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Zašto je Thomas Larkin napisao svoje biografske crtice?

Zašto je Thomas Larkin napisao svoje biografske crtice?



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Thomas Larkin, bogati trgovac Montereyja u Kaliforniji 1840 -ih, bio je konzul Sjedinjenih Država. Bio je i tajni agent predsjednika Buchanana koji je u Washington poslao 78 mikrobiografija "glavnih ljudi" u Kaliforniji. Na sustavan način opisao je utjecaj i politiku tih ljudi; tekst je reproduciran u Larkin radovi.

Želim znati zašto su ove informacije bile zanimljive za američku vladu. Jesu li Buchanan ili njegovi punomoćnici izravno zahtijevali ovu vrstu izvješća? Jesu li SAD učinile nešto s biografskim podacima koje je poslao Larkin?

Izvori: Thomas O. Larkin: Domoljubni život i profit u Staroj Kaliforniji autora Hague & Langum i Osnivanje Dalekog zapada: Kalifornija, Oregon i Nevada, 1840-1890 od Johnsona.


Radio je svoj posao. Njegov "pravi".

Službeno je započeo kao američki konzul u Alta California. Ali to je bilo svojevrsno pokriće za njegovu pravu ulogu, koja je bila "povjerljivi agent", ili ono što bismo mogli nazvati tajnim agentom. Zamislite operativca CIA -e koji u ime Sjedinjenih Država ima ulogu u lokalnim političkim poslovima, djelujući pod pokroviteljstvom konzulata. Jednostavno rečeno, bio je "špijun", a pisanje izvještaja o aktivnostima ključnih lokalnih ljudi veliki je dio onoga što špijuni rade.

Služio je pod demokratskim predsjednicima, prvo James K. Polk 1840 -ih, a kasnije James Buchanan 1850 -ih.


Biografija

Ova biografska skica namijenjena je kao prvi opći pristup čovjeku i njegovim djelima. Račun je podijeljen u tri glavna dijela: prve godine (1716-1741), koji uključuje Grayevo djetinjstvo, vrijeme na Eton Collegeu, prijateljstvo s Ashtonom, Westom i Walpoleom, prve godine na Cambridgeu i njegovu veliku turneju srednjih godina (1742-1758), koji daje prikaz Grayevih ranih pjesama, njegovog života nakon povratka na Cambridge, povijest "Elegije", a završava objavljivanjem njegovih Pindarskih Odesa kasnijim godinama (1759-1771), koji sadrži Grayev život i studije od njegovih nordijskih i velških oda do konačnog sastava, njegovih putovanja po nekoliko regija Velike Britanije, kao i njegovih kasnijih poznanika. Ukratko zaključak na kraju ističe Grayeva postignuća i pjesničko naslijeđe. Ovaj se izvještaj u velikoj mjeri usredotočuje na Grayev život u odnosu na njegovu poeziju, dotiče se samo kratko njegovih drugih važnih i plodnih aktivnosti, naime njegovog opsežnog znanstvenog rada i pisanja pisama. Čitatelj bi trebao pregledati popis citiranih djela, odjeljak tiskanih cjelovitih biografija u bibliografiji i dio izvora Thomas Gray povezani Linkovi odjeljak za detaljnije informacije. Molimo vas da svoje prijedloge, ispravke i dopune pošaljete uredniku.


Prve godine

1854. Samuel Edison postao je svjetioničar i stolar na vojnoj postaji Fort Gratiot u blizini Port Hurona u Michiganu, gdje je obitelj živjela u velikoj kući. Alva je, kako je izumitelj bio poznat do drugog braka, tamo ušao u školu i povremeno pohađao pet godina. Bio je maštovit i znatiželjan, ali, budući da su mnoge pouke bile napamet i da je imao poteškoća sa sluhom, bilo mu je dosadno i označeni su kao neprikladni. Da bi to kompenzirao, postao je strastveni i svejedi čitatelj. Edisonov nedostatak formalnog školovanja nije bio neobičan. U vrijeme građanskog rata prosječni Amerikanac pohađao je školu ukupno 434 dana, što je prema današnjim standardima nešto više od dvije godine školovanja.

Godine 1859. Edison je napustio školu i počeo raditi kao vozač na pruzi između Detroita i Port Hurona. Četiri godine ranije, Michigan Central započeo je komercijalnu primjenu telegrafa koristeći ga za kontrolu kretanja vlakova, a Građanski rat donio je veliko proširenje prijevoza i komunikacije. Edison je iskoristio priliku da nauči telegrafiju i 1863. postao je telegraf -šegrt.

Poruke primljene na početnom Morseovom telegrafu bile su ispisane kao niz točaka i crtica na traci papira koja je dekodirana i pročitana, pa Edisonova djelomična gluhoća nije bila hendikep. Primatelji su sve više bili opremljeni zvučnim ključem, što je telegrafistima omogućilo da "čitaju" poruke klikovima. Transformacija telegrafije u auditivnu umjetnost ostavila je Edisona sve više u nepovoljnom položaju tijekom njegove šestogodišnje karijere kao putujućeg telegrafista na Srednjem zapadu, jugu, Kanadi i Novoj Engleskoj. Dosta snalažljiv i pronicljiv, posvetio je mnogo svoje energije poboljšanju opreme za zatvaranje i izmišljanju uređaja kako bi olakšao neke zadatke koje su mu fizička ograničenja otežala. Do siječnja 1869. postigao je dovoljno napretka s dupleksnim telegrafom (uređajem koji je mogao prenositi dvije poruke istodobno na jednoj žici) i pisačem, koji je pretvarao električne signale u slova, pa je napustio telegrafiju radi stalnog izuma i poduzetništva.

Edison se preselio u New York, gdje je u početku ušao u partnerstvo s Frankom L. Popeom, poznatim stručnjakom za elektriku, za proizvodnju Edisonovog univerzalnog pisača i drugih tiskarskih telegrafa. Između 1870. i 1875. radio je u Newarku, New Jersey, i bio je uključen u mnoga partnerstva i složene transakcije u žestoko konkurentnoj i zamršenoj telegrafskoj industriji, kojom je dominirala Western Union Telegraph Company. Kao neovisni poduzetnik bio je dostupan najboljem ponuditelju i igrao je s obje strane protiv sredine. U tom je razdoblju radio na poboljšanju automatskog telegrafskog sustava za suparnike Western Uniona. Automatski telegraf, koji je snimao poruke kemijskom reakcijom izazvanom električnim prijenosom, pokazao se kao ograničen komercijalni uspjeh, ali je rad unaprijedio Edisonovo znanje o kemiji i postavio osnovu za njegov razvoj električne olovke i mimeografa, oba važna uređaja u ranoj industriji uredskih strojeva, a posredno je dovelo do otkrića fonografa. Pod okriljem Western Uniona osmislio je četverostruki uređaj sposoban za prijenos četiri poruke istovremeno putem jedne žice, no željeznički barun i financijer s Wall Streeta Jay Gould, ogorčeni suparnik Western Uniona, oteli su četverostruki iz ruke telegrafske tvrtke u prosincu 1874. plativši Edisonu više od 100.000 USD u gotovini, obveznicama i dionicama, jedno od većih plaćanja za bilo koji izum do tada. Uslijedile su godine sudskih sporova.


T.S. Eliot

T homas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965) rođen je u St. Louisu, Missouri, u staroj obitelji iz Nove Engleske. Obrazovao se na Harvardu, a diplomirao filozofiju na Sorbonni, Harvard i Merton College u Oxfordu. Nastanio se u Engleskoj, gdje je jedno vrijeme bio učitelj škole i bankovni činovnik, a na kraju i književni urednik izdavačke kuće Faber & amp Faber, čiji je kasnije postao direktor. Osnovao je i tijekom sedamnaest godina od izlaženja (1922.-1939.) Uređivao ekskluzivni i utjecajni književni časopis Criterion. 1927. Eliot je postao britanski državljanin i otprilike u isto vrijeme ušao u Anglikansku crkvu.

