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Flagelanti

Flagelanti


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Flagelanti

Flagelanti, fanatična i heretička sekta koja je procvjetala u trinaestom i narednim stoljećima. Njihovo je podrijetlo svojedobno pripisivano misionarskim naporima svetog Antuna Padovanskog, u gradovima sjeverne Italije, početkom trinaestog stoljeća, no Lempp (Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, XII, 435) pokazao je da to nije opravdano. Svaki važan pokret, međutim, ima svoje preteče, kako u ideji iz koje proizlazi, tako i u specifičnim djelima čiji je vrhunac. I, nesumnjivo, praksa bičevanja sebe, poznata ljudima kao asketski običaj težih redova (kao što su kamaldolezi, klunjaci, dominikanci), morala je samo po ideji biti povezana s jednako poznatim pokorničkim povorkama koju su Mendicantsi popularizirali oko 1233. godine, kako bi pripremili put za veliki ispad u drugoj polovici trinaestog stoljeća. 1260. prvi put čujemo za Flagellants u Perugi. Strašna pošast 1259. godine, dugotrajna tiranija i anarhija u cijelim talijanskim državama, proročanstva o Antikristu i smaku svijeta od strane Joakima Florskog i njemu sličnih stvorili su pomiješano stanje očaja i očekivanja među pobožnim laicima- narod srednjeg i nižeg staleža. Tada se pojavio poznati pustinjak iz Umbrije, Raniero Fasani, koji je organizirao bratstvo “Disciplinati di Gesu Cristo ”, koje se brzo proširilo po središnjoj i sjevernoj Italiji. Bratstva su bila poznata pod raznim imenima na raznim mjestima (Battuti, Scopatori, Verberatori itd.), Ali njihova je praksa posvuda bila vrlo slična. Sve godine i uvjeti bili su podložni ovoj mentalnoj epidemiji. Svećenici i laici, muškarci i žene, čak i djeca blagih godina, bičevali su se u odšteti za grijehe cijeloga svijeta. Velike povorke, koje su ponekad iznosile i 10.000 duša, prolazile su gradovima, pobijedile same sebe i pozvale vjernike na pokajanje. S križevima i zastavama koje je pred sobom nosilo svećenstvo, oni su polako marširali gradovima. Ogoljeni do pojasa i prekrivenih lica, bičevali su se kožnim tangama sve dok krv nije potekla, pjevajući himne i napeve muke Kristove, ulazeći u crkve i klanjajući se pred oltarima. Trideset tri dana i pol ovu pokoru nastavili su svi koji su je poduzeli u čast Kristovih godina života na zemlji. Ni blato ni snijeg, hladnoća ili vrućina, nisu bili nikakva prepreka. Povorke su se nastavile u Italiji tijekom 1260. godine, a do kraja te godine proširile su se izvan Alpa u Alzas, Bavarsku, Češku i Poljsku. 1261, međutim, crkvena i građanska vlast probudile su se opasnosti od takve epidemije, iako su njezine nepoželjne tendencije, ovom prigodom, bile prije političke nego teološke. U siječnju je papa zabranio procesije, a laici su odjednom shvatili da iza pokreta nema nikakvih crkvenih sankcija. Prestao je gotovo jednako brzo kao što je i započeo, i činilo se da je neko vrijeme izumro. U Njemačkoj se 1296. godine čulo za lutajuće flagelante. U sjevernoj Italiji, Venturino iz Bergama, dominikanac, koji je nakon toga proglašen blaženim, pokušao je oživjeti povorke flagelanata 1334., te je predvodio oko 10.000 ljudi, koji su do sada bili stilizirani kao golubovi “Doves ” kao Rim. No Rimljani su ga primili sa smijehom, a njegovi su ga sljedbenici napustili. Otišao je u Avignon vidjeti papu, kojeg je odmah premjestio u svoj samostan, a pokret se srušio.

