gradu, Kongres je donio Organski zakon iz 1871. godine, kojim su ukinute pojedinačne povelje gradova Washingtona i Georgetowna, te je stvorena nova teritorijalna vlada za cijelu Distrikt Columbia. [68] Akt je predviđao guvernera kojeg je imenovao predsjednik, zakonodavnu skupštinu sa gornjim domom sastavljenom od jedanaest imenovanih članova vijeća i 22-člani dom delegata koje su izabrali stanovnici Distrikta, kao i imenovani odbor Javni radovi zaduženi za modernizaciju grada. [69]

Predsjednik Grant imenovao je Alexandera Robeya Shepherda, utjecajnog člana Odbora javnih radova, na mjesto guvernera 1873. Shepherd je odobrio opsežne općinske projekte koji su uvelike modernizirali Washington. Međutim, guverner je potrošio tri puta novac koji je bio predviđen budžetom za kapitalna poboljšanja i na kraju je bankrotirao grad. [70] 1874. Kongres je ukinuo teritorijalnu vladu Distrikta i zamijenio je tročlanim Odborom povjerenika kojeg je imenovao predsjednik, od kojih je jedan bio predstavnik inženjerskog zbora vojske Sjedinjenih Država. Tri povjerenika bi potom izabrala jednog od sebe za predsjednika povjerenstva. [71]

Dodatnim aktom Kongresa 1878. tročlani Odbor povjerenika postao je stalna vlada Distrikta Columbia. Zakon je također imao učinak uklanjanja preostalih lokalnih institucija, poput odbora za škole, zdravstvo i policiju. [72] Povjerenici će zadržati ovaj oblik izravne vladavine gotovo jedno stoljeće. [73]

Prvi motorni tramvaji u Distriktu počeli su s radom 1888. godine i potaknuli su rast u područjima izvan izvornih granica grada Washingtona. [74] 1888. Kongres je zahtijevao da svi novi događaji unutar Distrikta budu u skladu s izgledom grada Washingtona. [75] Sjeverna granica grada Washington, ulica Boundary Street, preimenovana je u Florida Avenue 1890. godine, što odražava rast prigradskih područja u okrugu Washington. [74] Ulice grada proširene su na cijelu Distrikt počevši od 1893. [75] Dodatni zakon donesen 1895. nalaže da Washington formalno apsorbira Georgetown, koji je do tada zadržao nominalni zasebni identitet, i preimenovao svoje ulice. [76] S konsolidiranom vladom i transformacijom prigradskih područja unutar Distrikta u urbane četvrti, cijeli je grad na kraju dobio ime Washington, DC [74]

Početkom 1880 -ih pokriven je Washington City Canal. Izvorno proširenje Tiber Creeka, kanal je povezivao Kapitol s Potomacom, prolazeći sjevernom stranom trgovačkog centra gdje se danas nalazi Avenue Avenue. Međutim, kako je nacija prelazila na željeznice radi transporta, kanal je postao ništa više od ustajale kanalizacije, pa je uklonjen. [54]

Neki podsjetnici na kanal još uvijek postoje. Južno od Kapitola, cesta nazvana Canal Street povezuje Avenue Independence, SW i E Street, SE (iako je najsjeverniji dio ulice preimenovan u Washington Avenue u spomen na državu Washington). [77] Kuća čuvara brave sagrađena 1835. godine na istočnom terminalu C & ampO kanala (gdje su se C & ampO ulijevali u Tiber Creek i rijeku Potomac) ostaje na jugozapadnom uglu Avenue Avenue, SZ, (ranije B ulica, SZ ) i 17. ulica, SZ (vidi: Lockkeeper ’s House, C & amp O O proširenje kanala). [78] Zapadni kraj Gradskog kanala ulijevao se u Potomac i povezivao se s kanalom C & ampO u blizini kuće čuvara brave. [79] [80]

Jedan od najvažnijih Washington arhitekata ovog razdoblja bio je njemački imigrant Adolf Cluss. [81] Od 1860 -ih do 1890 -ih godina izgradio je preko 80 javnih i privatnih zgrada u cijelom gradu, uključujući Nacionalni muzej, Odjel za poljoprivredu, škole Sumner i Franklin.