Eliot je bio jedan od najhrabrijih inovatora poezije dvadesetog stoljeća. Nikada ne praveći kompromise ni s javnošću, ni sa samim jezikom, slijedio je svoje uvjerenje da bi poezija trebala težiti predstavljanju složenosti suvremene civilizacije u jeziku i da takvo predstavljanje nužno dovodi do teške poezije. Unatoč ovoj poteškoći, njegov utjecaj na modernu pjesničku dikciju bio je ogroman. Eliotova poezija iz Prufrock (1917.) do Četiri kvarteta (1943.) odražava razvoj kršćanskog književnika: osobito rano djelo Pusto zemljište (1922), u biti je negativan, izraz onog užasa iz kojeg proizlazi potraga za višim svijetom. U Pepelnica (1930.) i Četiri kvarteta ovaj viši svijet postaje vidljiviji unatoč tome Eliot se uvijek brinuo da ne postane «vjerski pjesnik». i često omalovažavao moć poezije kao vjerske sile. Međutim, njegove drame Ubistvo u katedrali (1935.) i Ponovno okupljanje obitelji (1939.) otvorenije su kršćanske isprike. U svojim esejima, osobito kasnijim, Eliot zagovara tradicionalizam u religiji, društvu i književnosti koji se čini u suprotnosti s njegovim pionirskim djelovanjem kao pjesnikom. No iako je Eliot od Bilješke prema definiciji kulture (1948.) stariji je čovjek od pjesnika Rusije Pusto zemljište, ne treba zaboraviti da je za Eliota tradicija živi organizam koji se sastoji od prošlosti i sadašnjosti u stalnoj međusobnoj interakciji. Eliotove predstave Ubistvo u katedrali (1935), Ponovno okupljanje obitelji (1939), Koktel zabava (1949), Povjerljivi referent (1954.), i Stariji državnik(1959.) objavljene su u jednom svesku 1962. godine Sabrane pjesme 1909-62 pojavila se 1963. godine.

Iz Nobelova predavanja, književnost 1901-1967, Urednik Horst Frenz, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969. godine

Ova autobiografija/biografija napisana je u vrijeme dodjele nagrade i prvi put objavljena u nizu knjiga Nobelova nagrada Les Prix. Kasnije je uređena i ponovno objavljena godine Nobelova predavanja. Da biste citirali ovaj dokument, uvijek navedite izvor kao što je prikazano gore.

T.S. Eliot je umro 4. siječnja 1965. godine.

Autorska prava i kopija Nobelova zaklada 1948

Da citiram ovaj odjeljak
MLA stil: T.S. Eliot – Biografski. NobelPrize.org. Doseg Nobelove nagrade AB 2021. Pet. 18. lipnja 2021. & lttttps: //www.nobelprize.org/prizes/literature/1948/eliot/biographical/>

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Nobelove nagrade 2020

Dvanaest laureata dobitnici su Nobelove nagrade 2020. za postignuća koja su donijela najveću korist čovječanstvu.

Njihov rad i otkrića kreću se od stvaranja crnih rupa i genetskih škara do napora u borbi protiv gladi i razvoju novih formata dražbi.


Maltuzijanska teorija

Godine 1798. Malthus je anonimno objavio prvo izdanje Esej o principu stanovništva koji utječe na buduće poboljšanje društva, s napomenama o nagađanjima g. Godwina, M. Condorceta i drugih pisaca. Rad je dobio široku popularnost. Ukratko, grubo, ali upečatljivo, Malthus je ustvrdio da beskonačne ljudske nade u društvenu sreću moraju biti uzaludne, jer će stanovništvo uvijek preteći rast proizvodnje. Povećanje stanovništva dogodit će se, ako se ne kontrolira, u geometrijskoj progresiji, dok će se sredstva za život povećati samo u aritmetičkoj progresiji. Stanovništvo će se uvijek širiti do granica egzistencije. Samo su "poroci" (uključujući "ratno počinjenje"), "bijeda" (uključujući glad ili nedostatak hrane i loše zdravlje) i "moralna suzdržanost" (tj. Apstinencija) mogli provjeriti ovaj pretjerani rast.

Malthusova misao odražava reakciju, prijateljski vođenu, na očeva gledišta i doktrine Francuske revolucije i njenih pristaša, poput engleskog radikalnog filozofa Williama Godwina. Široko se čita za takva djela kao Politička pravda (1793.), Godwin je uzeo zdravo za gotovo savršenstvo čovječanstva i osvrnuo se na tisućljeće u kojem će razumni ljudi živjeti prosperitetno i skladno bez zakona i institucija. Za razliku od Godwina (ili, ranije, Rousseaua), koji je ljudske poslove promatrao s teorijskog stajališta, Malthus je u biti bio empirist i za polazište je uzeo surove stvarnosti svog vremena. Njegova se reakcija razvila u tradiciji britanske ekonomije, koja bi se danas smatrala sociološkom (vidjeti ekonomska sociologija).

Malthus je bio ekonomski pesimist, gledajući na siromaštvo kao na neizbježno bogatstvo čovječanstva. Argument u prvom izdanju njegova rada o populaciji u biti je apstraktan i analitički. Nakon daljnjeg čitanja i putovanja po Europi, Malthus je izdao sljedeće izdanje (1803.), proširujući dugi pamflet iz 1798. u dužu knjigu i dodajući mnogo činjeničnog materijala i ilustracije svojoj tezi. Ni u jednom trenutku, čak ni do posljednjeg i masovnog šestog izdanja 1826. godine, nikada nije na odgovarajući način izložio svoje prostorije niti ispitao njihov logički status. Niti je sa svojim činjeničnim i statističkim materijalima postupao s mnogo kritičke ili statističke strogosti, iako su statističari u Europi i Velikoj Britaniji razvili sve sofisticiranije tehnike tijekom Malthusova života. Američki sociolog i demograf iz 20. stoljeća Kingsley Davis primijetio je da, iako su se Malthusove teorije temeljile na snažnim empirijskim temeljima, one su bile najslabije u svom empirizmu i najjače u svojoj teorijskoj formulaciji. U dobru i zlu, maltuzijanska teorija stanovništva ipak je ugrađena u teorijske ekonomske sustave. Djelovao je kao kočnica ekonomskog optimizma, pomogao je opravdati teoriju o plaćama zasnovanu na minimalnim troškovima uzdržavanja primatelja plaće i obeshrabrio tradicionalne oblike dobročinstva.

Maltuzijanska teorija stanovništva imala je snažan i neposredan utjecaj na britansku socijalnu politiku. Vjerovalo se da sama plodnost dodaje nacionalno bogatstvo. Jadni zakoni možda su poticali velike obitelji svojim lutkama. Da su oni "nikada nisu postojali", napisao je Malthus, "iako je moglo postojati još nekoliko slučajeva ozbiljne nevolje, ukupna masa sreće među običnim ljudima bila bi mnogo veća nego što je sada." Ti su zakoni ograničili mobilnost radne snage, rekao je, te potaknuli plodnost i trebali bi se ukinuti. Za najnesretnije bi moglo biti razumno osnovati radne kuće - ne „udobne azile“, već mjesta na kojima bi „tarifa trebala biti teška“ i „teška nevolja ... pronaći neko olakšanje“.

Nastavio je objavljivati ​​razne brošure i traktate o ekonomiji. U pristupu koji je manje rigorozan od Ricardovog, Malthus je raspravljao o problemu određivanja cijene u smislu institucionalno određene "efektivne potražnje", izraza koji je izmislio. U svom sažetku Načela političke ekonomije razmatrana s ciljem njihove praktične primjene (1820), Malthus je otišao toliko daleko da je predložio javne radove i privatna ulaganja u luksuz kao moguća rješenja za ekonomske teškoće kroz njihovu sposobnost povećanja potražnje i prosperiteta. Kritizirao je one koji su štedljivost cijenili kao vrlinu, ne poznajući ograničenja u suprotnom, ustvrdio je da će "načela štednje, prenaglašena, uništiti motiv proizvodnje". Da bi povećala bogatstvo, nacija je morala uravnotežiti „moć proizvodnje i volju za potrošnjom“. Zapravo, može se reći da je Malthus, kao ekonomist zabrinut za ono što je nazvao problemom „prejedanja“ (ili, kako bi se oni danas nazvali, problemima gospodarske recesije ili depresije), mogao je predvidjeti ekonomska otkrića Engleski ekonomist John Maynard Keynes 1930 -ih.