1347. Crna smrt zahvatila je Europu i razorila kontinent sljedeće dvije godine. 1348. u Italiji su se dogodili strašni potresi. Skandali koji prevladavaju u Crkvi i državi pojačali su u narodnom umu osjećaj da je svemu došao kraj. S izvanrednom iznenadnošću ponovno su se pojavile čete Flagellants, koje su se brzo proširile po Alpama, kroz Mađarsku i Švicarsku. Godine 1349. stigli su do Flandrije, Nizozemske, Češke, Poljske i Danske. Do rujna te godine stigli su u Englesku, gdje su, međutim, postigli samo mali uspjeh. Englezi su promatrali fanatike sa tihim zanimanjem, čak su izražavajući sažaljenje, a ponekad i divljenje zbog njihove predanosti, ali nitko se nije mogao natjerati da im se pridruži, a pokušaj prozelitizma potpuno je propao. U međuvremenu, u Italiji se pokret, u skladu s temperamentom ljudi, tako temeljit, tako ekstatičan, a opet toliko činjeničan i praktičan u vjerskim pitanjima, brzo se proširio na sve klase zajednice. Njegovo širenje obilježili su i pomogli popularni laudi, narodne pjesme Muke Kristove i Gospine tuge, a za njom su nastala bezbrojna bratstva posvećena pokori i tjelesnim djelima milosrđa. Tako su osnovali “Battuti ” iz Siene, Bologne, Gubbioa Slučaj di Dio, koji su odjednom bili centri u kojima su se mogli sastajati radi predanih i pokajničkih vježbi, te hospiciji u kojima je bolesnicima i siromašnima olakšano. Iako su se uskoro pokazale tendencije prema herezi, zdrava talijanska vjera nije bila povoljna za njezin rast. Bratovštine su se prilagodile stalnoj crkvenoj organizaciji, a nije ih malo nastavilo, barem kao dobrotvorne udruge, do danas. Uočljivo je da su pjesme Laudesi tijekom njihovih povorki sve su više poprimale dramski karakter. Iz njih se s vremenom razvila popularna misteriozna igra, odakle su došli počeci talijanske drame.

Međutim, čim je pokret Flagellant prešao Alpe u teutonske zemlje, cijela se njegova priroda promijenila. Ideja je dočekana s oduševljenjem, brzo se razvila svečanost i gotovo jednako brzo specijalizirana doktrina, koja je ubrzo prerasla u herezu. Flagellantsi su postali organizirana sekta, s teškom disciplinom i ekstravagantnim zahtjevima. Nosili su bijeli habit i ogrtač, na svakom od njih bio je crveni križ, odakle su se u nekim dijelovima nazivali “Bratovstvo križa ”. Tko god se želio pridružiti ovom bratstvu, morao je ostati u njemu trideset tri i pol dana, zakleti se na poslušnost “Masters ” organizacije, posjedovati najmanje četiri penija dnevno za svoju podršku, kako bi se pomirio svim muškarcima i, ako je oženjen, da ima dozvolu svoje žene. Čini se da je ceremonija Flagellants bila približno ista u svim sjevernim gradovima. Dvaput dnevno, polako odlazeći na javni trg ili u glavnu crkvu, skidali su cipele, svukli se do pojasa i ničice se ispružili. Svojim držanjem naznačili su prirodu grijeha koje su namjeravali otkupiti, ubojicu koji leži na leđima, preljubnik na licu, krivokletnik s jedne strane koji je podigao tri prsta itd. Prvo ih je pretukao “Master &# 8221, dakle, svečano u propisanom obliku zamolili da ustane, stajali su u krugu i strogo se bičevali, vapeći da je njihova krv pomiješana s Krvlju Kristovom i da njihova pokora čuva cijeli svijet od propasti. Na kraju je “Master ” pročitao pismo koje je anđeo trebao donijeti s neba u crkvu svetog Petra u Rimu. To je govorilo o tome da je Krist, ljut na teške grijehe čovječanstva, prijetio uništenjem svijeta, ali je ipak, po zagovoru Blažene Djevice, odredio da svi koji se trebaju pridružiti bratstvu trideset tri i pol dana trebaju biti spašeni . Čitanje ovog “pisma ”, nakon šoka zbog emocija izazvanih javnom pokorom Flagellantsa, izazvalo je veliko uzbuđenje među stanovništvom. Unatoč prosvjedima i kritikama obrazovanih, tisuće se upisalo u bratstvo. Velike povorke marširale su od grada do grada, s križevima, svjetlima i transparentima ispred sebe. Hodali su polako, tri ili četiri uzastopno, noseći svoje zavezane bičeve i pjevajući svoje sjetne pjesme. Kako je broj rastao, pretvaranja vođa su se razvijala. Oni su ispovijedali smiješan užas čak i slučajnog kontakta sa ženama, te su inzistirali na tome da je obveza strogog posta petkom. Sumnjali su u nužnost ili čak poželjnost sakramenata, pa čak su se pretvarali da se međusobno oslobađaju, da izbacuju zle duhove i da čine čuda. Tvrdili su da je obustavljena redovna crkvena nadležnost i da će se njihova hodočašća nastaviti trideset tri i pol godine. Nema sumnje da se nekolicina njih nadala uspostaviti trajnog suparnika Katoličkoj crkvi, ali vrlo brzo vlasti su poduzele mjere i nastojale suzbiti cijeli pokret. Jer, iako je tako rastao u Njemačkoj i Nizozemskoj, ušao je i u Francusku.