Washington spomenik, posveta Georgeu Washingtonu i najvišoj kamenoj strukturi na svijetu, dovršen je 1884. [82]


Povijest Washingtona, DC - Povijest

1) 8. veljače 1808. Washington Bridge Co. ovlašten je aktom Kongresa za izgradnju "Dugog mosta" kao prijelaza s naplatom cestarine. 1835. Dugi most obnovljen preko rijeke Potomac

2) 25. kolovoza 1835. Washington podružnica Baltimore & amp; Ohio RR (B & ampO) otvara se za servis. First station located at 2nd St. & Pennsylvania Ave. NW, now an empty site at the edge of the U.S. Capitol grounds.

3) 1837-1872 (except April 19,1861 - Summer, 1866) Rail passengers traveling south of Washington take 5 5 mile steamship connection to the Richmond Fredericksburg, and Potomac RR (RF&P) at Fredericksburg (1837-1842) and Aquia Creek, Va. (I842-1861, 1866-1872). Steamship connection continues 1872-1877 until blackmailed by the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) which offered through rail service from Philadelphia to Aquia starting 1872.

4) May 24, 1844 First successful use of Morse code sent from Washington to Baltimore. "What hath God wrought" was the first telegraph message sent by Samuel F.B. Morse from the Supreme Court chambers in the Capitol along wires placed on poles beside the B&O's Washington branch.

5) James Polk becomes first President-elect to travel by train. He rode from Relay, Md. to Washington on February 14, 1845 prior to his inauguration. Andrew Jackson had been the first President to travel on a train from Ellicott's Mills to Baltimore in 1833.

6) April 9,1851 2nd B&O RR Station opens at New Jersey Ave & C St NW, across from the present day Teamsters Headquarters.

7) April 29, 1851 First electric railroad car in history runs from Washington to Bladensburg round-trip- decades ahead of its time.

8) 1855 B&O connects their New Jersey Ave station with the north shore of Long Bridge via Maryland Ave. No tracks placed on bridge until the Civil War. Tracks owned jointly by both the Alexandria & Washington RR and the B&O RR

9) 1855-1858 Alexandria & Washington RR (A&W) connects Orange & Alexandria RR (O&R) with south shore of Long Bridge & commences service January 1, 1858. A&W Railroad was important north-south link during the Civil War. Trackage was definitely linked during US Military RR occupation & control during Civil War.

10) February 23,1861 President-elect Abraham, Lincoln arrives under guard from Baltimore via B&O RR for inauguration

11) 1861-1865 Long Bridge fortified & guarded for duration of American Civil War. Second parallel structure built by US Army (I861-1863) and operated by the US Military RR for railroad use during American Civil War. Bridge turned over to B&O after War.

12) July 29,1862 First Horsecar service via rail commences from the Capitol to the State Department

13) 1866-1873 B&O constructs its 'Metropolitan Branch" from Washington to "Point of Rocks" Branch opens May 25,1873

14) June 21, 1870 Congress approves the Baltimore & Potomac RR (B&P) entering Washington via a bridge across the Anacostia River and a tunnel under Virginia Avenue, SE from I Ith to 8th St. and tracks on Virginia Ave to 6th St. SW with a location for its station on the Mall at 6th & B St. NW (today's Constitution Ave). The Baltimore & Potomac station was built on the present-day site of The National Gallery of Art. Today's freight only Virginia Avenue trackage was the original freight & passenger mainline until Union Station's opening.

15) 1872 Maryland Ave street trackage disconnected in one night connecting the B&O and Long Bridge per Boss Shepherd's political dealing and cleaning up city streets. City bankrupted due to corruption & so many public works projects and it would be over a hundred years before "home rule" returns to D.C. by U.S. Congress.

16) July 2,1872 B&P RR enters Washington via Magruder Branch breaking B&O's Baltimore-Washington monopoly. B&P also gains control of the Long Railroad Bridge (I870) and the Alexandria & Washington RR (April, 1872) and builds the connection between Alexandria & the RF&P at Aquia Creek, Va. (the Alexandria & Fredericksburg RR opens July 18,1872).

17) 1872 B&O RR gets control of the Orange, Alexandria & Manassas RR to compete with the - B&P and renames it The Washington City, Virginia Midland & Great Southern Railway (WC,VM&GS). B&O relinquishes control of WC, VM & GS to Richmond & Danville Railway in November, 1881.

