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Kanjoni antičkih artefakata Lopov ide u zatvor

Kanjoni antičkih artefakata Lopov ide u zatvor


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Kanjoni starih ljudi, u jugozapadnoj državi Colorado, Sveti su gral američke arheologije s najvećim brojem arheoloških nalazišta starih više od 10.000 godina. Ovaj tjedan, Dnevnik izvijestio da je Amerikanac Zavod za upravljanje zemljištem (BLM) odaje počast Nacionalni spomenik kanjoni antičkih vremena 20-godišnjica postojanja. Međutim, CBS je također ovaj tjedan izvijestio da je Kolorađanin, Lonnie Winbourn (57) iz Corteza Colorado, osuđen na više od godinu dana zatvora zbog krađe artefakata sa tog mjesta.

Kanjoni antike: Škrinja s blagom antičke arheologije

Smješten u području Four Corners na jugozapadu Kolorada, oko 45 milja zapadno od Duranga, u blizini nacionalnog parka Cortez i Mesa Verde, nacionalni spomenik Canyons of the Ancients sadrži više od 30 000 dobro očuvanih domorodačkih nalazišta. Savez jugozapadnih kanjona Kolorada web stranica kaže da je "spomenik od 76.000 jutara" proglašen 9. lipnja 2000. Predsjedničkom proklamacijom za zaštitu kulturnih i prirodnih bogatstava u krajobraznom mjerilu ", ali prema BLM-u pripada arheološkoj zoni" 32 milijuna jutara ".

Područje drevnih spomenika nastanjivali su ljudi, uključujući kulturu sjeverno predaka Puebloan, najmanje 10.000 godina, a ovaj vremenski zaostali krajolik ljudi i danas koriste za lov, ispašu stoke i razvoj energije. Identificirano je više od 20.000 mjesta. Najmanje 6.000 različitih građevina pronađeno je u nacionalnom spomeniku, a velika većina kamenih građevina potječe iz doba starog Puebloansa. Od izgradnje osnovnih struktura u stilu jama, Puebloanci su evoluirali do izgradnje sela s nastambama na liticama, uključujući znojnice, kive i svetišta prekrivena petroglifima i piktogramima.

Puebloan litica koja stanuje u kanjonima starih (Zavod za upravljanje zemljištem / )

Zajedno, ova masivna antička arheološka zona nudi visoko teksturirane informacije o tome kako su autohtone skupine komunicirale s okolinom i međusobno. Marvin Lalo, iz plemena Hopi, rekao je za CBS: "Znamo da je ovdje još uvijek prisutno" i da su, kada su se stari preselili, "napustili zgrade s namjerom".

Lopov na lovu blaga uhapšen na području spomenika 2017. godine

Lonnie Winbourn uhitio je 4. lipnja 2017. BLM rendžer. U početku je rendžer u Winbournovom džepu pronašao ukradene krhotine keramike. Tada je sada osuđeni lopov priznao rendžeru da je u ruksaku imao spremljene starije artefakte. Ukupno je u njegovom posjedu pronađeno "64 predmeta" iz razdoblja predaka Puebloan, uključujući "nakit, glavu sjekire i druge alate".

Kiva, vjerska i svečana soba Puebloansa, u nacionalnom spomeniku Canyons of the Ancients, SAD (Autor Natalia Bratslavsky / Adobe Stock )

Winbourn je u svibnju i lipnju 2017. napravio nekoliko izleta u potrazi za blagom u kanjone starih gdje je "locirao ceremonijalno mjesto predaka Puebloan s velikim plesnim placom, vjerojatno podzemnom kivom i više ljudskih ukopa", prema CBS -u. Istražitelji su rekli da je Winbourn nezakonito "iskopao, uklonio, oštetio i promijenio mjesto", a američki odvjetnik Jason Dunn rekao je: "Svatko tko nastoji uništiti ili profitirati od ovih resursa suočit će se s kaznenim progonom i ozbiljnim posljedicama."

Pomoćnik glavnog agenta Randall Carpenter iz Ureda za provođenje zakona BLM-a rekao je: „mi kao društvo moramo prepoznati važnost poštivanja svih kultura; uključujući one artefakte koji predstavljaju kulturne resurse domorodaca Amerike ”. Također je dodao da su arheolozi sada obnovili izvorne predmete i kurirali ukradene predmete iz nacionalnog spomenika Canyons of the Ancients.

Vandalizam i krađa na drevnim arheološkim nalazištima poput spomenika nisu nova ili neuobičajena. 2017. napisao sam an Antičko podrijetlo članak o američkom arheologu koji je tvrdio da su dužnosnici državnih parkova i staza u Arizoni "namjerno uništili domorodačke antičke lokacije" tijekom građevinskih aktivnosti u državnom parku Lake Havasu ". Procjenjuje se da će novi sanitarni čvor i desetak kabina na plaži godišnje privući oko 500.000 posjetitelja. Međutim, prema riječima bivšeg službenika za usklađenost s Parkovima i stazama i plemenske veze Willa Russella, koji je u znak protesta dao ostavku na dužnost u agenciji, agencija je "nastavila s izgradnjom, bez savjetovanja s plemenima".

Razvoj arheoloških nalazišta doista je nacionalni zločin

Prema Will Russell -u, pradomovinski domorodački antikviteti postojali su u regiji Havasu prije izgradnje brane Parker 1938. godine, a izvorni putovi još uvijek postoje duž današnje vodene linije Havasu. Štoviše, cijeli je krajolik prepun geoglifa i kamenih blokova koje su domoroci nekad koristili za izradu alata, a to je bilo među starinama oštećenim u komercijalnim građevinskim projektima državnog parka.

  • Deset velikih divovskih otkrića u Sjevernoj Americi
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Nacionalni spomenik Canyons of the Ancients u Coloradu (Biro za upravljanje zemljištem / )

Temeljna misija agencije, prema arheologu Russellu, "je zaštita i očuvanje prirodnih i kulturnih resursa", ali kaže da oni "ne rade ništa od toga" i da je ono što je zaista važno na tom mjestu izgradnja kabina za " zaraditi novac." Prema članku u Arizona Central , pod vodstvom ravnateljice parkova Sue Black, agencija je "uništila nekoliko arheoloških nalazišta". Prema dopisu agencije koji je Russell napisao, "dva drevna kamena oruđa zanemarena su na 12.000 godina starom arheološkom nalazištu uzrokujući nepovratnu štetu".

Russell je rekao da su ta mjesta posebno važna za kulturu domorodaca, a ravnateljica parkova Susan Black ih je "skrivala". I dok je Lonnie Winbourn s pravom osuđena na godinu dana zatvora, isto se ne može reći za Susan Black, koja je nakon ovog incidenta dobila povećanje plaće od 9 posto na 175.000 dolara godišnje, dok je njezin prethodnik bio plaćen 136.000 dolara.


Povijest, turističko gospodarstvo držite u ravnoteži pregled nacionalnog spomenika

CORTEZ, Kolonija (CBS4) – Posjetitelji nacionalnog spomenika Canyons of the Ancients vide litice crvenog pješčenjaka koje skrivaju kamene dvorce napuštene stoljećima. Ono što ne vide je oblak neizvjesnosti koji se nadvio nad područjem jugozapadnih plemena za koje vjeruju da je sveto.