U početku ovo fatuus novus obredi bio dobro prihvaćen. Još 1348. godine papa Klement VI. Dopustio je sličnu procesiju u Avignonu uz zamolbu protiv kuge. Ubrzo su, međutim, brzo širenje i heretičke tendencije Flagellantsa, osobito među uzburkanim narodima južne Francuske, uznemirile vlasti. Uz zamolbu Sveučilišta u četrnaestom stoljeću, veliki dominikanac, sveti Vincent Ferrer, proširio je ovu pokorničku pobožnost po cijelom sjeveru Španjolske, a mnoštvo poklonika slijedilo ga je na njegovim misionarskim hodočašćima po Francuskoj, Španjolskoj i Sjevernoj Italija.

Zapravo, veliki ispad 1349., iako je možda bio rasprostranjeniji i strašniji od sličnih fanatizama, bio je samo jedan od niza popularnih prevrata u nepravilnim intervalima od 1260. do kraja petnaestog stoljeća. Generirajući uzrok ovih pokreta uvijek je bio opskurni amalgam užasa od korupcije, želje da se oponaša herojsko istjecanje velikih pokajnika, apokaliptične vizije, očaja zbog prevladavajuće korupcije u Crkvi i državi. Sve te stvari tinjaju u glavama mnogo iskušanog stanovništva srednje Europe. Potrebna mu je bila dovoljna prilika, poput nakupljenog Pariza, papa je, nakon pomnog ispitivanja, osudio kretanje i zabranio procesije, dopisima od 20. listopada 1349., koji su poslani svim biskupima Francuske, Njemačke, Poljske, Švedske i Engleske. Ova osuda poklopila se s prirodnom reakcijom javnog mnijenja, pa su se Flagellantsi, od moćne prijetnje za sav ustaljeni javni red, našli kao lovljena i brzo nestajuća sekta. No, iako je Flagellantova tendencija bila ozbiljno pogođena, nikako nije bila iskorijenjena Tijekom četrnaestog i petnaestog stoljeća bilo je ponavljanja ove i sličnih hereza. U Njemačkoj, oko 1360. godine, pojavio se jedan Konrad Schmid, koji se nazvao Henok, i pretvarao se da je sva crkvena vlast ukinuta, ili bolje rečeno, prenesena na njega. Tisuće mladića pridružilo mu se, a on je mogao nastaviti s propagandom do 1369. godine, kada su žestoke mjere inkvizicije dovele do njegovog suzbijanja. Ipak, još uvijek čujemo o suđenjima i osudama Flagellantsa 1414. u Erfurtu, 1446. u Nordhausenu, 1453. u Sangerhausenu, čak čak 1481. u Halberstadtu. Opet se za “Albati ” ili “Bianchi ” čuje u Provansi oko 1399. godine sa njihovim povorkama od devet dana, tijekom kojih su sami sebe pobijedili i skandirali “Sabat Mater “. Na kraju tiranije nekog sitnog vladara, užas velike kuge ili vatreno propovijedanje nekog sveca podvižnika, kako bi cijelo kršćansko svijet zapalio. Kao vatra, impuls je prošao kroz ljude, i poput vatre se ugasio, da bi tu i tamo iznova izbio. Na početku svake izbijanja, učinci su općenito bili dobri. Neprijatelji su se pomirili, dugovi plaćeni, puštenici pušteni, vraćena stečena roba. No, to je bio najmanji preporod, i, kao i uvijek, reakcija je bila gora od prijašnje stagnacije. Ponekad se više nego sumnjalo da je pokret zlouporabljen u političke svrhe, češće je predstavljao primjer fatalne tendencije emocionalnog pijetizma da se izrodi u herezu. Pokret Flagellant bio je samo jedna od manija koje su zadesile kraj srednjeg vijeka, a druge su bile manija u plesu, bijesi koji su mamili Židove, koje su povorke Flagellanta poticale 1349., križarski ratovi djece i slično. A prema temperamentu naroda među kojima se raširio, pokret je postao pobuna i fantastična hereza, nalet predanosti koji se ubrzo skrasio u pobožnim postupcima i dobrim djelima, ili samo prizor koji je pobudio znatiželju ili sažaljenje promatrači.