18) August 1, 1873 B&O starts construction at Hyattsville on 12.4 mile long Alexandria Branch to Shepherd's Landing and completed January 24, 1874.

19) 1874 Only. Passengers cars floated across the Potomac River from Shepherds' Landing to Alexandria, VA.

20) 1874-1876 Freight cars continue floating across from Shepherd's Landing to Aquia and from Shepherd's Landing to Alexandria (I 874-1906) ceasing with the opening of Potomac Yard on October 15,1906.

21) July 2,1881 President James A. Garfield shot by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker at B&P station. Garfield dies from blood poisoning September 19,1881.

22) 1883 Southern Maryland Railroad begins construction. Only 2 miles ever in place. Construction starts from future "Chesapeake Junction" in NE Washington

23) October 17,1888 First experimental electric trolley in Washington 7th & NY Ave NW to 4th & T NE, only months after Frank Sprague's successful demonstrations in Richmond, Va.

24) Late May/early June, 1889 Potomac River floods cause extensive damage to C&O Canal. Would be another 2+ years before the canal reopens, now under the control of the paralleling B&O RR. Canal reopened September, 1891 & never 'made money' again.

25) May 12,1890 Cable car operation commences

26) 1892 Georgetown Branch construction commences Only 2 miles completed to Chevy Chase, Md in 1892. No further work until 1909-1910 when the I I mile branch is completed to Georgetown. A 2.2 mile spur was later completed to assist in Lincoln Memorial construction 1915-1922.

27) 1894 Congress mandates NO overhead wires or power poles in Washington city proper causing a delay in perfecting different current collection for electric street cars.

28) 1896 B&O enters bankruptcy, forever ending most expansion plans.

29) July 29,1896 First successful electric conduit operation for streetcars in Washington. Only Washington & New York City-Manhattan Island ever adopt this type of operation in the United States. Overhead wires permitted outside city limits (remember we had Washington CITY as well as Washington COUNTY until after the turn of century) necessitating 'plow pits' for changing from conduit to overhead trolley & vice-versa.

30) September 29,1897 Capital Traction Co. cable car powerhouse bums on site of present Wilson/District Building and Ronald Reagan Building.

31) October, 1897 Construction commences from "Chesapeake Jct." on the Chesapeake Beach Railway using original Southern Maryland RR right-of-way & trackage. Reaches Upper Marlboro October 27,1898 and finally Chesapeake Beach October, 1899. Mainline & yard trackage totals 34.363 miles. Chesapeake Beach 'resort' was envisioned by builder and Colorado magnate Otto Mears as an "American Monte Carlo". Chesapeake Beach resort opens officially June 9, 1900

32)1898 Last Horsecar operation

33) July 23,1899 Last cable car operation in Washington, D.C.

34) 1902-1906 New Long Railroad Bridge (August 25,1904) & Highway Bridge (February 12,1906) open across Potomac River. Construction concurrent with station consolidation in city proper, Potomac Yard & other McMillan Commission recommendations. Railroad bridge remains to this day, although largely altered during World War 11. Highway bridge removed from service 1961 and replaced finally demolished May, 1967- March, 1969.

35) February 28, 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt signs into law a measure "to provide for a Union Station in the District of Columbia."

36) October, 1903-1908 Union Station constructed & opened at a cost of $16 million including facilities, Brentwood car shops, etc. 24 at-grade crossings with B&O removed from service by relocation & new construction. Washington Terminal RR created to provide switching services for station owners (B&O and PRR) and tenants from the south (Chesapeake & Ohio, RF&P, Southern, Atlantic Coast Line, and Seaboard). Many at-grade crossings eliminated from the Virginia Ave mainline with new elevated trackage.

37) October 15,1906 Potomac Yard opens, removing most unsightly yard switching from along Virginia Ave. & the Mall, per McMillan Commission & the "City Beautiful" movement. Shepherd's Landing-Alexandria freight car ferry operation ends with Potomac Yard opening.

38) December 30,1906 Train wreck at Terra Cotta near present day Fort Totten. 52 killed on train & platform resulting in ICC banning future wooden body passenger car construction

39) Sunday, October 27,1907 Last B&O train leaves from New Jersey Ave. station (2:52 AM the "Duquesne Limited" for Pittsburgh) & Ist train arrives (6:5 0 AM from Pittsburgh) into partially completed Union Station. Old B&O station abandoned & quickly demolished.