S druge strane, temeljna kritika Malthusa bila je njegov propust da cijeni tekuću britansku poljoprivrednu revoluciju, koja je na kraju uzrokovala da proizvodnja hrane dostigne ili premaši rast stanovništva i omogućila prosperitet većem broju ljudi. Malthus također nije predvidio široku uporabu kontraceptiva, što je dovelo do pada stope plodnosti.


U službi kralja Henrika VIII

Godine 1520. reformator Martin Luther objavio je tri djela u kojima je iznio svoju doktrinu spasenja, koja se, prema Lutheru, mogla postići samo milošću, serija je odbacila određene katoličke prakse i napala druge. 1521. kralj Henry VIII odgovorio je Lutheru uz pomoć Morea u svom Obrana sedam sakramenata. Do tog trenutka, More je postao blagajnik Engleske i aposus, ali je također služio i kao intelektualni dvorjanin Henrija i aposa, tajnik i povjerenik, a 1523. izabran je za predsjednika Donjeg doma.


Zašto je Thomas Larkin napisao svoje biografske crtice? - Povijest

Skica-karta posjećenih gradova nalazi se u podnožju stranice.

Kliknite ovdje kako biste dobili uvid u složenu geografiju i bezbroj vladara Tiringije iz 16. stoljeća.

Značajni datumi

Povijesna pozadina

Rođenje, obitelj i obrazovanje

Thomas M & uumlntzer rođen je krajem 1489. (21. prosinca?) Ili početkom 1490. u gradiću Stolberg u njemačkom gorju Harz. Legenda da su feudalne vlasti okrutno pogubile njegova oca odavno se pokazala nažalost neistinitom. Zapravo, postoje svi razlozi za vjerovanje da je Thomas imao prilično ugodno iskustvo i odgoj - o čemu svjedoči njegovo dugotrajno obrazovanje. Obojica njegovih roditelja bili su još živi 1520. godine, a majka mu je umrla otprilike u to vrijeme, što je dovelo do neslaganja između Thomasa i njegova oca 1521. godine, po pitanju prilično oskudnih ostavština njegove majke.
Ime M & uumlntzer bilo je poznato u Stolbergu od 15. stoljeća, a razne grane obitelji bile su razasute po susjednim gradovima i selima. Ime bi sugeriralo da su u jednom trenutku preci kovali novčiće, ali to je možda bilo i ne trgovina njegova oca. Obitelj se vjerojatno ubrzo nakon 1490. preselila u susjedni i nešto veći grad Quedlinburg, a upravo smo ga kao 'Thomasa Munczera de Quedlinburgka' sljedeći put vidjeli u sveučilišnim zapisima u Leipzigu 1506. Ovdje je možda proučavao Umjetnost ili čak teologija: nažalost, čini se da Thomas zapravo nije završio Leipzig. No čini se da je taj propust nadoknadio upisom na sveučilište Viadriana u Frankfurtu na Oderu šest godina kasnije, 1512. Nije baš sigurno koje je stupnjeve možda stekao - gotovo sigurno diplomu teologije i/ili umjetnosti, a moguće - ali manje sigurno - magistra umjetnosti. Relevantni zapisi puni su rupa ili ih potpuno nema. U neko doba ovog prilično mračnog razdoblja svog života, vjerojatno prije i tijekom studija u Frankfurtu, obnašao je dužnost pomoćnog učitelja u školama u Halleu i Ascherslebenu, a tada je, prema njegovu posljednjem priznanju, navodno osnovali su "ligu" protiv dosadašnjeg magdeburškog nadbiskupa - u koje je svrhe liga formirana, osim da opravda svoje ispovjednike, potpuno je nepoznato.

Rano zapošljavanje

Kontakt s Lutherom

U jesen 1517. boravio je u Wittenbergu, studirao i tražio posao. Ovdje se susreo s Lutherom i duboko se uključio u velike rasprave koje su prethodile objavljivanju Lutherovih teza. Znamo da je pohađao predavanja na tamošnjem sveučilištu, a bio bi izložen Lutherovim idejama, ali i drugim idejama koje potječu od humanista, među koje se također mogao ubrojiti Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt, koji je kasnije postao radikalni Lutherov protivnik. U Wittenbergu je ostao više od godinu dana, no tamo mu je prebivalište često prekidalo putovanje u gradove u Tiringiji i Frankoniji, uvijek tražeći zaposlenje. I dalje je bio plaćen za svoj položaj u Braunschweigu do travnja 1519., kada se pojavio u gradu J & uumlterbog, sjeveroistočno od Wittenberga, gdje su ga zamolili da se zauzme za propovjednika Franza G & uumlnthera. G & uumlnther je već propovijedao reformirano evanđelje, ali su se našli naišli na žestoke napade lokalnih franjevaca koji traže odsustvo (vjerojatno rani oblik profesionalnog stresa), napustio je mjesto događaja i poslao je M & uumlntzera. je prestao, i s dodatnim vim. Ubrzo se lokalna crkvena crkva gorko žalila na M & uumlntzerove heretičke 'članke' koji su osporavali i crkveno učenje i crkvene institucije. Do tada M & uumlntzer nije samo slijedio Lutherova učenja, već je počeo čitati učenja mistika Suso i Tauler, već se ozbiljno pitao o mogućnosti prosvjetljenja kroz snove i vizije, temeljito je istražio ranu povijest Kršćanske crkve, te je bio u kontaktu s drugim, radikalnijim reformatorima poput Karlstadta.
U lipnju 1519. M & uumlntzer je prisustvovao raspravi u Leipzigu, između reformatora Wittenberga (Luther, Melanchthon i Karlstadt) i hijerarhije Rimske crkve, koju je zastupao Johann Eck. Ovo je bila jedna od vrhunaca rane reformacije, a našeg Thomasa nije prošao nezapaženo od strane Luthera koji ga je preporučio na privremeno mjesto u gradu Zwickau. Međutim, krajem te godine zatvoren je u ženski samostan u Beuditzu, blizu Weissenfelsa. Vjerojatno je cijelu zimu proždirao knjige mistika, humanista i prvih povjesničara Crkve.