Nacionalni spomenik Kanjoni starih ljudi (kredit: CBS)

U svibnju je Trumpova administracija stavila kanjone starih i 26 drugih nacionalnih spomenika pod saveznu reviziju - onu koja bi mogla smanjiti spomenik u veličini ili potpuno ukinuti njegovu zaštitu spomenika.

Predsjednik Bill Clinton proglasio je Canyons of the Ancient nacionalnim spomenikom 2000. godine prema Zakonu o starinama, izvršnoj vlasti koju su predsjednici koristili za uspostavljanje zemljišta koja se smatraju arheološki važnim. Zaštitno područje od 178.000 jutara u blizini Corteza smatra se jednim od najbogatijih arheoloških nalazišta na svijetu. Gotovo 4 milijuna artefakata koji su tamo pronađeni uključuju vrhove strijela, alat, posuđe i umjetnička djela. Postoje i brojni pueblosi koji još uvijek stoje preko prostranog spomenika.

CBS4 ’s Stan Bush intervjuira Mariettu Eaton u Escalante Pueblo u Anasazi Heritage Centru. (kredit: DZS)

“Za ljude diljem svijeta ovo je globalno jedinstven fenomen s ovom gustoćom arheoloških nalazišta s ovom razinom zaštite, "#kaže Marietta Eaton, upraviteljica kanjona starih iz Zavoda za upravljanje zemljištem.

Starosjedioci Puebla živjeli su na tom području prije više od 1.000 godina, a nekolicina plemena koja još uvijek žive u regiji vode svoju lozu tamo.

“Kad se vrate ovamo, njihovi su ih domaćini dočekali kući, a kad posjete web mjesto, pozovu djeda i kažu ‘Djed, ovdje sam sa svojom djecom i mojom ženom '', rekla je Deborah Gangloff , Predsjednik i izvršni direktor arheološkog centra Crow Canyon.

“Sve će biti u opasnosti ako se spomenik poništi ili smanji jer ste izgubili mnogo tog blaga, "#rekao je Gangloff, oštar kritičar pregleda.

Bush intervjuira Deborah Gangloff. (kredit: DZS)

“To bi zemljište dovelo u opasnost. To bi ih dovelo u opasnost od ljudi koji doslovno žele trčati po zemlji, mislim doslovno. ”

Gangloff vjeruje da bi svaka promjena spomenika mogla potaknuti BLM da trguje parcelama zemljišta programerima, stvarajući nepovratnu sklisku padinu.

Spomenik je nacionalno zaštićeno područje, ali je i 80 posto iznajmljen za vađenje minerala, uključujući naftu i plin i CO2, a sve to kontrolira savezni zakon o korištenju zemljišta koji arheološke relikvije smatra važnim resursima.

“Ako na spomeniku možemo pokazati da možemo obavljati konzervatorske i druge aktivnosti, ako to možemo učiniti ovdje, to možemo učiniti i na drugim konzervacijskim zemljištima, "#rekao je Eaton.

Arheolozi kažu da je revizija koja prijeti spomeniku politička šarada. Gangloff kaže da se revizijom želi postići samo dva spomenika Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument i Bears Ears National Monument, oba u Utahu.

“Građenje je vremena i novca naše vlade da gledamo stvari poput kanjona starih ", rekao je Gangloff.

Predsjednik Barack Obama u prosincu 2016. godine statusu spomenika dodijelio je Bears Ears. Međutim, u siječnju ove godine zakonodavno tijelo Utaha simbolično je glasovalo za ukidanje nacionalnih spomenika Bears Ears i Grand Staircase-Escalante. Protesti pristalica i protivnika spomenika pretvorili su raspravu o krajoliku u partizansku svađu.

“Zakonodavno tijelo bilo je protiv njih u Utahu iako ih je javnost podržala i mislim da je ova izvršna naredba napisana na takav način samo da zarobi tu dvojicu, "#rekao je Gangloff.

Ona ukazuje na jezik u samom redoslijedu. Revizija, pod nadležnošću ministra unutarnjih poslova Ryana Zinkea, cilja na spomenike koji prelaze 100.000 jutara ili spomenike za koje Zinke smatra da nisu dobili odgovarajući komentar javnosti koji sežu tek u 1996., iste godine kada je imenovano Grand Staircase-Escalante.

Nacionalni spomenik Kanjoni starih ljudi (kreditni CBS)

“To mi je samo prevrnulo rub jer se nije radilo samo o zemljištu ", rekao je Gangloff.

Zakonodavci iz Utaha lažno tvrde da su ta zemljišta pretvorili u spomenike kao federalno otimanje zemlje, ali BLM, savezna agencija pod vodstvom Ministarstva unutarnjih poslova, već je držala zemljište na povjerenju.

Gangloff kaže da bi ukidanje statusa spomenika kanjonima antičkih vremena bilo pogubno za susjedne zajednice.

“Vozite se kroz grad Cortez, on donosi ogromne dolare u ovaj grad,##rekao je Gangloff. “Ekonomija bi se uistinu usporila na ovom području da se Canyons skine s popisa. ”

Zakonodavci su u biti dokazali da je revizija igra političke ljušture. U svibnju su republikanski zastupnici, senator Cory Gardner i zastupnik Scott Tipton, koji zastupa jugozapadni dio Kolorada, napisali pismo tajniku Zinkeu tražeći da se kanjonima drevnih vremena dozvoli da zadrže status spomenika. Na ročištu u lipnju, Gardner je upitao Zinke je li Canyons of the Ancient još uvijek u pregledu. Zinke je odgovorio da spomenik “ nije na našem popisu prioritetnih pregleda. ”

CBS4 je tražio komentar od Ministarstva unutarnjih poslova gotovo mjesec dana kako bi razjasnio Zinkeovu izjavu, ali odjel nikada nije odgovorio. Nejasno je što je Zinke mislio pod popisom prioriteta “prioriteta ” i ako Canyons of the Ancient ne postoji na tom popisu, zašto je uopće naređeno da se pregleda.

U to je vrijeme Odjel unutarnjih poslova uklonio nacionalni spomenik Gornji Missouri River Breaks s spomenika, spomenika u matičnoj državi Zinke u Montani. Odjel je također preporučio smanjenje otiska Bears Ears ’ i dopuštanje da država Utah i lokalna plemena kontroliraju upravljanje dijelovima spomenika.

Gardner vjeruje da Canyons of the Ancient neće pretrpjeti nikakve promjene, iako je još uvijek na popisu za pregled. Očekuje se da će revizija biti gotova do kraja ljeta.

Gangloff kaže da spomenik štiti baštinu koja će biti izgubljena ako se oduzme federalna zaštita.

“Kada su uništeni ili vandalizirani, nestali su zauvijek, a vi uništavate našu povijest, našu američku povijest koja seže daleko prije 1776. godine. ”

Stan Bush izvještava o općim zadacima na CBS4. Njegove priče mogu se vidjeti na CBS4 Vijestima u 10. Pročitajte njegovu biografiju i pratite ga na Twitteru @StanBushTV.