40) November 17, 1907 1st PRR train in & out of Union Station. Other rail lines from the south also commence usage. B&P station & adjacent Mall trackage abandoned. Old B&P station demolished after August, 1908.

41) February 7, 1908 Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis Electric RR opens between Washington & Annapolis. Service opens to Baltimore March 25,1908 departing Baltimore Park Ave. terminal at 10: 15 AM

42) June 24, 1908 First streetcar service to Union Station, over 8 months after opening (compliments of DC City Commissioners).

43) 1908 Union Station formally dedicated. Designed by architect Daniel Burnham who also was instrumental in the 1893 Columbian World's Fair

44) 1915 In this peak period of Washington trolley history there were traction lines radiating out to the following destinations: Great Falls (Maryland shore), Glen Echo Amusement Park, Rockville, Kensington, Laurel, Annapolis, Baltimore, Seat Pleasant, Congress Heights, Mt. Vernon, Alexandria, Vienna, Fairfax, Leesburg, Great Falls (Virginia shore), and Bluemont.

45) Late March (29),1924 C&O Canal finally ceases operating after another of many floods (the 5th) causes excessive damage.The Canal had been owned for many years by the B&O RR, keeping other would-be competitors (the Western Md. Railway.) from the property. B&O keeps the canal serviceable though mostly dry until the 1936 floods and then sells the entire 184.7 mile long canal, Georgetown, DC to Cumberland, Md to the US Park Service in October, 1938 for $2,000,000.

46) January 17,1932 Last Arlington & Fairfax streetcar departs from 12th & D Streets, NW, abandoning all service in Washington, D.C.

47) December 1, 193 3 Capital Transit formed by consolidation of Washington Railway & Electric Co and Capital Traction Co. thereby placing all street railways under one management for the first time

48) January 28,1935 Mainline electrified train service commences on PRR Washington to New York.

49) April 15,1935 Last Chesapeake Beach Railway train leaves "resort" at II:50 AM. Only 2.9 miles of inner line kept & reorganized as East Washington Railway for switching coal to Pepco at Benning power plant via Capital Transit Steeple cabs and the B&O RR.

50) Summer,1935 Several major streetcar abandonments in favor of bus substitutions: P Street line, Anacostia-Congress Heights line, Rockville line, Connecticut Ave line, Kensington-Chevy Chase Lake line all converted to internal combustion.

51) August 20,1935 Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis electric inter-urban railroad abandons all operations.

52) 193 7 First streamlined road passenger diesels in the country begin operation on the B&O RR Washington-New York & Washington-Chicago.

53) June 3,1942 Shepherd's Landing emergency bridge construction across the Potomac River commences.

54) November 1, 1942 First train crosses 3,3 60 ft. long Shepherd's Landing Bridge connecting B&O's Alexandria branch with Potomac Yard, Alexandria.

55) April II, 1944 Washington, D.C. Chapter, NRHS chartered.

56) November 14,1945 Shepherd's Landing bridge withdrawn from service. During 3 years of service required I train a day to maintain safety. Averaged 3 to 7 trains daily with a maximum of 184 trains reached in the entire month of October, 1944. Bridge demolished early 1947.

57) October 21,1951 First chartered fantrip by Washington Chapter, NRHS Washington, D.C. to Strasburg, VA via Harpers Ferry on the B&O RR.

58) Thursday, January 15,1953 Pennsylvania RR "Federal Express" train wreck injures 43 na Union Station no fatalities. Read more about the Wreck of the Federal Express .

59) Saturday, June 7, 1953 C&O Hudson #490 comes out of retirement for Washington Chapter excursion to Charlottesville, Va. This was the last C&O steam into or out of Washington. Engine is preserved today at the B&O RR Museum in Baltimore.

60) November 2,1953 Last regularly scheduled steam run, B&O train #22 "The Washingtonian" Eng #5306 Class P7 Washington to Baltimore-Camden Station departs at 6:30 PM

61) Sunday, January 3,1954 last Union Station steam passenger train departs Washington to Richmond RF&P eng #622 "Carter Braxton" departs at approx. 1: 40 PM

62) December 29,1954 East Washington Railway takes over switching directly from B&O to Pepco Power plant at Benning, eliminating 3-way transfer and switching costs.