Iako se za opasne hereze za Flagelante ne čuje nakon petnaestog stoljeća, njihova se praksa uvijek iznova oživljavala kao sredstvo sasvim ortodoksne javne pokore. U Francuskoj smo tijekom šesnaestog stoljeća čuli za Bijelo, Crno, Sivo i Plavo bratstvo. U Avignonu je 1574. sama Catherine de ’ Medici vodila povorku Crnih pokajnika. U Parizu je 1583. kralj Henrik III postao pokrovitelj “Blanes Battus de l ’Annonciation ”. Na Veliki četvrtak te godine organizirao je veliku procesiju od augustinaca do Notr Damea, u kojoj su svi veliki dostojanstvenici carstva morali sudjelovati u društvu sa sobom. Smijeh Parižana, koji su cijelu stvar tretirali kao šalu, obvezao je kralja da povuče svoje pokroviteljstvo. Početkom sedamnaestog stoljeća skandali koji su nastali među tim bratstvima natjerali su pariški parlament da ih suzbije, a pod zajedničkim napadima zakona, Galikana i skeptika, praksa je ubrzo zamrla. Tijekom sedamnaestog i osamnaestog stoljeća isusovci su u Austriji i Nizozemskoj, kao i u dalekim zemljama koje su evangelizirali, poticali povorke s bičevima i samobičevanje. Indija, Perzija, Japan, Filipini, Meksiko i države Južne Amerike, sve su imale svoje povorke Flagellant u Srednjoj i Južnoj Americi koje se nastavljaju i do danas, a regulirao ih je i obuzdao papa Lav XIII. U Italiji općenito i u Tirolu slične povorke preživjele su do ranih godina devetnaestog stoljeća, u samom Rimu su se odvijale u isusovačkim crkvama čak 1870. godine, dok su se čak kasnije dogodile u dijelovima Toskane i Sicilije. Uvijek su se, međutim, te kasnije povorke Flagellanta odvijale pod kontrolom crkvene vlasti i nikako se ne smiju povezivati ​​s heretičkom epidemijom kasnijeg srednjeg vijeka.


Sadržaj

Bičevanje (iz latinskog flagellare, bičevati) bila je prilično uobičajena praksa među gorljivo religioznijim u antici.

Kršćanstvo je formiralo trajnu tradiciju koja okružuje doktrinu oživljavanja tijela, u rasponu od samoodricanja, nošenja košulja i lanaca za kosu, posta i bičevanja pomoću discipline. [2] Oni koji prakticiraju samobičevanje bičevima tvrde da se izjava svetog Pavla u Bibliji ‘kažnjavam svoje tijelo’ odnosi na samonanošenje tjelesnog bičevanja (1. Korinćanima 9:27). [3] Postoje istaknuti kršćani koji su prakticirali samobičevanje. Martin Luther, protestantski reformator, redovito je prakticirao samo-bičevanje kao sredstvo za mrcvarenje mesa. [4] Slično, kongregacionalistička spisateljica Sarah Osborn također je prakticirala samobičevanje kako bi je "podsjetila na njezin stalni grijeh, izopačenost i podlost u Božjim očima". [5] Postalo je "sasvim uobičajeno" da članovi traktarijanskog pokreta unutar anglikanske zajednice prakticiraju samobičevanje pomoću discipline. [6]