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Pronađite i suočite se s Prokletim

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Dok se penjete uz stepenice, na rubovima staze pojavit će se tamne figure. Ne mogu vam nauditi, pa nastavite dalje uz brdo. Kad dođete do Lackanscaula, Ciara će dotrčati do vrha. Slijedi je. Ona se zaustavlja na izvrsnoj točki gledišta. Ovdje ima hrpa neprijateljskih druida. Možete ih malo prorijediti prije odlaska u dvorište. Upotrijebite drvene stupove s vanjske strane zidova kako biste uhvatili neprijatelje na obodu.

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America 's 11 najugroženijih povijesnih mjesta

Turisti vole posjetiti Nacionalni tržni centar u Washingtonu, ali malo njih zna da je mjesto službe Nacionalnog parka ugroženo porastom razine mora i zastarjelom infrastrukturom.

Posjetitelji glazbenog reda Nashvillea možda neće shvatiti da se mnoge povijesne zgrade u kojima su nastali hitovi ruše u korist novog razvoja.

Svetim artefaktima - od kojih neki datiraju i prije 8.000 godina - u blizini Medvjeđih ušiju i kanjona antičkih nacionalnih spomenika u jugoistočnoj Utahu prijeti vađenje nafte i plina.

Iako su poznata po svom povijesnom značaju, sva su ta mjesta u opasnosti, prema Nacionalnom zakladu za očuvanje povijesti. Zato su uvršteni među poznata i zaboravljena povijesna mjesta na popisu 11 najugroženijih povijesnih mjesta Amerike koje je National Trust objavio 2019. godine.

32. godišnji popis uključuje mješavinu povijesnih i kulturno važnih lokacija u SAD -u kojima prijete sile od odgođenog održavanja i neosjetljive javne politike do razaranja uzrokovanog prirodnim katastrofama.

"Svake smo godine od 1988. svake godine objavljivali godišnji popis 11 najugroženijih povijesnih mjesta kako bismo potaknuli ljude da se uključe u spašavanje ugroženog i nezamjenjivog povijesnog blaga diljem Amerike", rekla je Katherine Malone-France, privremena glavna službenica za očuvanje Nacionalnog fonda za povijesno očuvanje .

"Ove smo godine ponosni što uključujemo povijesna mjesta koja sežu od arheološki bogatih kanjona jugoistočne Utahe do kultnih postmodernih nebodera u središtu Chicaga do sve ugroženijeg Nacionalnog tržnog bazena u američkom prednjem dvorištu", rekla je.

"Kao i od prvog popisa, radujemo se tome što će ovaj popis 11 najugroženijih inspirirati Amerikance diljem zemlje da se aktiviraju, sačuvaju ta i druga mjesta u svojim zajednicama i ne dopuste da današnje povijesno blago postane duboko žaljenje sutrašnjice. "

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Ima snažan rekord: više od 300 mjesta uključeno je na popis u posljednja tri desetljeća, a manje od 5% web mjesta s popisa izgubljeno je u tom razdoblju.

Američka najugroženija povijesna mjesta (abecednim redom):

Mesta predaka jugoistočne Utah. Smješten između Medvjeđih ušiju i kanjona starih, ovaj dio jugoistočne Utah dom je nezamjenjivim artefaktima starim tisućama godina. Prijeti joj vađenje nafte i plina.

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Hacienda Los Torres, Lares, Portoriko. Već u Nacionalnom registru povijesnih mjesta, ovo mjesto iz 1846. godine izgrađeno je na vrhuncu procvata Portorikove industrije kave.

Industrial Trust Company Building, Providence, Rhode Island. Nadimak "zgrada Supermana" jer izgleda kao zgrada Daily Planet iz stripova o Supermanu, ovaj kultni Art Deco toranj je prazan i nema planove za obnovu.

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Arsenal Mount Vernon i bolnica Searcy, Mount Vernon, Alabama. Koristi se više od 200 godina kao arsenal, zatvor, a kasnije i mentalna bolnica za Afroamerikance, zatvoren je 2012. godine i trenutno je prazan.

Nashville's Music Row, Nashville, Tennessee. Više od 200 tvrtki povezanih s glazbom proizvodilo je hitove u različitim žanrovima, ali ovo susjedstvo koje datira s kraja 19. stoljeća privlači novi razvoj --- koji se od 2013. pretočio u 50 rušenja.

National Mall Tidal Basin, Washington, DC. Dio "Američkog prednjeg dvorišta" suočava se s više prijetnji: nestabilni zidovi mora, porast razine mora i zastarjela infrastruktura.

Povijesna četvrt desete ulice, Dallas, Texas. Ovo je jedan od rijetkih preostalih slobodnih gradova u Americi, zajednice koje su izgradili bivši robovi koji su bili emancipirani. Ova se povijesna četvrt smanjuje zbog velikog broja rušenja.

Sudovi Willert Park, Buffalo, New York. Značajan primjer modernog dizajna i prvi javni stambeni projekt u državi New York stavljen na raspolaganje stanovnicima Afroamerikanaca, ovaj povijesni kompleks je prazan i čeka planove obnove.


Čovjek osuđen zbog krađe artefakata predaka Puebloan

DURANGO, Colo. (AP) - Muškarac je osuđen na godinu i dan dana u saveznom zatvoru zbog uzimanja predmeta sa svečanog mjesta predaka Puebloan u nacionalnom spomeniku Canyons of the Ancients na jugozapadu Kolorada, izjavili su tužitelji u srijedu.

Lonnie Shadrick Winbourn (57) iz Corteza osuđena je zbog kršenja Zakona o zaštiti arheoloških izvora. Tužitelji su rekli da je nekoliko puta u svibnju i lipnju 2017. putovao do spomenika i iskopao svečano područje koje uključuje veliki plesni plac, ostatke podzemne sobe i više ljudskih grobnih mjesta.

Winbourn je povučen i uhićen po nepovezanom nalogu 4. lipnja 2017., a čuvar Ureda za upravljanje zemljištem pronašao je krhotine keramike u njegovom džepu. Pretragom su pronađena 64 ukradena predmeta, uključujući nakit, glavu sjekire i druge alate.

Arheolozi su od tada obnovili mjesto.

"Mi kao društvo moramo prepoznati važnost poštivanja svih kultura, uključujući i one artefakte koji predstavljaju kulturne resurse domorodačkih Amerikanaca", rekao je Randall Carpenter, pomoćnik specijalnog agenta zadužen za ured za provedbu zakona BLM -a.

Spomenik zapadno od Corteza javno je zemljište koje sadrži najveću poznatu gustoću arheoloških nalazišta u zemlji, s dobro očuvanim dokazima izvornih kultura, prema BLM-u.

Autorska prava 2021 Nexstar Media Inc. Sva prava pridržana. Ovaj se materijal ne smije objavljivati, emitirati, prepisivati ​​ili dalje distribuirati.


Nemojte ’t Nazovite nas Anasazi

Lokalno znanje
Iako ćete zasigurno čuti drevna plemena koja su naseljavala regiju Four Corners koja se nazivaju “Anasazi” (riječ Navajo koja u prijevodu znači “drevni” ili “drevni neprijatelji”), poželjni izraz je Ancestral Puebloans. Prikupili smo nekoliko drugih sitnica u stilu Trivial Pursuit koje bi vam mogle biti od pomoći prilikom posjete.