63) Summer,1955 Congress revokes Capital Transit Co franchise following 45-day strike by carmen and passes Public Law #389 which specifies that the new operator will provide an all bus system within 8 years. Takes over I year to find a buyer for franchise.

64) September 7,1958 Eckington-Mt. Rainier-Branchville street car line abandoned

65) January 3,1960 Glen Echo, Friendship Heights & Georgia Avenue street car lines, abandoned. Only conduit operations remain.

66) Sunday, January 28,1962 Navy Yard, 14th & Colorado, Bureau Engraving, Calvert Street Loop, 17th & Penna. Ave SE & Union Station street car lines abandoned. Last street car pulls into Navy Yard carhouse ending 99 1/2 years of street railway service in the Nation's Capital.

67) April, 1962 First steam since 1954 The "General" of Civil War fame visits under its own power

68) Saturday & Sunday, August 15-16, 1964 First mainline steam since 1954. Reading Rambles Washington to Baltimore & Philadelphia powered by Reading T- 1 #2102

69) Saturday & Sunday, October 2-3, 1966 The first and only Southern Railway steam specials originate from Washington Union Station. All future specials originate from Alexandria, Va.

70) 1969-1970 3 Sisters Bridge construction in Georgetown commences causing release of funds for Washington Metro subway. Subway construction finally nears completion as of 1999. 3 Sisters Bridge never built.

71) May 1, 1971 National Passenger Railroad (Amtrak) a quasi-government corporation formed to takeover, maintain & operate virtually all inter-city passenger railroads, commences service.

72) May 1972 Last steam passenger excursion into Washington Union Station Reading engine 2102 Philadelphia-Washington round trip.

73) 1974 Maryland Dept.of Transportation (MDOT) begins subsidization of commuter service.

74) Saturday, March 27,1976 First 4.6 miles of Washington Metro subway opens. Brentwood Shops of Metro largely took over former Eckington coach yards of B&O at Ivy City

75) 1978 East Washington Railway abandons all operations.

76) 1984 Maryland Rail Commuter (MARC) name applied officially to Maryland Department of Transportation (MDOT) service.

77) June, 1981 Washington Terminal Company purchased by Amtrak. Takes until December, 1985 to assimilate all unions into its Washington Division.

78) September 15,1981 Smithsonian hosts a 150th grand celebration of the "John Bull" steam locomotive, with it operating on the B&O's Georgetown Branch

79) January 13,1982 First fatalities on Metrorail occur almost simultaneously with unrelated Air Florida airline crash 30 minutes earlier. Three killed on Metro- 78 die on airliner.

80) April 30,1983 Charles Fenwick bridge on Metro's Yellow Line crossing the Potomac River is opened to revenue service. This is the longest structure of its kind in the world devoted exclusively to

81) 1986 Georgetown Branch abandoned

82) Thursday, September 29, 1988 rededication of Union Station after $160 million + spent in revitalization

83) June 22,1992 Virginia Railway Express (VRE) commuter RR commences service from Northern Virginia

This information compiled by Chapter Member Bob Cohen.

"The Richmond-Washington Line" by Richard E. Prince, 1973

"Impossible Challenge" and "Impossible Challenge 11" by Herbert Harwood, 1979, 1994

"100 Years of Capital Traction" by Leroy 0. King, 1972, 1976, 1989

"Railroad Magazine" & "Railroad Stories Magazine" various issues 1932-1979

"Rail Excursions From Washington the First 20 Years 1951-1971 " Washington, D.C. Chapter NRHS

"The World Almanac & Book of Facts" 1999

"The Chesapeake Beach Railway" by Ames Williams, 1975,

"The Baltimore & Potomac Railroad" by John M.Wearmouth, 1986

"Alexander R. Shepherd and the Board of Public Works" by William M. Maury,

"The Story of Metro" by Ronald H. Deiter,

"Southern Railway System" by Richard E. Prince, 1970, 1983

"Every Hour on the Hour" by John Merriken, 1993

"Trains Magazine" a Kalmbach publication various issues 1940-1999

"The Met" by Susan Sonderberg, 1998

"Old Dominion Trolley, Too" by John Merriken, 1987

"Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad-The Capital Cities Route" by William E. Griffin, Jr., 1994