Povijesno gledano, u 11. stoljeću Petar Damian, benediktinski kršćanski redovnik u rimokatoličkoj tradiciji, poučavao je da se duhovnost treba očitovati u tjelesnoj disciplini, opominjao je one koji su htjeli slijediti Krista kako bi prakticirali samobičevanje sve vrijeme treba jedan za recitiranje četrdeset psalama, povećavajući broj bičevanja na svete dane kršćanskog kalendara. [7] Za Damjana su mogli biti spašeni samo oni koji su sudjelovali u Kristovim patnjama. [7] [8] Kroz kršćansku povijest, mrtvljenje tijela, u kojem se odbijaju tjelesna zadovoljstva, često su pratili članovi svećenstva, osobito u kršćanskim samostanima i samostanima, Dominik Lorikat iz 11. stoljeća ponovio je cijeli Psaltir dvadeset puta u tjednu, prateći svaki psalam sa stotinu poteza leđima. Razlika Flagellanata bila je u tome što su ovo samoumrljenje unijeli u gradove i druge javne prostore kao demonstraciju pobožnosti. [1]

Flagelantizam je bio pokret iz 14. stoljeća koji se u Katoličkoj crkvi sastojao od pokajnika. Počelo je kao kršćansko hodočašće, a kasnije ga je Katolička crkva osudila kao heretičko. Sljedbenici su zapaženi po uključivanju javnog bičevanja u svoje rituale. To je bila uobičajena praksa za vrijeme Crne smrti ili Velike kuge.

Šire se u 14. stoljeću Edit

Prvi zabilježeni incident dogodio se u središnjoj Italiji u Perugi, 1259. godine, godinu dana nakon velikih oštećenja usjeva i gladi u cijeloj Europi. Činilo se da se fenomen iz Perugie proširio sjevernom Italijom i u Austriju. Drugi incidenti zabilježeni su 1296., 1333.-34. (Golubovi), osobito u vrijeme Crne smrti (1349.) i 1399. Praksa je dosegla vrhunac tijekom Crne smrti. Spontano su skupine flagellanata nastale diljem sjeverne i srednje Europe 1349. godine, uključujući i Englesku. [9] Međutim, entuzijazam za pokret smanjio se jednako iznenada kako se i pojavio. Kad su propovijedali da je samo sudjelovanje u njihovim procesijama očistilo grijehe, Papa je u siječnju 1261. zabranio kretanje.

U početku je Katolička crkva tolerirala Flagelante, a pojedini redovnici i svećenici pridružili su se ranim pokretima. Do 14. stoljeća Crkva je bila manje tolerantna i brzo širenje pokreta bilo je alarmantno. Klement VI službeno ih je bulom od 20. listopada 1349. osudio i uputio crkvene vođe da suzbiju Flagelante. [10] Ovo je stajalište 1372. učvrstio Grgur XI koji je povezao Flagellants s drugim heretičkim skupinama, osobito Beghardovima [11] i naložio inkvizitorima da ih iskorijene. [12] Optuživali su ih za hereze, uključujući sumnju u potrebu za sakramentima, poricanje obične crkvene nadležnosti i tvrdnje da čine čuda. [13] 1392. diljem Švapske i Wurzburga pronađena je sekta Flagellants i Beghards, koju su činili seljaci. [14] Papinski inkvizitor nametnuo je pokoru propovijedanja i pridruživanja križarskom ratu protiv Turaka Osmanlija. [14]

Inkvizicija je bila aktivna protiv bilo kakvog oživljavanja pokreta u 15. stoljeću, ali su lokalni knezovi često poduzimali mjere protiv flagelanata. Godine 1414. 80 - 90 sljedbenika Konrada Schmida spaljeno je u Tiringiji u Njemačkoj, iako su se odrekli. [15] Tristo je izgorjelo u jednom danu 1416. godine, također u Tiringiji. [15] Druga suđenja u kojima su optuženi osuđivani kao flagelanti zabilježena su čak 1480 -ih. [16] Praksa bičevanja u granicama Katoličke crkve nastavila se kao prihvaćeni oblik pokore.