Zwickau

U svibnju 1520. M & uumlntzer je uspio slijediti Lutherovu preporuku godinu dana ranije i stao je na mjesto privremene zamjene za reformističkog/humanističkog propovjednika po imenu Johann Sylvanus Egranus u crkvi Svete Marije u užurbanom gradu Zwickau (stanovništvo tada oko 7000), blizu granice s Češkom. Zwickau je bio prasak usred važnog područja vađenja željeza i srebra Erzgebirge, a također je bio dom značajnom broju plebejaca, prvenstveno tkalaca. Novac od rudarskih operacija i od komercijalnog buma koji je rudarstvo generiralo infiltrirao se u grad. To je dovelo do sve veće podjele između bogatih i siromašnih građana i paralelne konsolidacije većih proizvođača nad malim obrtnicima. Društvene napetosti bile su velike. Bio je to grad koji je, iako za ono vrijeme izniman, njegovao uvjete koji su predvidjeli putanju mnogih gradova u sljedeća dva stoljeća.
U Svetoj Mariji M & uumlntzer je jednostavno nastavio kako je započeo u J & uumlterbogu, što ga je, naravno, dovelo u sukob s predstavnicima uspostavljene Crkve. On se i dalje smatrao Lutherovim sljedbenikom i kao takav zadržao je podršku gradskog vijeća. Toliko, zapravo, da se, kad se Egranus vratio na dužnost krajem rujna 1520., gradsko vijeće imenovalo M & uumlntzera na stalno mjesto u crkvi Svete Katarine. Konačno je pronašao pravi posao.
Sveta Katarina je bila crkva tkalaca. I to ne bilo koje tkalje. U Zwickauu je već postojao reformski pokret inspiriran husitskom reformacijom iz 15. stoljeća, posebno u svom radikalnom, apokaliptičnom taboritskom okusu. Među tkačima ovaj je pokret bio posebno snažan. Taboritizam, a također i spiritizam. Ovdje je djelovao jedan Nikolaus Storch, radikal samouk koji je svako povjerenje polagao u duhovno otkrivenje kroz snove. Uskoro su se on i M & uumlntzer ugledali kao vjerojatni saveznici. Sljedećih se mjeseci M & uumlntzer sve više sukobljavao s Egranusom, nominalnim predstavnikom Wittenbergovog pokreta, i sve više se miješao u sve moguće buke protiv lokalnih katoličkih svećenika. Gradsko vijeće postalo je nervozno zbog onoga što se događalo u St. Katarini, pa je 16. travnja 1521. konačno odlučilo da je dovoljno: M & uumlntzer je smijenjen sa svog mjesta i prisiljen je napustiti Zwickau.
Kao bilješka uz ovu epizodu, Storch je s nekoliko njegovih sljedbenika u prosincu 1521. otputovao u Wittenberg: Luther je u to vrijeme bio odsutan, sklonjen od carskog gnjeva u dvorac u Wartburg Storch je primio zainteresirani Melanchthon, Lutherov desna ruka, koja je bila prilično spremna uvjeriti se u autentičnost Storchovih uvjerenja. Samo su neki strogi podsjetnici iz Wartburga sačuvali Melanchthon iz povijesnog promašaja. No, vrijedno je napomenuti da su apokaliptični strahovi i entuzijazam prožimali velik dio reformskog pokreta u to vrijeme: sve, uključujući posjete anđela i božansko proročanstvo, bilo je moguće. I Wittenberg je bio zahvaćen takvim nadama i strahovima.

Prag

Početna izviđačka ekspedicija odvela je M & uumlntzera preko granice u Češku do grada Zatec (Saaz) - ovaj je grad bio poznat kao jedna od pet "sigurnih citadela" radikalnih Taborita iz Češke. Međutim, M & uumlntzer je odlučio da će njegova sljedeća luka biti Prag. U Pragu je već bila čvrsto uspostavljena Husitska reformirana crkva, a ovdje je, bez sumnje, Thomas mislio pronaći sigurno utočište u kojem bi mogao razviti svoje sve više ne-luteranske ideje. Vjerojatno nije daleko od njegovih misli bila činjenica da su se tog ljeta osmanske vojske stalno kretale Mađarskom - signalizirajući time kraj vremena. U Prag je stigao krajem lipnja 1521. Dočekan je kao dobrodošlica jer se smatralo da je ono što nije - Lutherov sljedbenik - i bilo mu je dopušteno propovijedati i držati predavanja na Sveučilištu. Našao je vremena i za pripremu sažetka vlastitih uvjerenja koja su se pojavila u onome što je postalo poznato kao `Praški manifest '. Ovaj dokument postoji u četiri oblika - jedan na češkom, jedan na latinskom, dva na njemačkom i jedan od njih napisan je na velikom papiru, veličine oko 50 cm, poput plakata. Gotovo je sigurno da nijedan od četiri stavke ikada objavljeno ili objavljeno u bilo kojem obliku ili obliku. No iz ovog je dokumenta jasno koliko se udaljio od puta Wittenbergovih reformatora i koliko je vjerovao da je reformski pokret nešto apokaliptične prirode.
Početkom prosinca 1521., nakon što su otkrili da M & uumlntzer uopće nije ono što su očekivali, praške su ga vlasti istrčale iz grada.
Sljedećih dvanaest mjeseci proveo je lutajući: pojavio se u Lochauu, Wittenbergu, Stolbergu, Nordhausemu i Weimaru, očajnički se prijavljujući za odgovarajuća radna mjesta, ali nije uspio biti imenovan.

Allstedt

Od prosinca 1522. do ožujka 1523. zaposlio se u cistercitskom ženskom samostanu (Glaucha) nedaleko od Hallea. Ovdje je našao malu priliku da nastavi sa svojim reformama, unatoč postojanju snažnog i militantnog lokalnog reformskog pokreta koji je njegov jedini pokušaj da prekrši pravila dostavljajući zajedništvo 'u obje vrste' plemkinji po imenu Felicitas von Selmenitz vjerojatno doveo izravno do njegovo otpuštanje.
Iznenađujuće, možda je njegov sljedeći post bio relativno trajan i produktivan. Krajem ožujka 1523., vjerojatno pod pokroviteljstvom Selmenitza, imenovan je propovjednikom u crkvi sv. Ivana u Allstedtu. Našao se zajedno s drugim reformatorom, Simonom Haferitzom koji je propovijedao u crkvi sv. Wigbertija. Grad Allstedt bio je mali, jedva nešto više od velikog sela (pop. 600), s impozantnim dvorcem postavljenim na brdu iznad njega. Birač Friedrich sam je imao pravo imenovanja u St. John's, ali ga je gradsko vijeće ili zaboravilo obavijestiti ili nije smatralo da je potrebno njegovo odobrenje. Gotovo odmah po dolasku, M & uumlntzer je bio zauzet propovijedanjem svoje inačice reformiranih doktrina i prevođenjem standardnih crkvenih službi i mise na njemački. Njegovo je propovijedanje bilo popularno, a novost u slušanju bogoslužja na njemačkom bila je tolika da su se ljudi iz okolnog sela i gradova uskoro slijevali u Allstedt - neki izvještaji ukazuju na to da je svake nedjelje u pokretu bilo više od dvije tisuće ljudi. U roku od nekoliko tjedana, Luther je za to čuo i uskoro je pisao lokalnom skupljaču poreza, Hansu Zeissu, tražeći od njega da nagovori M & uumlntzera da dođe u Wittenberg na bliži pregled. M & uumlntzer je odbio ići. Bio je previše zaposlen provođenjem svoje reformacije i nije želio nikakvu raspravu 'iza zatvorenih vrata'. Možda se u sklopu svojih reformi oženio Ottilie von Gersen, bivšom časnom sestrom u proljeće 1524., Ottilie je rodila sina.
Nije samo Luther bio u pitanju. Iz savršeno dobrih razloga, katolički grof Ernst von Mansfeld proveo je ljeto 1523. pokušavajući spriječiti svoje podanike da prisustvuju reformiranim službama u Allstedtu. M & uumlntzer se na svom mjestu osjećao dovoljno sigurnim da u rujnu uputi pismo grofu, naređujući mu da ostavi svoju tiraniju i prijeteći da će s njim postupati 'gore od Luthera s Papom'.
Tijekom cijele bilance 1523., pa do 1524. godine, M & uumlntzer je bio zaposlen u konsolidaciji svojih reformiranih službi i učenja u malom gradu. Našao je vremena i za tiskanje svoje njemačke crkvene službe i dva traktata, Protestacija ili peticija Thomasa M & uumlntzera iz Stolberga u planinama Harz, sada župnik u Allstedtu, o njegovom učenju, počevši od prave kršćanske vjere i krštenja i O lažnoj vjeri, u kojem je iznio svoju doktrinu da prava vjera dolazi iz unutarnje duhovne patnje i očaja.
U ožujku 1524. stvari su došle do vrhunca. Sljedbenici M & uumlntzera spalili su malu kapelicu u Mallerbachu, na veliku ljutnju opatice ženskog samostana Naundorf. Gradsko vijeće i poreznik nisu učinili ništa u vezi s tim bijesom. Međutim, do lipnja su se feudalne vlasti počele hvatati ukoštac i početi smanjivati ​​situaciju. Kao odgovor, ljudi iz Allstedta počeli su se organizirati i naoružavati. U srpnju je M & uumlntzer došao pred izbornog vojvodu Johanna u dvorcu Allstedt, vjerojatno umjesto zakašnjele 'probne propovijedi' za svoj položaj u svetom Ivanu, i izgovorio svoju poznatu propovijed o Drugom poglavlju Danielove knjige - jedva prikrivenu upozoravajući knezove da se uključe u reforme Allstedta ili se suoče s Božjim gnjevom. Reakcija prinčeva nije dokumentirana, ali Luther je postao balistički: objavio je svoju Pismo knezovima Saske u vezi s pobunjeničkim duhom tražeći radikalno protjerivanje iz Saske. Tačnije, knezovi Ernestine jednostavno su pozvali sve relevantne osobe iz Allstedta, uključujući i M & uumlntzera, na ročište u Weimar, gdje su odvojeno ispitani, a zatim upozoreni na njihovo buduće ponašanje. Ovo je saslušanje, međutim, imalo željeni učinak na gradsko vijeće i skupljače poreza, koji su se brzo vratili nazad i okrenuli podršku radikalima.
U noći 7. kolovoza 1524. M & uumlntzer je iskliznuo iz Allstedta (napustivši suprugu i sina, koji su mu se tek kasnije mogli pridružiti), te se uputio prema Carskom slobodnom gradu M & uumlhlhausen, četrdesetak kilometara jugozapadno.