Geografija

Pitanje: Četiri ugla, sjeverno-južna cesta 491, nekada se zvala Highway 666, ili Đavolja autocesta. Njegovi dijelovi također padaju duž staze Duge šetnje, na koju su indijansko pleme bili prisiljeni?
Odgovor: Navajo. U zimu 1864. američka vlada "preselila" je više od 8 500 Navajoa, prisiljavajući ih da pješače preko 300 milja - od sjeveroistočne Arizone u Novi Meksiko - za osam tjedana. Više od 200 ljudi poginulo je tijekom Duge šetnje Navaha.

Zabava

Pitanje: Koji je grad Four Corners (ish) memoriziran u pjesmi grupe Eagles?
Odgovor: Winslow, Arizona, koji se nalazi izvan rezervata Hopi, nedaleko od Interstate 40. (Pa, stojim na uglu u Winslowu, Arizona // Tako je lijep prizor za vidjeti // To je djevojka, moja Gospode, u plosnatom Fordu // Uspori da me pogledaš.)

Povijest

Više izbora: Dobitnik Ratne medalje u Vijetnamu Kenneth Worley, marinac koji je 1968. godine skočio na granatu kako bi spasio svoje suborce, rođen je u kojem gradu Four Corners?
A) Cortez
B) Farmington, Novi Meksiko
C) Teec Nos Pos, Arizona
D) Bluff, Utah
Odgovor: B. Ploču posvećenu Worleyu možete pronaći u Spomen parku All Veterans Memorial uz rijeku Animas.

Science & amp Nature

Pitanje: Dokazi iz kojih je geoloških doba vidljivo u zidovima kanjona iznad rijeke San Juan u blizini Bluffa, Utah?
Odgovor: Mezozoik (prije 252 do 66 milijuna godina). Ovo doba sadržavalo je jursko razdoblje, kada su dinosauri lutali uokolo.

Sport i slobodno vrijeme

Ispunite prazno polje: Prodana uz cestu i na Navajo festivalima krajem ljeta i početkom jeseni, ova hrana slična tamale -u također je poznata i kao ____ kruh.
Odgovor: Kleknite na kruh. Kruh koji se kleči pravi se od zrna kukuruza s mladih stabljika koje su obrijane, samljevene, a zatim pomiješane s vodom, solju i povremeno svinjskom mašću te omotane u kukuruzne ljuske. Ljuske se zatim kuhaju na vatri - obično u pokrivenoj jami u zemlji.

Umjetnost i književnost

Više izbora: Koji je od sljedećih naslov knjige autora Tonyja Hillermana, autora Four Cornersa?
A) Skinwalkeri
B) Lopov vremena
C) Zlokobna svinja
D) Sve gore navedeno
Odgovor: D. Svi su bili dio Hillermanove nagrađivane izmišljene kriminalističke serije koja je pratila policajce plemena Navajo Joea Leaphorna i Jima Cheea. Hillerman je umro 2008., no 2013. njegova je kći Anne objavila prvu od tri nove knjige s likovima svog oca.

Sporedni izlet: Canyon de Chelly

Fotografija Jason J. Hartfield

Suho i prazno, sjeveroistočni kutak Arizone sadrži jedno od najdužih kontinuirano naseljenih područja Sjeverne Amerike: Nacionalni spomenik Canyon de Chelly. Prije pet tisuća godina ovdje su živjeli predački puebloanci, slijedili su ih hopi, a zatim i navajo, koji danas upravljaju tim područjem u dogovoru sa službom za nacionalne parkove. (Iako je Canyon de Chelly nacionalni spomenik, on zapravo u cijelosti spada u Navajo Naciju, oko 40 Navajo obitelji i dalje živi i farmira u parku.) Ne-plemenski posjetitelji mogu zaviriti u kanjon dubok 1000 stopa i njegovu zelenu dolinu- poda poljoprivrednim zemljištem vozeći se uz sjeverni i južni rub (svaki dugačak 15 milja) ili kampirajući u kampu Cottonwood u blizini Thunderbird Lodgea i pješačeći stazom Bijele kuće od 1,25 milja u kanjon. Ipak, najbolji način da istražite ljepotu Canyon de Chellyja je prijaviti se na Jeep turneju s uslugom Navajo vodiča, poput Canyon De Chelly Tours ili Canyon de Chelly Beauty Way Jeep Tours.


Vandalizam, krađa prijete povijesnim mjestima Utaha

Arheolog i izvršni direktor arheologije jugozapada William Doelle jednom je posjetio Grand Gulch, izolirano povijesno mjesto Anasazi. Dok je pregledavao petroglife duž stijena, primijetio je mali, crveni crtež osobe - s oznakom metka točno na srcu.

“To je kao, ‘Pa, dobar pogodak, ’, ali razina uništenja je vrlo razočaravajuća kad se vidite kad se vratite na ova mjesta gdje je očuvanje inače izuzetno dobro ", rekla je Doelle. “Što motivira nekoga tko vidi ovakvu drevnu sliku i osjeća potrebu iskušati svoje strijelce? Ne mogu to objasniti. ”

Petroglif crvenog čovjeka koji je vidio izvršni direktor Archaeology Southwest William Doelle u Grand Gulchu, Utah, označen je oznakama metka. Prema Zavodu za upravljanje zemljištem u Utahu, vandalizam i pljačka na arheološkim nalazištima problem je koji je dobro dokumentiran. (William Doelle)

Slično, pomoćnik profesora arheologije BYU -a Michael Searcy rekao je da je iskopao arheološka nalazišta u sjevernom Meksiku koja su bila netaknuta, osim očiglednih pljačkaških jama. Prema Searcyju, većina pljačkaša često arheologiji pristupa neorganizirano, što dovodi do doslovnih rupa u kontekstu i povijesti web mjesta.

“Dijelovi koji su opljačkani bili su toliko teško uništeni da smo pronašli pljačkaške jame na vrhu pljačkaških jama,#rekao je Searcy. “Skoro je nerazumljivo kada je u pitanju pregled struktura ili ukopa. Zaista ne postoji način tumačenja informacija i podataka jer su tako uništeni i oštećeni. ”

U najboljem slučaju, ovakvi slučajevi su posljedica nemara. U najgorem slučaju, oni su proizvod namjernog vandalizma i krađe - obje teške radnje kažnjive novčanim kaznama i zatvorom, kaže Brenden Rensink, docentica povijesti BYU -a, povjesničarka sjevernoameričkog Zapada i pomoćnica ravnatelja Centra Charles Redd za Zapadne studije.

Prema Zavodu za upravljanje zemljištem u Utahu, Utah ima dugu povijest pljačke i vandalizma na arheološkim i paleontološkim nalazištima. Ova se mjesta smatraju značajnima za indijanske zajednice smještene u Utahu, uključujući narode Navajo, Ute, Paiute, Goshute i Shoshone.

Dok je 2017. u Utahu otkriveno više od 900 arheoloških nalazišta, južni dio države - gdje se nalaze Nacionalni park Zion, Nacionalni spomenik Medvjeđe uši i Nacionalni spomenik Veliko stubište Escalante - izrazito je osjetljiv na negativan utjecaj ljudi zbog turizma, rekao je Rensink .