"One Hundred Fifty Years of History Along the Richmond, Fredericksburg And Potomac Railroad" by William E. Griffin, Jr., 1984

"Washington - Past & Present - A History" Vols I & 2 of a 5 Volume set Copyrighted 1930

"Home On The Canal" by Elizabeth Kytle, 1983

"A Brief History of the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad" by John Mordecai, 1940

"A History of Relay, MD & the Thomas Viaduct" by Daniel Carroll Toomey, 1976, 1984

"Washington & Old Dominion Railroad, 1847-1968" by Ames W. Williams, 1970, 1977, 1984 ++

"Rails to the Blue Ridge 1847-1963" by Herbert H> Harwood, Jr.,c I 963,


History of Washington, D.C. - History


Jefferson Memorial on the south side of the Tidal Basin in Washington, D.C.

Associate Pages

Visitor Statistics Washington, D.C.

Lincoln Memorial - 7,808,182 visitors, #5 Most Visited NPU
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Park - 5,116,787 visitors, #11
World War II Memorial - 4,831,327 visitors, #12
Vietnam Veterans Memorial - 4,580,587 visitors, #14
Korean War Veterans Memorial - 3,841,633 visitors, #24
Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial - 3,667,562 visitors, #25
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial - 3,303,573 visitors, #31
Jefferson Memorial - 3,096,895 visitors, #34
Rock Creek Park - 2,416,232 visitors, #40
National Capitol Parks Central - 1,770,794 visitors, #50
National Capital Parks East - 1,210,641 visitors, #70
President's Park - 715,911 visitors, #95
Ford's Theatre - 715,911 visitors, #117
White House - 454,117 visitors, #128
LBJ Memorial Grove - 244,246 visitors, #171
Theodore Roosevelt Island - 151,500 visitors, #205
Washington's Monument - 108,410, #235
Frederick Douglass NHS - 61,063 visitors, #270
Mary McLeod Bethune Council House NHS - 3,788 visitors, #369
Arlington House - NA visitors

Source: NPS, 2019 Visitor Statistics Visitor Rank among 378 units.

Park Size

Lincoln Memorial - 107 acres
Korean War Veterans Memorial - 2.2 acres
Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial - 2.7 acres
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Park - 19,611 acres
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial - 8 acres
Rock Creek Park - 1,755 acres
National Capitol Parks - 6,437 acres
National Mall - 146 acres
Ford's Theatre - 0.3 acres
Washington's Monument - 106 acres
White House - 18 acres
Arlington House - 28 acres
LBJ Memorial Grove - 17 acres
Pennsylvania Avenue - 0.26 acres
Theodore Roosevelt Island - 89 acres
Frederick Douglass NHS - 9 acres
Mary McLeod Bethune Council House NHS - 0.07 acres

Park Fee

National Mall, Memorials, and Smithsonian Monuments, memorials, Capitol building, Arlington, White House, Smithsonia Instutition museums, and most other attractions - Free

Some additional films and attractions inside the buildings, such as the IMAX film and simulators in the Smithsonian's Air and Space Museum do charge an entrance fee.

Mount Vernon
$17/$20 - Adults Advance Online/At Site, $16 - Seniors 62+, $9 Children 6-11

Frederick Douglass NHS
$1.50 Reserved Ticket Tour Fee, Unreserved ticket free on first come first served basis.

Mary McLeod Bethune Council House NHS
Besplatno

Fees subject to change without notice.

Vrijeme

Above: The Washington Monument, uncompleted without capstone, from the Department of Agriculture building, circa 1880. Source: LOC. Photo right: World War II Memorial with the Washington Monument in the background.

Washington, D.C.

Almost from the moment the streets of Washington, D.C. were laid out by L'Enfant and the stones for the foundation of the White House placed, you could feel the history of the United States forming from the soil that surrounded each building. Rising along the Potomac River would come the Capitol Building, the Smithsonian Institution, the Washington Monument, and the myriad of other monuments, memorials, museums, and government buildings both around the National Mall and beyond. And they continued to grow, including embassies from around the world to fountained gardens and tidal basins of water and marble. There is so much to do in the dizzying array of historic buildings, museums, and monuments that it seems almost impossible to do them all.