M & uumlhlhausen (prvo prebivalište)

M & uumlhlhausen bio je grad s 8500 stanovnika. Tijekom 1523. društvene napetosti koje su se rasle nekoliko godina su došle do izražaja, a stanovnici su uspjeli otrgnuti neke političke ustupke od elitističke zgrade gradskog vijeća u vezi s tim uspjehom, radikalnom reformom pokret je držao pritisak, pod vodstvom propovjednika laika po imenu Heinrich Pfeiffer, koji je osuđivao praksu stare Crkve s propovjedaonice crkve sv. Nikole. Dakle, prije nego što je M & uumlntzer stigao ovamo, u zraku je već vladala znatna napetost. To, međutim, nije spriječilo M & uumlntzera da učini ono što je najbolje radio - propovijedajući, agitirajući i objavljujući zapaljive brošure protiv Luthera. Njegov suborac ovdje bio je Pfeiffer, dok dvojica muškaraca nisu nužno imali ista uvjerenja, postojalo je dovoljno zajedničkih tačaka po pitanju reformatorske revnosti i vjere u živi božanski duh da im se omogući bliska suradnja. Krajem rujna 1524. dogodio se minijaturni udar, uslijed čega su vodeći članovi gradskog vijeća pobjegli iz grada, odnijevši sa sobom gradska obilježja i općinskog konja. But the coup was short-lived - partly because of divisions within the reformers inside the town, and partly because the peasantry in the surrounding countryside took issue with the 'unchristian behaviour' of the radicals. After only seven weeks in the town, on 27th September, Müntzer was forced to abandon wife and child once more and escape to a safer haven.

Nürnberg and South-West Germany

He went first, by circuitous route, to Nürnberg in the south, where he arranged, through third-parties, the publication of his anti-Lutheran pamphlet A Highly Provoked Speech of Defence and Answer to the Spiritless Easy-Living Flesh in Wittenberg, as well as one entitled Express Unmasking of the False Belief - both of which, unfortunately, were confiscated by the city authorities before too many copies could be distributed. Müntzer himself lay low in Nürnberg, considering that his best strategy would be to get into print, rather than end up in prison. He remained here until late November and then left for the south-west of Germany and Switzerland, where peasants and plebeians were organising themselves for the great 'Peasant War' of 1524/25 in defiance of their feudal overlords. There is no direct evidence of what Müntzer did in this part of the world, but almost certainly he would have come in contact with leading members of the various rebel conspiracies it is proposed that he met the later Anabaptist leader, Balthasar Hubmaier in Waldshut, and it is known that he was in Basel in December, where he met the Zwinglian reformer Oecolampadius, and may also have met the Swiss Anabaptist Conrad Grebel there. He spent several weeks in the Klettgau area, and there is some evidence to suggest that he helped the peasants to formulate their grievances. While the famous 'Twelve Articles' of the Swabian peasants were certainly ne composed by Müntzer, at least one important supporting document, the Constitutional Draft (Verfassungsentwurf), may well have originated with him. In any event, it is probable that what he saw taking place here - peasants on the march, demands for democracy - inspired him to return to his old stomping-ground and set the cause afoot once more.

Mühlhausen (second residence)

In mid-February of 1525, therefore, he arrived back in Mühlhausen (via Fulda, where he was briefly arrested and then - unrecognised - released) and took over the pulpit at St Mary's Church it must be said that the town-council neither gave, nor was asked for, permission to make this appointment - it would seem that a popular vote thrust Müntzer into the pulpit. No sooner back than he and Pfeiffer - who had managed to return to the town some three months earlier - were to be found at the centre of considerable activity. In the middle of March, the citizens were called upon to elect an 'Eternal Council' which was to replace the existing town-council, but whose duties went far beyond the merely municipal. Surprisingly, neither Pfeiffer nor Müntzer were admitted to the new council, nor to its meetings. Possibly because of this, Müntzer then founded the 'Eternal League of God', in late March (nb. some researchers date this League to late September 1524). This was in effect an armed militia, designed not just as a defence-league, but also as a God-fearing cadre for the coming apocalypse. It met under a huge white banner which had been prepared, painted with a rainbow and decorated with the words 'The Word of God will endure forever'. In the surrounding countryside and neighbouring small towns, the events in Mühlhausen found a ready echo, for the peasantry and the urban poor had had news of the great uprising in south-west Germany, and many were ready to join in.
By late April, all of Thuringia was up in arms, with peasant and plebeian troops from various district on the march. At that time too, however, the princes were laying their own plans for the suppression of the revolt. Unfortunately, the feudal authorities had far better arms and far greater discipline than their subjects. At the beginning of May, the peasant-plebeian rebels marched around the countryside in north Thuringia, but failed signally to meet up in any sensible way with other troops, being content to loot and pillage locally.
One should note that Luther pitched into all of this very firmly on the side of the princes he made a tour of southern Saxony - Stolberg, Nordhausen, and the Mansfeld district - in an attempt to dissuade the rebels from action in some of these places he was roundly heckled. He followed this up with his pamphlet Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants, with timing that could not have been more ill-judged - it was the peasantry who at that time died in their thousands - some estimates put it at 75,000 or more - at the hands of the princely armies.
At length, on 11th May, Müntzer and what remained of his troops arrived at the town of Frankenhausen, meeting up with rebels there who had been asking for help for some time. No sooner had they set up camp - disastrously, on a hill that would offer no escape - than the feudal army arrived, having already crushed the rebellion in southern Thuringia. On 15th May, battle was joined. It lasted barely a few minutes, and left the streams of the hill running with blood. 6000 rebels were mown down. Müntzer fled, but was captured as he hid in a house in Frankenhausen: ironically, his habit of carrying around a satchelful of copies of his letters - which has been so valuable for posterity - is what revealed his identity. On 27th May, after due torture and confession, he was executed, alongside Pfeiffer, outside the walls of Mühlhausen, their heads being displayed prominently for years to come, as a warning to others.

Aftermath and heritage

These others, however, were not always warned. During the last two years of his life, Müntzer had come into contact with a number of other rebellious spirits - prominent amongst them were Hans Hut, Hans Denck, Melchior Rinck, Hans Römer and Balthasar Hubmaier: all of them, leaders of the nascent Anabaptist movement, which nurtured similar radical reform doctrines to those of Müntzer himself. While it is not appropriate to claim that they were all or consistently 'Müntzerites', it is reasonable to suggest that they all took on board some of his teaching. Even within the towns where Müntzer had been active, his reformed liturgies were still being used some ten years after his death, much to Luther's horror. Through the Anabaptists, a line leads from Müntzer to the extraordinary 'Kingdom of Münster' in North Germany in 1535, to the Dutch Anabaptists, to the English radicals of the mid-17th century, and beyond. It is not far-fetched to claim that Müntzer was the giant on whose shoulders other giants then stood, in a line stretching down across centuries to the socialists of the 19th and 20th centuries: it was thus that Engels and Kautsky claimed him as a precursor of the revolutionaries of more modern times. But it is not solely as an early social revolutionary that Müntzer has historical importance his activities within the early Reformation church were - although Luther would have been the last to admit it - highly influential on the course which Luther subsequently took for his reforms.