Prema Rensinku, označavanje spomeničkih mjesta može biti mač s dvije oštrice-udaljenim mjestima možda neće trebati status spomenika zbog poteškoća s ulaskom u njih, ali je manje vjerojatno da će se primijetiti bilo kakvo oštećenje ili krađa. S druge strane, zaštićeni spomenici često privlače velike skupine ljudi, što može dovesti do oštećenja i krađe.

“Postoji određena zabrinutost da bi status spomenika mogao dovesti do povećanog prometa i većeg rizika, "rekao je Rensink. “Postoji neka vrsta vražjeg dogovora i mi#8217 stvarno nismo sigurni kako će se to odigrati. ”

Rensink je primijetio da je zbog smanjenja izvornosti nacionalnog spomenika Medvjeđe uši ostalo nejasno hoće li arheološka nalazišta unutar granica dobiti istu zaštitu. Neka mjesta izvan novih granica uključuju Grand Gulch, Valley of the Gods i Cedar Mesa, prema The New York Timesu.

“Bears Ears bio je samo spomenik u svojim izvornim granicama vrlo kratko vrijeme, "#rekao je Rensink. “To je ’ podijeljeno na dva zajedno s Grand Staircase Escalante, pa je teško reći##hoće li dobiti više ili manje zaštite. ”

Rensink je rekao da su drugi spomenici, poput Kanjona starih u Koloradu, nedovoljno razvijeni kako bi se smanjio promet ljudi, što je dovelo do povećane zaštite svetih mjesta.

Bez obzira na udaljenost mjesta, Doelle je rekla da može biti teško datirati oštećenja i krađu na arheološko nalazište. Searcy je također primijetio da kada se artefakt uzme s izvornog mjesta, on gubi većinu svog povijesnog konteksta i značaja.

“Mnogo puta ljudi dođu i kažu: ‘Hej, imam artefakt koji sam pronašao u podrumu djeda i#8217, ’, a moje je prvo pitanje: ‘ Odakle je to izvorno? '” Searcy rekao je. “Ako je opljačkano, najvećim dijelom ćete izgubiti vjerojatno 80 posto informacija. To je važan kontekst. ”

Shawn Lambert, the public archaeologist for the Utah Division of State History, said accidents are treated differently than intentional looting. He said someone who accidentally ran over an archaeological site on BLM land may not face criminal charges. However, Lambert said his job is to educate and inform people to help decrease both accidental and intentional looting and destruction.

“Most of the people who are doing this don’t understand what they’re doing. They may not know they’re shooting at rock art or running over a site,” he said. “We need to educate people about these resources and how to help people be stewards over these resources.”

According to BYU Anthropology Department Chair James Allison, looting and vandalism don’t only interfere with archaeological work — they also disrespect Native American culture, indirectly exacerbating distrust and other issues.

“There are huge problems in Native American society with a legacy of racism and poverty, and those problems are not made any better by the disrespect shown to their ancestral sites,” Allison said.

Allison and Searcy said the looting of any human remains, either modern or ancient, is strictly forbidden by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. According to the U.S. General Services Administration, human remains and Native American cultural items must be returned to “lineal descendants.”

“Someone values those sites for their ancestral connections and they do actually have a sacredness to them,” Allison said. “It’s like going into a cemetery and stealing the rings off corpses. It’s very offensive.”

According to Doelle and Rensink, there is always a market for historical antiquities obtained legally. Rensink said artifacts obtained legally are fine to sell.

“Legality depends on where the artifact was found,” Rensink said. “If you own the land and there are artifacts there, you can sell them legally.”

Despite this, a black market for illicit artifacts and goods still exists and attracts a wide variety of consumers, including international terrorists. According to a study by The Antiquities Coalition, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria turned to the dark web to exchange stolen artifacts for bitcoin to fund their operations.

According to the study, following the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris, a hacking group discovered ISIS had access to over $3 million in bitcoin, which the group used to purchase weapons used in the attack.

Searcy said many looters will often trade among themselves in person or on auction websites like eBay. Unfortunately, according to Searcy, many artifacts are hard to trace to their original location, which results in many stolen pieces being passed off as legitimate.

Searcy also said it can be difficult to patrol for looters because many sites are located in remote locations. Site protection is often the responsibility of the land managers, like the Forest Service or BLM. Concrete evidence on illicit artifact trading occasionally leads to joint sting operations like Operation Cerberus Action, he said.

The FBI, BLM and the state of Utah conducted a sting in 2006, leading to 24 indictments involving antiquities collectors who stole from graves and ruins on the Colorado Plateau, according to the Salt Lake Tribune. Operation Cerberus Action recovered over 6,000 artifacts and two defendants died by suicide. The other defendants were not required to serve jail time, according to the Tribune.

Lambert said thieves and vandals could face steep fines and prison time in a worst-case scenario.

“You could get fiercely fined up to hundreds of thousands of dollars and you could also go to jail for intentionally looting archaeological sites,” he said.


Sadržaj

Montezuma Castle is situated about 90 feet (27 m) up a sheer limestone cliff, facing the adjacent Beaver Creek, which drains into the perennial Verde River just north of Camp Verde. It is one of the best-preserved cliff dwellings in North America, in part because of its ideal placement in a natural alcove that protects it from exposure to the elements. The precariousness of the dwelling's location and its immense scale of floor space across five stories suggest that the Sinagua were daring builders and skilled engineers. Access into the structure was most likely permitted by a series of portable ladders, which made it difficult for enemy tribes to penetrate the natural defense of the vertical barrier. [7]

Perhaps the main reason the Sinagua chose to build the Castle so far above the ground, however, was to escape the threat of natural disaster in the form of the annual flooding of Beaver Creek. During the summer monsoon season, the creek frequently breached its banks, inundating the floodplain with water. The Sinagua recognized the importance of these floods to their agriculture, but likely also the potential destruction they presented to any structures built in the floodplain. Their solution was to build a permanent structure in the high recess afforded by the limestone cliff.

The walls of Montezuma Castle are examples of early stone-and-mortar masonry, constructed almost entirely from chunks of limestone found at the base of the cliff, as well as mud and/or clay from the creek bottom. The ceilings of the rooms also incorporated sectioned timbers as a kind of roof thatching, obtained primarily from the Arizona sycamore, a large hardwood tree native to the Verde Valley.

Evidence of permanent dwellings like those at Montezuma Castle begins to appear in the archaeological record of Arizona's Verde Valley about 1050 AD. The first distinctly Sinagua culture may have occupied the region as early as 700 AD. The area was briefly abandoned due to the eruption of Sunset Crater Volcano, about 60 miles (97 km) to the north, in the mid-11th century. Although the short-term impact may have been destructive, nutrient-rich sediment deposited by the volcano may have aided more expansive agriculture in later decades. During the interim, the Sinagua lived in the surrounding highlands and sustained themselves on small-scale agriculture dependent on rain. After 1125, the Sinagua resettled the Verde Valley, using the reliable watershed of the Verde River alongside irrigation systems left by previous inhabitants, perhaps including Hohokam peoples, to support more widespread farming. [7]

Construction of the Castle itself is thought to have begun around this time, though the building probably was gradual, level-by-level, over many generations. The region's population likely peaked around 1300 AD, with the Castle housing between 30 and 50 people in at least 20 rooms. [8] A neighboring segment of the same cliff wall suggests there was an even larger dwelling ("Castle A") around the same time, of which only the stone foundations have survived. Its discovery in 1933 revealed many Sinagua artifacts and greatly increased understanding of their way of life.