Vladari poput Catherine de 'Medici i francuskog kralja Henrika III podržavali su Flagellants, ali ih je Henry IV zabranio. Flagellant naručuje poput Hermanos Penitentes (Španjolska "pokornička braća") također su se pojavili u kolonijalnoj Španjolskoj Americi, čak i protiv posebnih naloga crkvenih vlasti.

U Italiji Edit

Prvi zabilježeni slučajevi masovnog bičevanja ljudi dogodili su se u Perugi 1259. Glavni uzrok epizode Perugia nije jasan, no uslijedio je nakon izbijanja epidemije, a kroničari izvještavaju kako se manija proširila gotovo svim stanovnicima grada. Tisuće građana okupljenih u velikim povorkama, pjevajući i s križevima i transparentima, marširali su gradom bičujući se. Izvješćuje se da su povorke pratili iznenađujući činovi milosrđa i pokajanja. Međutim, jedan je kroničar primijetio da je svatko tko se nije pridružio bičevanju bio optužen za savez s vragom. Ubijali su i Židove i svećenike koji su im se protivili. Marvin Harris [17] povezuje ih s mesijanskim propovijedanjem Gioacchina da Fiorea.

Slične povorke dogodile su se diljem sjeverne Italije, sa skupinama do 10.000 ljudi u Modeni, Bologni, Reggiou i Parmi. Iako su određene gradske vlasti odbile ulazak Flagellant procesija.

Sličan pokret ponovno je nastao 1399. godine, opet u sjevernoj Italiji u obliku Bijelih pokajnika ili Bianchi pokret. Kaže se da je ovaj uspon započeo seljak koji je vidio viziju. Pokret je postao poznat kao laudesi od njihovog stalnog pjevanja himni. Na svom vrhuncu, skupina od preko 15.000 sljedbenika okupila se u Modeni i marširala prema Rimu, ali pokret je brzo nestao kad je jedan od njegovih vođa spaljen na lomači po nalogu Bonifacija IX.

U Njemačkoj Edit

Njemački i nizozemski pokret, Braća po križu, posebno je dobro dokumentiran - nosili su bijele haljine i marširali po Njemačkoj u 33,5 -dnevnim kampanjama (svaki dan se odnosi na godinu Isusova zemaljskog života) pokore, zaustavljajući se samo u jednoj mjesto ne dulje od jednog dana. Osnovali su svoje logore na poljima u blizini gradova i održavali svoje rituale dva puta dnevno. Ritual je započeo čitanjem pisma za koje se tvrdi da ga je isporučio anđeo i opravdavajući aktivnosti Flagelantsa. Zatim bi sljedbenici pali na koljena i bičevali se, gestikulirajući slobodnim rukama da ukažu na svoj grijeh i ritmično se udaraju u pjesme, poznate kao Geisslerlieder, sve dok nije potekla krv. Ponekad se krv upijala u krpe i tretirala kao sveta relikvija. U početku su članovi morali dobiti dozvolu za pridruživanje od svojih supružnika i dokazati da mogu platiti svoju hranu. Međutim, neki su gradovi počeli primjećivati ​​da ponekad Flagellants donose kugu u gradove gdje se još nije pojavila. Stoga im je kasnije uskraćen ulaz. Odgovorili su povećanom fizičkom pokorom. [ potreban je citat ]

Kršćanstvo Edit

Rimokatolicizam Edit

Suvremene povorke flagelanata s kapuljačama i dalje su značajka raznih mediteranskih kršćanskih zemalja, uglavnom u Španjolskoj, Italiji i nekim bivšim kolonijama, obično svake godine tijekom korizme. Javljaju se i na Filipinima tijekom Velikog tjedna. Na primjer, u općini Guardia Sanframondi u Kampaniji u Italiji takve se povorke organiziraju jednom u sedam godina. U Italiji su pozvani članovi pokreta Flagellant disciplinati, dok laudesi nikada nisu prakticirali bičevanje, već su se sastali u vlastitoj kapelici kako bi pjevali laudi (kantici) u čast Blažene Djevice, ali koja je postupno poprimila dramski oblik i prerasla u kazališnu formu poznatu kao rappresentazioni sacre. Drama na rimskom narječju iz 14. stoljeća, koju je uredio Vattasso (Studi e Testi, br. 4, str. 53), izričito nosi naslov lauda.