Ottilie von Gersen (Müntzer's wife)

Sketch-map of Thuringia and Germany

For reference, two sketch-maps are provided below, to assist you in identifying the geographical location of places mentioned. To view the maps in a new window, click on the image.


Rani život i karijera

Thomas was born to Norman parents of the merchant class. He was educated first at the Augustinian Merton Priory, then in a London school, and finally at Paris. Deeply influenced in childhood by a devout mother who died when he was 21, Thomas entered adult life as a city clerk and accountant in the service of the sheriffs. After three years he was introduced by his father to Archbishop Theobald, a former abbot of Bec, of whose household he became a member. His colleagues were a distinguished company that included the political philosopher John of Salisbury, the Roman lawyer Vacarius, and several future bishops, including Roger of Pont l’Évêque, later archbishop of York. Thomas won Theobald’s confidence, acted as his agent, and was sent by him to study civil and canon law at Bologna and Auxerre.

His contemporaries described Thomas as a tall and spare figure with dark hair and a pale face that flushed in excitement. His memory was extraordinarily tenacious and, though neither a scholar nor a stylist, he excelled in argument and repartee. He made himself agreeable to all around him, and his biographers attest that he led a chaste life—in this respect uninfluenced by the king.


Sadržaj

Early life Edit

Thomas Hardy was born on 2 June 1840 in Higher Bockhampton (then Upper Bockhampton), a hamlet in the parish of Stinsford to the east of Dorchester in Dorset, England, where his father Thomas (1811–1892) worked as a stonemason and local builder, and married his mother Jemima (née Hand [4] 1813–1904) in Beaminster, towards the end of 1839. [5] Jemima was well-read, and she educated Thomas until he went to his first school at Bockhampton at the age of eight. For several years he attended Mr. Last's Academy for Young Gentlemen in Dorchester, where he learned Latin and demonstrated academic potential. [6] Because Hardy's family lacked the means for a university education, his formal education ended at the age of sixteen, when he became apprenticed to James Hicks, a local architect. [7]

Hardy trained as an architect in Dorchester before moving to London in 1862 there he enrolled as a student at King's College London. Dobitnik je nagrada Kraljevskog instituta britanskih arhitekata i Udruženja arhitekata. He joined Arthur Blomfield's practice as assistant architect in April 1862 and worked with Blomfield on All Saints' parish church in Windsor, Berkshire, in 1862–64. A reredos, possibly designed by Hardy, was discovered behind panelling at All Saints' in August 2016. [8] [9] In the mid-1860s, Hardy was in charge of the excavation of part of the graveyard of St Pancras Old Church prior to its destruction when the Midland Railway was extended to a new terminus at St Pancras. [10]

Hardy never felt at home in London, because he was acutely conscious of class divisions and his social inferiority. During this time he became interested in social reform and the works of John Stuart Mill. He was introduced by his Dorset friend Horace Moule to the works of Charles Fourier and Auguste Comte. Mill's essay Na slobodu was one of Hardy's cures for despair, and in 1924 he declared that "my pages show harmony of view with" Mill. [11] He was also attracted to Matthew Arnold's and Leslie Stephen's ideal of the urbane liberal freethinker. [12]

After five years, concerned about his health, he returned to Dorset, settling in Weymouth, and decided to dedicate himself to writing.

Marriage and novel writing Edit

In 1870, while on an architectural mission to restore the parish church of St Juliot in Cornwall, [13] Hardy met and fell in love with Emma Gifford, whom he married in Kensington in late 1874. [5] [14] [15] renting St David's Villa, Southborough (now Surbiton) for a year. In 1885 Thomas and his wife moved into Max Gate, a house designed by Hardy and built by his brother. Although they later became estranged, Emma's subsequent death in 1912 had a traumatic effect on him and after her death, Hardy made a trip to Cornwall to revisit places linked with their courtship his Poems 1912–13 reflect upon her death. In 1914, Hardy married his secretary Florence Emily Dugdale, who was 39 years his junior. He remained preoccupied with his first wife's death and tried to overcome his remorse by writing poetry. In his later years, he kept a Wire Fox Terrier named Wessex, who was notoriously ill-tempered. Wessex's grave stone can be found on the Max Gate grounds. [16] [17] In 1910, Hardy had been appointed a Member of the Order of Merit and was also for the first time nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature. He was nominated again for the prize 11 years later. [18] [19]

Hardy and the theatre Edit

Hardy’s interest in the theatre dated from the 1860s. He corresponded with various would-be adapters over the years, including Robert Louis Stephenson in 1886 and Jack Grein and Charles Jarvis in the same decade. [20] Neither adaptation came to fruition, but Hardy showed he was potentially enthusiastic about such a project. One play that was performed, however, caused him a certain amount of pain. His experience of the controversy and lukewarm critical reception that had surrounded his and Comyns Carr's adaptation of Daleko od lude gomile in 1882 left him wary of the damage that adaptations could do to his literary reputation. So it is notable that, in 1908, he so readily and enthusiastically became involved with a local amateur group, [21] at the time known as the Dorchester Dramatic and Debating Society, but that would become the Hardy Players. His reservations about adaptations of his novels meant he was initially at some pains initially to disguise his involvement in the play. [22] However, the international success [23] of the play, The Trumpet Major, led to a long and successful collaboration between Hardy and the Players over the remaining years of his life. Indeed, his play The Famous Tragedy of the Queen of Cornwall at Tintagel in Lyonnesse (1923) was written to be performed by the Hardy Players. [24]

Final years Edit

Hardy was horrified by the destruction caused by the First World War, pondering that "I do not think a world in which such fiendishness is possible to be worth the saving" and "better to let western 'civilization' perish, and let the black and yellow races have a chance." [25] He wrote to John Galsworthy that "the exchange of international thought is the only possible salvation for the world." [25]

Hardy became ill with pleurisy in December 1927 and died at Max Gate just after 9 pm on 11 January 1928, having dictated his final poem to his wife on his deathbed the cause of death was cited, on his death certificate, as "cardiac syncope", with "old age" given as a contributory factor. His funeral was on 16 January at Westminster Abbey, and it proved a controversial occasion because Hardy had wished for his body to be interred at Stinsford in the same grave as his first wife, Emma. His family and friends concurred however, his executor, Sir Sydney Carlyle Cockerell, insisted that he be placed in the abbey's famous Poets' Corner. A compromise was reached whereby his heart was buried at Stinsford with Emma, and his ashes in Poets' Corner. [26] Hardy's estate at death was valued at £95,418 (equivalent to £5,800,000 in 2019). [27]

Shortly after Hardy's death, the executors of his estate burnt his letters and notebooks, but twelve notebooks survived, one of them containing notes and extracts of newspaper stories from the 1820s, and research into these has provided insight into how Hardy used them in his works. [28] In the year of his death Mrs Hardy published The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1841–1891, compiled largely from contemporary notes, letters, diaries, and biographical memoranda, as well as from oral information in conversations extending over many years.

Hardy's work was admired by many younger writers, including D. H. Lawrence, [29] John Cowper Powys, and Virginia Woolf. [30] In his autobiography Goodbye to All That (1929), Robert Graves recalls meeting Hardy in Dorset in the early 1920s and how Hardy received him and his new wife warmly, and was encouraging about his work.

Hardy's birthplace in Bockhampton and his house Max Gate, both in Dorchester, are owned by the National Trust.