The latest estimated date of occupation for any Sinagua site comes from Montezuma Castle, around 1425 AD. After this, the Sinagua people apparently abandoned their permanent settlements and migrated elsewhere, as did other cultural groups in the southwestern United States around that time. The reasons for abandonment are unclear, but possibilities include drought, resource depletion, and clashes with the newly arrived Yavapai people. Due to the very little human contact since abandonment, Montezuma Castle was well preserved. [5] It was heavily looted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, though other Sinagua sites have remained more or less intact. Because of the rise in settlers, tourists and industries in or surrounding Montezuma Castle, the monument and even Verde Valley have been threats to the preservation of Montezuma Castle. [5]

Due to the lack of basic knowledge on the natural resources of the national parks, the National Park Service created a program in order to record and identify any changes in the environment and its inhabitants. [9] An inventory of plants and animals at Montezuma Castle was taken between 1991 and 1994 by researchers from Northern Arizona University and the United States Geological Survey. According to the United States Geological Survey, about 784 species were recorded at Montezuma Castle National Monument, including plants, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Only 11% of the species were non-native. Common species include bats, snakes, turtles, lizards, frogs, foxes, owls and mice. [9]

The monument itself encloses 860 acres near the geographic center of Arizona and the intersection of the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range physiographic provinces.

The dwellings and the surrounding area were declared a U.S. National Monument on December 8, 1906 as a result of the American Antiquities Act, signed [1] earlier that year. It is one of the four original sites designated National Monuments by President Theodore Roosevelt. Montezuma Castle was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. [10]

It is an easy monument to visit, just a short distance off Interstate 17, at exit 289. There is a 1 ⁄ 3 mile (0.54 km) paved trail starting at the visitor center that follows the base of the cliff containing the ruins. Access to the interior of the ruins has not been allowed since 1951 due to concerns about visitor safety and damage to the dwelling. About 400,000 tourists visit the site each year. The park is open from 8am to 5pm every day of the year, except for Christmas Day.

The visitor center includes a museum about the Sinagua culture and the tools they used to build the dwellings. The museum houses many artifacts, such as stone tools, metates used for grinding corn, bone needles, and ornaments of shell and gemstone, which prove that the Sinagua were fine artisans as well as prolific traders. [11] There is also a Park Store operated by Western National Parks Association.

Montezuma Castle plays a key role in the climax of the Western Flaming Feather (1952), which was shot on location at the site.

Montezuma Well, a natural limestone sinkhole, measuring approximately 100 by 120 yards, also containing Sinagua dwellings, was purchased by the federal government in 1947 and is considered a detached unit of Montezuma Castle National Monument. It is located about 5 miles north of the Castle near the town of Rimrock, Arizona, accessible from exits 293 and 298 off Interstate 17. [8]


Canyons of the Ancients Artifacts Thief Goes to Jail - History

The Website's featured article for this month is: Competition Event Update
By Lee Wiese
Download and Read the Complete Article

This article may be some what redundant since there are two other competition hunt articles on the MDHTALK website. However, having participated in four recent competition events there are some behaviors that require additional comment and special emphasis. This article will only cover those areas that were somewhat lacking in the competition hunts attendant by this author. The other two articles concerning competition metal detecting hunt have much greater detail on all aspects of competition hunts and are highlighted at the end of this article.

Event Date. The event date, event start time, event location and an overall activity schedule should be covered at the very beginning of the event flyer.

Hunts. Next, the flyer must have good a description of each offered metal detecting hunt with information on the type of prizes and the hunt fee. Each hunt should have its own registration fee so that a potential participant can choose which hunt or hunts to enter or not to enter.

Naknade. The fee for a competition hunt are usually directly related to an individual hunt theme and all of the hunt fee should be directed towards that specific hunt's coin targets and token prizes. There should be a disclosure on the event flyer if portions of a hunt fee are going toward hunt site rents, event insurance, park entrance fees to the site or an event lunch.

It is best that a special event fee be added to cover all overhead cost related to the event. This way it is very clear and upfront as to what the overhead cost is and that all registered participants must pay this fee along with their hunt fees. (Overhead cost may include: event insurance, lunch, hunt field rent, park entrance fee, flyer cost, etc.)

Otkrivanje. If there is no specific overhead related fee for the event them there must be a disclosure on the flyer about how much of the hunt fees will be applied toward the overhead cost. Since taking moneys from hunt fees to pay for overhead cost will reduce the amount of moneys available for coin targets and token prizes.

  • To our valued White's Dealers-
    This is a very difficult message to write, but the time has come for retirement from White's Electronics. We are suspending manufacturing operations at our Sweet Home facility while we re-evaluate the future of the company. It is never easy to make these decisions, however, we are faced with the reality of intense competition in the industry and ongoing counterfeit instruments coming from China. Lastly, there have been critical material shortages since the Covid 19 shutdown that we now find insurmountable. All of us here in Sweet Home are grateful for your service. We consider each you part of the White's extended family.
    Sincerely, Ken White
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  • American Digger Relic Roundup. For diggers and collectors of history. An hour long program every Monday Night at 9:00 PM eastern standard time. Join your hosts Butch Holcombe, Jeff Lubbert and Heath Jones as they explore the past. Learn more about Metal Detecting, Treasure hunting in all it's forms, and the preservation of history. June Pod Cast Link
  • Archaeology and Metal Detecting Magazine present the BIG metal detecting podcast. A weekly show bringing all areas of history together with our guests, news and much more. June Pod Cast Link
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    Fisher Impulse AQ LimitedSell Sheet
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  • The Archaeology and Metal Detecting Magazine The Archaeology and Metal detecting magazine are one of the lead online sites in their genre. Offering multiple platforms for Archaeological, Historical and metal detecting news, articles, research areas and much more. June News
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There is abundant wealth lost around water and you don t need a mining claim or special permission to hunt many public places. If you have a waterproof detector or one that can handle highly mineralized conditions, your odds of finding treasure increase significantly. Let me explain. A typical ocean beach can be compared to the Mother Lode, only better. Zašto? As long as people keep visiting there, the gold gets replenished! Rings, bracelets, coins get lost in

There are several similarities between beach hunting for jewelry and hunting for gold in the rivers. For instance, at the beach, she stuff that is lost in the upper sand areas make their way down into the surf during large storm events just like gold is washed downstream in the same storms. You can find an occasional nugget above a river in gold country, but you re going to make your best finds when you locate the pay streak where nature has concentrated the gold.