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Washington Then

White House - 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue where the President of the United States has lived since the year 1800 days of John Adams. The White House may be visited by tourists, although tickets are limited and must be ordered in advance of your arrival from your Congressmen. There is a visitor center there for others, as well as the view from behind the gates along Pennsylvania Avenue, which is currently blocked from traffic due to the fear of terrorism.

Capitol Building - The majestic hall of government is open to visitation daily, except Sunday, for tours. Of course, it is also the site during sessions of the House of Representatives and Senate where the laws of Congress are debated and passed. Many office buildings surround the structure, housing the offices of the various office holders.

Smithsonian Institution - What started out as an ornate structure (now serving as the visitor center) to house the museum pieces of a nation has now grown into a series of museums stretching along the mall, as well as other locations. From the Arts and Industries Building to the Air and Space Museum, from the Museum of the American Indian to the Museum of Natural History, plus many more. Each of these museum can take several hours to visit.

Washington, D.C. Dates of Importance

October 13, 1792 - The cornerstone for the White House, the oldest federal building in the city, is set, two years after the Residence Act authorizes President Washington to choose the site for the capital along the Potomac River. President Adams moves into the White House in 1800.

1814 - The Capitol buildings in burned by the British during the War of 1812.

1848 - The construction of the Washington Monument starts. It would not be completed until 1885.

1855 - Built from the bequest of James Smithson, the original home of the Smithsonian Institution, known as the castle today, was completed.

1902 - The McMillan Commission proposes a reflecting pool west of the Washington Monument, a memorial to Lincoln, as well as other changes to Pennsylvania Avenue and the National Mall.

1932 - Supreme Court building completed.

April 13, 1943 - Jefferson Memorial is dedicated by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, completing the fourth axis at the southern terminus of the national mall.

May 29, 2004 - World War II Memorial dedicated, eleven years after it was authorized by Congress.

Photo above: Photo above: The original Smithsonian Castle building, now serving as the Visitor Center. Photo below: Rear steps of the Capitol Building on the National Mall, Washington, D.C.


Washington Now

And you would need the better part of a week to do that, but the beauty of the locations of most of these grand patriotic attractions is there proximity to the National Mall and its two simple axis. From the Capitol Building to the Lincoln Memorial from east to west sit the many buildings of the Smithsonian Institution, the monuments to Washington, World War II, Vietnam, Korea, the Lincoln Memorial and more. From the White House to the Jefferson Memorial on a north to south axis that also includes the Washington Monument congregate another collection, including the Tidal Basin and the new FDR Memorial and the Holocaust Museum.

Washington is our nation's capitol today, and has been for over two hundred years following short stints in Philadelphia, New York, and York. It's purpose upon creation in 1790 was to serve as the headquarters of the government, which, with the grand collection of office buildings that dot the streets just off and on the mall, goes to prove that point for certain. And for many people who use Washington as their home, or temporary home, or even to visit, it is in those halls of government that they visit. For others on vacation or visiting, it is the museums and monuments that draw most of their attention. Washington, D.C., particularly during the week, is a very busy place. Weekends less so, since most of the government buildings are not conducting business during those days. Parking is at a premium and the rules strictly enforced. It is often suggested that you visit Washington by taking the Metro into one of the convenient stations to the National Mall and use Circular Bus around the Mall to ferry you from one building to the next. You may board it as many times as you like during the day. Other buses also provide this service. However, there is parking available along the streets (many are 1 hour weekdays, 3 hours weekends) and in lots (all day) to the south of the Jefferson Memorial. There is a lot of walking to do no matter whether you take the bus or park, and finding a parking spot right next to some attractions is hard to find. Some day this should be corrected by the park service to accommodate those who find walking difficult. Some handicap spaces do exist.

You could spend a day or a week moving in and out of the various buildings or taking a ranger tour of one of the monuments there. In summer, most monuments and memorials have guided walks (free of charge) four times per day. Check at the visitor information centers near each location for the specific times and topics. Our nation's capitol, Washington, D.C. is a must for any tourist who loves the country and our history.

Washington Monument - The first built monument to the nation's first president looms over the skyline of the District of Columbia from all points. It is located in the center of the National Mall's two axis. You may climb the steps of the monument (timed tickets are required and available on the first come, first served basis.