Hardy's first novel, The Poor Man and the Lady, finished by 1867, failed to find a publisher. He then showed it to his mentor and friend, the Victorian poet and novelist, George Meredith, who felt that The Poor Man and the Lady would be too politically controversial and might damage Hardy's ability to publish in the future. So Hardy followed his advice and he did not try further to publish it. He subsequently destroyed the manuscript, but used some of the ideas in his later work. [31] In his recollections in Život i rad, Hardy described the book as "socialistic, not to say revolutionary yet not argumentatively so." [32]

Nakon što je napustio svoj prvi roman, Hardy je napisao dva nova za koja se nadao da će imati više komercijalne privlačnosti, Očajnički lijekovi (1871.) i Ispod stabla Greenwood (1872), both of which were published anonymously it was while working on the latter that he met Emma Gifford, who would become his wife. [31] In 1873 Par plavih očiju, a novel drawing on Hardy's courtship of Emma, was published under his own name. A plot device popularised by Charles Dickens, the term "cliffhanger" is considered to have originated with the serialised version of Par plavih očiju (published in Tinsleyjev časopis između rujna 1872. i srpnja 1873.) u kojem Henry Knight, jedan od protagonista, ostaje doslovno obješen o liticu. [33] [34] Elements of Hardy's fiction reflect the influence of the commercially successful sensation fiction of the 1860s, particularly the legal complications in novels such as Očajnički lijekovi (1871), Far from the Madding Crowd (1874) and Two on a Tower (1882). [35]

U Far from the Madding Crowd, Hardy first introduced the idea of calling the region in the west of England, where his novels are set, Wessex. Wessex had been the name of an early Saxon kingdom, in approximately the same part of England. Far from the Madding Crowd was successful enough for Hardy to give up architectural work and pursue a literary career. Over the next 25 years, Hardy produced 10 more novels.

Subsequently, the Hardys moved from London to Yeovil, and then to Sturminster Newton, where he wrote The Return of the Native (1878). [36] In 1880, Hardy published his only historical novel, The Trumpet-Major. Hardy published Two on a Tower in 1882, a romance story set in the world of astronomy. Then in 1885, they moved for the last time, to Max Gate, a house outside Dorchester designed by Hardy and built by his brother. There he wrote Gradonačelnik Casterbridgea (1886), The Woodlanders (1887), and Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891), the last of which attracted criticism for its sympathetic portrayal of a "fallen woman", and initially it was refused publication. Its subtitle, A Pure Woman: Faithfully Presented, was intended to raise the eyebrows of the Victorian middle classes.

Jude the Obscure, published in 1895, met with an even stronger negative response from the Victorian public because of its controversial treatment of sex, religion and marriage. Its apparent attack on the institution of marriage caused strain on Hardy's already difficult marriage because Emma Hardy was concerned that Jude the Obscure would be read as autobiographical. Some booksellers sold the novel in brown paper bags, and Walsham How, the Bishop of Wakefield, is reputed to have burnt his copy. [28] In his postscript of 1912, Hardy humorously referred to this incident as part of the career of the book: "After these [hostile] verdicts from the press its next misfortune was to be burnt by a bishop – probably in his despair at not being able to burn me". [37] Despite this, Hardy had become a celebrity by the 1900s, but some argue that he gave up writing novels because of the criticism of both Tess of the D'Urbervilles i Jude the Obscure. [38] The Well-Beloved, first serialised in 1892, was published in 1897.

Considered a Victorian realist, Hardy examines the social constraints on the lives of those living in Victorian England, and criticises those beliefs, especially those relating to marriage, education and religion, that limited people's lives and caused unhappiness. Such unhappiness, and the suffering it brings, is seen by poet Philip Larkin as central in Hardy's works:

"What is the intensely maturing experience of which Hardy's modern man is most sensible? In my view it is suffering, or sadness, and extended consideration of the centrality of suffering in Hardy's work should be the first duty of the true critic for which the work is still waiting [. . .] Any approach to his work, as to any writer's work, must seek first of all to determine what element is peculiarly his, which imaginative note he strikes most plangently, and to deny that in this case it is the sometimes gentle, sometimes ironic, sometimes bitter but always passive apprehension of suffering is, I think, wrong-headed." [39]

U Two on a Tower, for example, Hardy takes a stand against these rules of society with a story of love that crosses the boundaries of class. The reader is forced to reconsider the conventions set up by society for the relationships between women and men. Nineteenth-century society had conventions, which were enforced. In this novel Swithin St Cleeve's idealism pits him against such contemporary social constraints.

In a novel structured around contrasts, the main opposition is between Swithin St Cleeve and Lady Viviette Constantine, who are presented as binary figures in a series of ways: aristocratic and lower class, youthful and mature, single and married, fair and dark, religious and agnostic. she [Lady Viviette Constantine] is also deeply conventional, absurdly wishing to conceal their marriage until Swithin has achieved social status through his scientific work, which gives rise to uncontrolled ironies and tragic-comic misunderstandings. [40]

Fate or chance is another important theme. Hardy's characters often encounter crossroads on a journey, a junction that offers alternative physical destinations but which is also symbolic of a point of opportunity and transition, further suggesting that fate is at work. Far from the Madding Crowd is an example of a novel in which chance has a major role: "Had Bathsheba not sent the valentine, had Fanny not missed her wedding, for example, the story would have taken an entirely different path." [41] Indeed, Hardy's main characters often seem to be held in fate's overwhelming grip.

In 1898, Hardy published his first volume of poetry, Wessex Poems, a collection of poems written over 30 years. While some suggest that Hardy gave up writing novels following the harsh criticism of Jude the Obscure in 1896, the poet C. H. Sisson calls this "hypothesis" "superficial and absurd". [38] [42] In the twentieth century Hardy published only poetry.

Thomas Hardy wrote in a great variety of poetic forms, including lyrics, ballads, satire, dramatic monologues, and dialogue, as well as a three-volume epic closet drama Dinasti (1904–08), [43] and though in some ways a very traditional poet, because he was influenced by folksong and ballads, [44] he "was never conventional," and "persistently experiment[ed] with different, often invented, stanza forms and metres, [45] and made use of "rough-hewn rhythms and colloquial diction". [46]

Hardy wrote a number of significant war poems that relate to both the Boer Wars and World War I, including "Drummer Hodge", "In Time of 'The Breaking of Nations'", and "The Man He Killed" his work had a profound influence on other war poets such as Rupert Brooke and Siegfried Sassoon. [47] Hardy in these poems often used the viewpoint of ordinary soldiers and their colloquial speech. [47] A theme in the Wessex Poems is the long shadow that the Napoleonic Wars cast over the 19th century, as seen, for example, in "The Sergeant's Song" and "Leipzig". [48] The Napoleonic War is the subject of Dinasti.

Some of Hardy's more famous poems are from "Poems of 1912–13", part of Satires of Circumstance (1914), written following the death of his wife Emma in 1912. They had been estranged for 20 years, and these lyric poems express deeply felt "regret and remorse". [47] Poems like "After a Journey", "The Voice", and others from this collection "are by general consent regarded as the peak of his poetic achievement". [43] In a recent biography on Hardy, Claire Tomalin argues that Hardy became a truly great English poet after the death of his first wife Emma, beginning with these elegies, which she describes as among "the finest and strangest celebrations of the dead in English poetry." [49]

Many of Hardy's poems deal with themes of disappointment in love and life, and "the perversity of fate", but the best of them present these themes with "a carefully controlled elegiac feeling". [50] Irony is an important element in a number of Hardy's poems, including "The Man he Killed" and "Are You Digging on My Grave". [51] A few of Hardy's poems, such as "The Blinded Bird", a melancholy polemic against the sport of vinkenzetting, reflect his firm stance against animal cruelty, exhibited in his antivivisectionist views and his membership in The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. [52]

A number of notable English composers, including Gerald Finzi, [53] [54] Benjamin Britten, [55] and Gustav Holst, [56] set poems by Hardy to music. Holst also wrote the orchestral tone poem Egdon Heath: A Homage to Thomas Hardy 1927. godine.