TThe same is true of the beaches. Recently while hunting a beach in Hawaii, I started off as I typically do, hunting a cross section of the beach to possibly identify a paystreak, or hotspot. I started where my wife and I laid out our stuff, fairly high up, near the highest point. I checked some areas close by, coming up fairly empty except for a pull tab and a penny. I started swinging my detector on down toward the surf, intending to hunt in the surf for a while to cool off. Before I got into the waves, the flat sections of lava bedrock began showing through the sand. As I neared the lava, I got a solid signal. I used my sand scoop to capture the target. My scoop went clunk hitting the bedrock only a couple inches under the sand. I swept away the sand and checked the spot again with my detector. Still a very solid signal, but where was it hiding? There was only a small bit of loose sand where the signal was coming from. I carefully swept away the sand and noticed a small indentation with more sand. A hole in the lava rock. Of course! This is going to be like hunting gold in bedrock in a river. I pulled out the only small tool I had with me, a pair of tweezers and began clearing the hole of packed sand with the blunt end. Several inches down I could tell I was hitting a flat object with the tweezers. I was able to dislodge what turned out to be a nickel and grab it with the tweezers. I pulled it out of a hole literally only wide enough it would seem someone purposely placed it in there like a piggy bank! I stood up, glanced across the beach at the receding tide and saw hundreds of holes, cracks and steps in the lava bedrock and said Cha ching, the piggy bank is full! There were more cracks and holes under the wet, smooth sand than what was showing above the sand. I began locating target after target, many coins were standing on edge, wedged into the cracks. I was able to dig a few out with the tweezers, but soon I realized I need heavier duty tools. So I hiked back to the rental car, hoping I had packed the screwdriver I had modified for detecting. I was in luck, it was in the suitcase with a few other tools. Once I was able to employ the screwdriver to unscrew the coins from their wedged hiding places, I cut my extraction time dramatically. I couldn t travel more than a foot or two before locating another target, and my coin to trash ratio was about 4-5 coins per piece of trash, instead of the opposite like I have experienced so often on public beaches. I could tell many had been stuck there for a long time, but unfortunately I didn t find any silver coins or gold rings that day. I did come up with 59 coins, at least enough to pay for another round of batteries for the detector. I was still amazed at how many coins were lodged into cracks and holes just barely big enough for them to fit into. I find batteries, fish hooks, nails, metal toys, etc. The variety is endless. I m sure beach goers would thank me for the cuts they didn t get on their feet! I find lead fishing weights too and add those to my melt pile for the next time I cast diving weights for dredging.

Detectorists help clean the beach making it a safer place for everyone. I am surprised how many bottles I find that were intentionally buried so someone didn t have to pack them out. You see, oftentimes the metallic labels give their presence away when detecting. When that happens I pick them up and carry what I can while hunting, and then when I can t comfortably carry more, stop detecting and make a trash dump run. On certain beaches when the conditions are just right , the waves are larger and hit the beach faster than normal and begin stripping sand off the beach. When this happens a deep cut in the sand can occur. The wave action pulls the sand out to sea, but the heavier metal items such as coins and jewelry are left behind, concentrated in the sand. Sometimes these cuts can be as deep as 6 to 8 FEET!

About 15 years ago this occurred on a southern California beach and my buddy Dan found over 1,100 (not a typo) ELEVEN HUNDRED coins in two days! Not to mention many gold and silver rings, gold chains and more. I forgot how many pounds of lead fishing weights he found, but it was impressive. There were multiple targets with every sweep of the coil! He finally had to stop digging targets due to fatigue. It s one of those problems we all wish t the sand where folks relax on their towels, picnic, etc. But where it really gets good is down in the surf! Everyone should wear sunscreen while out there, right? As soon as those sunscreen soaked tourists hit the water, voila! Those rings slide off the fingers and are deposited in the newly enriched paydirt!

There are subtle comparisons to gold prospecting and beach hunting AKA Beach Combing, Coin Shooting, etc. You will find that the surf sorts out materials for you and when you are really lucky, you can identify a pay streak. In a river the gold pay streaks follow the downstream flow of the river, but on the beach the pay streak will typically run horizontal across the beach. After items have been in the sand/surf for some time, the wave and current action tend to sort thing by weight and density. The pull tabs will be in a certain line, the lighter coins further down towards the deeper water and when you start detecting fishing weights, you are on the gut of the pay streak. That is where you are most likely to strike gold! Gold rings top the list but bracelets, pendants, etc. This is a little known secret that may help you increase your productivity while swinging your detector on the beach and especially in the surf. o have when out swinging the detector! If you re going to hunt in the water, if possible hunt at low tide. That way you can get further out and hunt where there has been less pressure from other detectorists. Plus, the surf tends to pull things down the beach and out into deeper water. Sometimes in storms that trend reverses, but it s not the norm. You only have limited time to hunt, so up your chances for success whenever you have a choice.

If you choose to hunt the deep water without SCUBA gear, here are a few of my gear suggestions: Well it must be obvious, but you need a waterproof detector! One that can handle salt water mineralization, for sure. There are some good pulse induction machines that work extremely well in salt conditions. And don t forget those waterproof headphones to help you hear those faint, deeper targets. I was rather disappointed recently when I purchased a name brand waterproof prospecting detector that came with wait for it NON-Waterproof headphones! Ozbiljno? I had to spend a couple of hundred extra for the waterproof headphones. Idi figura. A good screened scoop is a must when working sandy areas. If you ve ever hunted the beach you have no doubt found your share (and then some!) of bobby pins, bits of nails, etc. To solve this I place a rare earth magnet in the scoop to quickly capture those small, annoying iron targets.

If you re going to hunt the salt beach areas, you ll want to get a stainless steel scoop. A steel scoop will rust fairly quickly in those harsh conditions. I had to fasten my magnet in the scoop with galvanized wire since stainless steel is not magnetic. I can see clearly now that I use a mask and snorkel! Very shallow water is no problem but when you hunt waist deep water and deeper you should consider a mask and snorkel. For best breathing use a mask with a purge valve and a snorkel equipped with a check valve to help prevent you from inhaling a nice big gulp of salt water. Mmmm get your big gulp here not! When hunting in the surf, there is this annoying thing that occurs regularly, is somewhat repetitive, but doesn t repeat the timing exactly the same time twice, called Waves . Just about the time you are engrossed in pinpointing a target, boom a wave hits you and you lose sight of the spot , maybe even get carried 10 or 15 feet away as the water lifts you and carries you towards shore, Then, the undertow of the wave returning to go back and set up to hit you again.

There is a cool little tool you can make that will help you locate your target again. My friend Dan Fergot told me how to tie a fishing bobber to a fishing weight with a length of string about the depth of the water you are hunting. When you get a signal with your detector and a wave is about to hit, drop the fishing weight on the spot and the bobber will guide you back to your target after the water calms a bit between wave sets. This can make the difference between success and failure at the end of the day when you recover more targets in less time and energy expended. Once in a while you will find that a target keeps slipping through your scoop. Don t give up on these! Sometimes they are diamond ear rings or other valuable items (or small lead fishing weights). When this happens, I use a regular plastic nugget scoop to separate out the target. Sometimes you get a better payday on one of these tiny targets than a big one!

Oftentimes while out swinging my detector on the beach, curious folks will stop and ask me if I found anything, what I found, or be curious about the detector. I don t mind explaining how the machine works, or describing some of the 5 year old little girl over to watch me detect. I took off my headphones and invited them over to see me uncover my latest target. I used my screwdriver to dislodge a quarter from a bedrock crack and held it up to show them. They thought that was really neat that I could pull money out of the ground like that. I asked the little girl if she would like to have a coin I found. She quipped No, we have plenty of money! The mom looked a bit embarrassed and thanked me for the demonstration.