World War II Memorial - One of the newest of the monuments in Washington and to us, one of the most spectacular. It is still wondered why it took so long to build a monument to the 16 million men and women who served in uniform for the United States in World War II, and the selection of the location between the Washington and Lincoln memorial was a constroversial spot. However, there is little no controversy about it now. With two large fountains and a respectful design that evokes the pride and sacrifice made during that time, it sits as a reminder of the valor exhibited by all who endured the hardships of war necessary to keep of freedoms intact. Over 50 million people died across the globe in World War II, including 400,000 Americans.


The Octagon Museum

1799 New York Ave. NW Washington, DC. This building was designed by Dr. William Thornton, the first architect of the U.S. Capitol. It was part of the Pierre L'Enfant plan to establish a residential section of the federal city. During the War of 1812, the Octagon served as a temporary home for James and Dolley Madison after the White House was burned. Later, the building served as a girls school, the Navy Hydrographic Office, and headquarters for the American Institute of Architects. Today, the historic building serves as a museum of architecture, design, historic preservation, and the early history of Washington, DC.


A look at the rich history of protests in Washington, D.C.

Just a few blocks from where President Trump took the oath of office one day earlier, a very different gathering of the masses was planned for Saturday. Hundreds of thousands of people are demonstrating to protect rights many women feel could be in danger.

&ldquoWhat&rsquos the message of the march?&rdquo &ldquoCBS This Morning: Saturday&rdquo co-host Alex Wagner asked Tamika Mallory, Linda Sarsour, Carmen Perez and Bob Bland &ndash national co-chairs of the Women&rsquos March on Washington.

&ldquoThe message of the march is that diverse groups of people will be coming together to say that our voices must be heard,&rdquo Mallory said. &ldquoWe need to ensure every level of government that&rsquos in this city understands that women&rsquos rights are not to be played with.&rdquo

At least 200,000 are expected to march up Independence Avenue -- a four-mile stretch running along the National Mall from the Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial, just south of the White House.

They follow a long tradition of Americans marching to have their voices heard.

&ldquoAll of you have had a lot of experience in public protest. What sets this event apart from those?&rdquo Wagner asked.

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&ldquoThis is an ultimate grassroots effort. This is absolutely a moment to send a message that ordinary people -- the mom, the teacher, the social worker -- can organize in a way that people haven&rsquot been able to in a very long time.&rdquo

&ldquoIt is the place where the Constitution comes to life,&rdquo said Mike Litterst of the National Park Service, which grants nearly 3,000 permits for protests each year.

&ldquoWhen it comes to evaluating what groups get permitted and what groups don&rsquot, can you tell me a little bit about how that assessment works?&rdquo Wagner asked.

&ldquoWe make no requirement on messaging or we don&rsquot censure the content. So any group. who requests a First Amendment permit is granted one,&rdquo Litterst said.

Litterst told us in any given inauguration, they&rsquoll receive no more than a half-dozen permits requests. This year, it was 30 &ndash a five-fold increase.

For more than 100 years, Washington has hosted marches from groups ranging from the Klu Klux Klan to the supporters of the suffrage movement.

&ldquoIt&rsquos become the thing that you do if you have a major sort of cause,&rdquo historian William Jones said.

But Jones said the first Americans to protest the federal government marched to Washington, when Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey led a group of 100 to the Capitol steps in 1894.

&ldquoCoxey&rsquos army was demanding work. It was a work protest, and so there were a series of these sort of unemployed marches, work marches, particularly in the 1930s,&rdquo Jones said. &ldquoSo people actually marched for a very long distance. They were all just kind of. greeted with repression, and I think that&rsquos what really shifted in 1963 with the March on Washington.&rdquo

That march would forever change the public&rsquos imagination.

&ldquoIn the early days, it was almost a threat. It was not a good thing coming to Washington to take a stand. How did that change?&rdquo Wagner asked.

&ldquoYou woke up in the morning and you read in the news that this is actually much bigger than anybody anticipated, a quarter-million people showed up, there was not one instance of violence, and there was this sort of shock,&rdquo Jones said.

From Vietnam to Iraq, prayer vigils to rallies for reproductive rights, conservatives led by Glenn Beck and Sarah Palin to those led by Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert, Washington has hosted them all.

&ldquoWhy does it matter to have public protests in this particular moment?&rdquo Wagner asked.

&ldquoBecause it&rsquos always mattered to have public protests and right now we need people who are coming from all walks of life to stand together to say that the will of the people will always stand,&rdquo Mallory said.


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