Although his poems were initially not as well received as his novels had been, Hardy is now recognised as one of the great poets of the 20th century, and his verse had a profound influence on later writers, including Robert Frost, W. H. Auden, Dylan Thomas, and Philip Larkin. [46] Larkin included 27 poems by Hardy compared with only nine by T. S. Eliot in his edition of the Oxford Book of Twentieth Century English Verse in 1973. [57] There were fewer poems by W. B. Yeats. [58]

Hardy's family was Anglican, but not especially devout. He was baptised at the age of five weeks and attended church, where his father and uncle contributed to music. He did not attend the local Church of England school, instead being sent to Mr Last's school, three miles away. As a young adult, he befriended Henry R. Bastow (a Plymouth Brethren man), who also worked as a pupil architect, and who was preparing for adult baptism in the Baptist Church. Hardy flirted with conversion, but decided against it. [59] Bastow went to Australia and maintained a long correspondence with Hardy, but eventually Hardy tired of these exchanges and the correspondence ceased. This concluded Hardy's links with the Baptists.

The irony and struggles of life, coupled with his naturally curious mind, led him to question the traditional Christian view of God:

The Christian God – the external personality – has been replaced by the intelligence of the First Cause. the replacement of the old concept of God as all-powerful by a new concept of universal consciousness. The 'tribal god, man-shaped, fiery-faced and tyrannous' is replaced by the 'unconscious will of the Universe' which progressively grows aware of itself and 'ultimately, it is to be hoped, sympathetic'. [60]

Scholars have debated Hardy's religious leanings for years, often unable to reach a consensus. Once, when asked in correspondence by a clergyman, Dr. A.B. Grosart, about the question of reconciling the horrors of human and animal life with "the absolute goodness and non-limitation of God", [61] Hardy replied,

Mr. Hardy regrets that he is unable to offer any hypothesis which would reconcile the existence of such evils as Dr. Grosart describes with the idea of omnipotent goodness. Perhaps Dr. Grosart might be helped to a provisional view of the universe by the recently published Life of Darwin and the works of Herbert Spencer and other agnostics. [62]

Hardy frequently conceived of, and wrote about, supernatural forces, particularly those that control the universe through indifference or caprice, a force he called The Immanent Will. He also showed in his writing some degree of fascination with ghosts and spirits. [62] Even so, he retained a strong emotional attachment to the Christian liturgy and church rituals, particularly as manifested in rural communities, that had been such a formative influence in his early years, and Biblical references can be found woven throughout many of Hardy's novels. Hardy's friends during his apprenticeship to John Hicks included Horace Moule (one of the eight sons of Henry Moule), and the poet William Barnes, both ministers of religion. Moule remained a close friend of Hardy's for the rest of his life, and introduced him to new scientific findings that cast doubt on literal interpretations of the Bible, [63] such as those of Gideon Mantell. Moule gave Hardy a copy of Mantell's book The Wonders of Geology (1848) in 1858, and Adelene Buckland has suggested that there are "compelling similarities" between the "cliffhanger" section from Par plavih očiju and Mantell's geological descriptions. It has also been suggested that the character of Henry Knight in Par plavih očiju was based on Horace Moule. [64]

Throughout his life, Hardy sought a rationale for believing in an afterlife or a timeless existence, turning first to spiritualists, such as Henri Bergson, and then to Albert Einstein and J. M. E. McTaggart, considering their philosophy on time and space in relation to immortality. [65]

Sites associated with Hardy's own life and which inspired the settings of his novels continue to attract literary tourists and casual visitors. For locations in Hardy's novels see: Thomas Hardy's Wessex, and the Thomas Hardy's Wessex [66] research site, which includes maps. [67]

Hardy corresponded with and visited Lady Catherine Milnes Gaskell at Wenlock Abbey and many of Lady Catherine's books are inspired by Hardy, who was very fond of her. [68]

D. H. Lawrence's Study of Thomas Hardy (1936) indicates the importance of Hardy for him, even though this work is a platform for Lawrence's own developing philosophy rather than a more standard literary study. The influence of Hardy's treatment of character, and Lawrence's own response to the central metaphysic behind many of Hardy's novels, helped significantly in the development of The Rainbow (1915) and Zaljubljene žene (1920). [69]

Wood and Stone (1915), the first novel by John Cowper Powys, who was a contemporary of Lawrence, was "Dedicated with devoted admiration to the greatest poet and novelist of our age Thomas Hardy". [70] Powys's later novel Maiden Castle (1936) is set in Dorchester, Hardy's Casterbridge, and was intended by Powys to be a "rival" to Hardy's Gradonačelnik Casterbridgea. [71] Maiden Castle is the last of Powys's so-called Wessex novels, Wolf Solent (1929), A Glastonbury Romance (1932), and Weymouth Sands (1934), which are set in Somerset and Dorset. [72]

Hardy was clearly the starting point for the character of the novelist Edward Driffield in W. Somerset Maugham's novel Cakes and Ale (1930.). [73] Thomas Hardy's works also feature prominently in the American playwright Christopher Durang's The Marriage of Bette and Boo (1985), in which a graduate thesis analysing Tess of the d'Urbervilles is interspersed with analysis of Matt's family's neuroses. [74]

The symphonic poems Mai-Dun by John Ireland (1921) and Egdon Heath by Gustav Holst (1927) evoke the landscape of Hardy's novels.

Hardy has been a significant influence on Nigel Blackwell, frontman of the post-punk British rock band Half Man Half Biscuit, who has often incorporated phrases (some obscure) by or about Hardy into his song lyrics. [75] [76]

Prose Edit

Hardy divided his novels and collected short stories into three classes: [ potreban je citat ]

Novels of character and environment Edit

  • The Poor Man and the Lady (1867, unpublished and lost)
  • Under the Greenwood Tree: A Rural Painting of the Dutch School (1872)
  • Far from the Madding Crowd (1874)
  • The Return of the Native (1878)
  • The Mayor of Casterbridge: The Life and Death of a Man of Character (1886)
  • The Woodlanders (1887)
  • Wessex Tales (1888, a collection of short stories)
  • Tess of the d'Urbervilles: A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented (1891)
  • Life's Little Ironies (1894, a collection of short stories)
  • Jude the Obscure (1895)

Romances and fantasies Edit

  • A Pair of Blue Eyes: A Novel (1873)
  • The Trumpet-Major (1880)
  • Two on a Tower: A Romance (1882)
  • A Group of Noble Dames (1891, a collection of short stories)
  • The Well-Beloved: A Sketch of a Temperament (1897) (first published as a serial from 1892)

Novels of ingenuity Edit

  • Desperate Remedies: A Novel (1871)
  • The Hand of Ethelberta: A Comedy in Chapters (1876)
  • A Laodicean: A Story of To-day (1881)

Ostalo Uređivanje

Hardy also produced minor tales one story, The Spectre of the Real (1894) was written in collaboration with Florence Henniker. [77] An additional short-story collection, beyond the ones mentioned above, is A Changed Man and Other Tales (1913). His works have been collected as the 24-volume Wessex Edition (1912–13) and the 37-volume Mellstock Edition (1919–20). His largely self-written biography appears under his second wife's name in two volumes from 1928 to 1930, as The Early Life of Thomas Hardy, 1840–91 i The Later Years of Thomas Hardy, 1892–1928, now published in a critical one-volume edition as The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy, edited by Michael Millgate (1984).


Death and Discovery

Dickinson died of heart failure in Amherst, Massachusetts, on May 15, 1886, at the age of 55. She was laid to rest in her family plot at West Cemetery. The Homestead, where Dickinson was born, is now a museum.

Little of Dickinson&aposs work was published at the time of her death, and the few works that were published were edited and altered to adhere to conventional standards of the time. Unfortunately, much of the power of Dickinson&aposs unusual use of syntax and form was lost in the alteration. After her sister&aposs death, Lavinia discovered hundreds of poems that Dickinson had crafted over the years. The first volume of these works was published in 1890. A full compilation, The Poems of Emily Dickinson, wasn&apost published until 1955, though previous iterations had been released.

Dickinson&aposs stature as a writer soared from the first publication of her poems in their intended form. She is known for her poignant and compressed verse, which profoundly influenced the direction of 20th-century poetry. The strength of her literary voice, as well as her reclusive and eccentric life, contributes to the sense of Dickinson as an indelible American character who continues to be discussed today.


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