National monuments protect meaning, not just landscapes

As the first light of sun saturates the Great Sage Plain in southeastern Utah, I run along a swath cut through the brush, where a gas-field pipeline runs. An owl alights from tree to tree ahead of me, and the air — still humid from last night’s rain — is redolent with the smell of sagebrush. An overgrown two-track veers off from the right of way, and I veer, too, following it south across a mesa, stretching my legs on the downhill.

I stagger to a stop at a cluster of rectangular sandstone blocks, rubble that once stood as a wall, sinking into the red earth. Potsherds — the rim of a bowl, the handle of a mug, polished by calloused hands or smooth stones some 800 years ago — are scattered abundantly. It is one of thousands of archaeological sites spread out across southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, sometimes called the northern San Juan or the Mesa Verde region, which includes the newly designated Bears Ears, as well as the Hovenweep and Canyons of the Ancients national monuments.

This site — we’ll call it the Sagebrush Site — is like hundreds of others in the region, in that it is not part of a national monument, or park, or other special protected area. Instead, it’s on a Bureau of Land Management parcel that has been grazed, criss-crossed with de facto roads and drilled for oil and gas. It lies a couple dozen miles east of the outer edge of Bears Ears National Monument, yet it illustrates how Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke’s proposal to shrink the new monument, while purportedly still protecting the “significant” cultural resources, is outdated, myopic and leaves important sites unprotected.

In 1923, President Warren G. Harding wielded the Antiquities Act to establish Hovenweep National Monument in reaction to wholesale looting of the pueblos perched on the edges of canyons in the southeastern corner of Utah. “Few of the mounds have escaped the hands of the destroyer,” noted T. Mitchell Pruden in 1903. “Cattlemen, ranchmen, rural picnickers, and professional collectors have turned the ground well over and have taken out much pottery, breaking more, and strewing the ground with many crumbling bones.”

At the time, only the well-preserved, large structures were deemed worthy of protection, so even today Hovenweep is a mere 785 acres, divided up into six discrete “units” that include the spectacular towers and not much else. Left out of the monument were the Sagebrush Site, along with dozens of others like it, despite the fact that they were clearly associated with the Hovenweep towers. This was how the Antiquities Act was used back then to protect cultural resources. In 1907 President Theodore Roosevelt designated Chaco Canyon National Monument, which preserved “downtown” Chaco, while omitting many outlying great houses, prehistoric “roads” and large swaths of the greater Chaco landscape. In the years since, these places have been ravaged by wholesale oil and gas development.

Over time, our understanding of the Pueblo peoples’ connection to the landscape evolved, as did the way the Antiquities Act was implemented. In 2000, President Bill Clinton designated Canyons of the Ancients National Monument (just over the Colorado line from Hovenweep). Instead of targeting individual sites, it blanketed a relatively large swath of landscape. “Canyons of the Ancients was perhaps the first to explicitly recognize that ruins do not tell the entire story,” says Bruce Babbitt, Clinton’s Interior secretary at the time. “That ancients lived in, hunted, gathered and raised crops, and developed water and religious sites throughout the larger landscape.” This ethos was taken to another level when President Barack Obama designated Bears Ears National Monument 16 years later.

Zinke has kept his monument review secret from the public, so we don’t know exactly what he has in mind for Bears Ears. But he has signaled that he’d like to significantly reduce the size of the monument, perhaps by as much as 1.2 million acres, and focus the designation on what he has determined to be the most important cultural sites, such as larger, well-preserved dwellings and significant rock art panels. This would be like slicing up Yellowstone National Park into small units, one for Old Faithful, one for Yellowstone Falls and so forth.

Places like the Sagebrush Site, which are likewise abundant within the Bears Ears monument, would probably not qualify. The site is subtle, the relatively small pile of rubble indicating that it was not a full-blown pueblo or year-round dwelling, but rather a smaller version of the nearby Hovenweep towers. Every potsherd I see is decorated with elaborate corrugation or black-on-white paint, suggesting that these weren’t just functional vessels, that this is more than a shelter where someone could take a break from working in the fields. Perhaps it was a ceremonial shrine.

Someone carefully considered this precise spot, perhaps because it falls on the line stretching from the eastern Bears Ears butte to the peak of Ute Mountain. Someone took the time to hew the stones, to mix the adobe, to carefully place one upon the other. People visited here, perhaps made offerings, for a century or more. This structure had meaning. It still does.

Because the Sagebrush Site is on federal land, it is protected by the Antiquities Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act and sundry other laws. If someone were caught pocketing any of these potsherds, he might end up in jail. If an oil company wanted to drill here, it would need to comply with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. The company would pay for an archaeological survey, and if this site were deemed to be “significant,” the well pad would need to be moved away from it. It’s known in the business as “identify and avoid.”

Many well-meaning folks — and some with more cynical aims — argue that a national monument designation for Bears Ears is unnecessary because it already has these multiple levels of protection.

But someone could dig up the Sagebrush Site in broad daylight and cart away backpacks full of artifacts, possibly with impunity, since BLM rangers, stretched so thin out here, probably never venture down this little, old road. On the rare occasion that the feds are able to find pothunters, and try to bring the perpetrators to justice, they are met with stiff local resistance, as was the case in 1986 and 2009 in Blanding, Utah. When BLM officials close roads that run through sensitive archaeological sites — as they did in 2007 in Recapture Canyon, also near Blanding — the local Sagebrush Rebels, the same ones that claim to be able to protect public land on their own, go ballistic. The Monticello Field Office has been berated endlessly by locals, and one county commissioner even went to jail after leading a motorized, armed protest down Recapture Canyon in 2014.

Meanwhile, identify-and-avoid works to keep drill rigs off of prominent cultural sites, but it does little to protect the surrounding context — shrines, prehistoric “roads,” constructed swales, ancient corn fields and other components of the cultural landscape that may not be visible to the contractors hired by the developers. Oilfield roads, well pads and pipelines fragment the natural as well as the cultural landscape, thus shattering the whole, and obscuring the larger meaning.

National monument status doesn’t provide any guarantees of greater protection, by any means. Yet even in cases like Canyons of the Ancients, where energy development and grazing continue, monument designation has shifted the BLM’s top priority, from accommodating multiple uses, to protecting the resources. This gives them more leverage to push development away from entire swaths of culturally valuable land, and to close trails or roads if necessary.

With the tug-of-war over its future status raging, the Bears Ears National Monument is a monument in name only — without a management plan, it’s not getting any more protection, just more visitors and impacts. Yet even there, the designation itself, and the vast amount of acreage it encompassed, acknowledged that the “significant” archaeological sites need the surrounding landscape, both cultural and natural, to give them meaning. Hacking up and shrinking the new monument would be done in blindness to this knowledge, and take us back to the myopic approach of a century ago. That is why the tribal nations that pushed for the original designation are prepared to fight any effort to shrink the new monument.

I leave the Sagebrush Site and continue south, jogging slowly now so as not to miss any other artifacts. Out to the west, a single pumpjack sits stoically against the sky like the skeleton of a Tyrannosaurus rex, or perhaps a giant grasshopper, poised to leap. The detritus of humankind is scattered across this lonely landscape, but I could keep running for another five, ten, maybe twenty miles and see no one save a lizard or two, a laughing raven, a feral horse. It’s a good feeling.

Jonathan Thompson is a contributing editor at High Country News. He is currently writing a book about the Gold King Mine spill. Follow @jonnypeace



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