Neki rimokatolici na Filipinima prakticiraju bičevanje kao oblik pobožnog štovanja, ponekad uz samorazapinjanje. [18] [19]

Los hermanos penitentes Edit

Na engleskom "braća pokajnici". Ovo je polutajno društvo flagelanata među latinoameričkim rimokatolicima u Koloradu i Novom Meksiku. [20]

Druge religije Uredi

U nekršćanskim tradicijama postoje nepovezane prakse, uključujući stvarno šikaniranje među nekim šiitima (u spomen na mučeništvo Husejna ibn Alija AS).


NJEMAČKA: ZASTOJCI I PROGON JEVREJA

DO 1350. godine kuga u Francuskoj je prestala ili je barem toliko nestala da je omogućila održavanje Koncila u Parizu radi pooštravanja nekih zakona protiv hereze. No u međuvremenu se preselio na istok u Njemačku. Srednja Europa je tako napadnuta s dvije strane ili ako je, kako se čini vjerojatnim, Crna smrt također napredovala kopnom kroz Balkan, s tri strane više ili manje istodobno. Do lipnja 1348. već je probio Tirolske Alpe i bio je na djelu u Bavarskoj, do kraja godine provukao se uz dolinu Moselle i jeo u sjevernu Njemačku. 1

U Štajerskoj, do koje je stigao u studenom 1348., čini se da je bila posebno žestoka. Prema Neuburgskoj kronici 2 čak su se i divlje životinje zgražale nad njegovim poniženjima. & lsquoMuškarci i žene, dovedeni do očaja, lutali su uokolo kao da su luda i helpijska stoka ostavljena da lutaju bez nadzora na poljima jer nitko nije imao sklonosti brinuti se za budućnost. Vukovi, koji su sišli s planina kako bi napali ovce, ponašali su se na način za koji se nikad prije nije čulo. Kao da su bili uznemireni nekim nevidljivim upozorenjem, okrenuli su se i pobjegli natrag u divljinu. & Rsquo U Frankfurtu na Majni, gdje je G & uumlnther Von Schwarzburg umro u ljeto 1349., dvije tisuće ljudi stradalo je u sedamdeset dva dana. 3 U prosincu 1349. prvi je slučaj zabilježen u Kölnu. Šest tisuća umrlo je u Mainzu, jedanaest tisuća u Munsteru, dvanaest tisuća u Erfurtu. 4 Gotovo sedam tisuća umrlo je u Bremenu samo u četiri župe.

Beč je bio posjećen od proljeća do kasne jeseni 1349. Svaki dan, napisala je Sticker, pet do šest stotina ljudi umrlo je kad je devetsto šezdeset poginulo u jednom danu. Treći dio stanovništva istrebljen je, kaže jedan zapis 5 samo je trećina preživjela kaže drugi. 6 Stanovništvo je identificiralo kugu kao Štetnik Jungfrau koja je morala samo podignuti ruku kako bi zarazila žrtvu. Letjela je zrakom u obliku plavog plamena i, u tom je obliku često viđena kako izlazi iz usta mrtvih. 7 U litvanskoj legendi ista je djeva od kuge mahala crvenim šalom kroz vrata ili prozor kuće kako bi zarazila svoje stanovnike. Odvažan gospodin namjerno je otvorio prozor svoje kuće i sa isukanim mačem čekao dok djevojka ne stigne. Dok je gurala maramu, odsjekao joj je ruku. Umro je, ali je ostatak sela pobjegao neozlijeđen, a šal je dugo bio sačuvan kao relikvija u lokalnoj crkvi. 8 U nekim se područjima vjerovalo da se otrov od kuge spustio kao vatrena kugla. Na sreću, jedna je takva lopta uočena dok je lebdjela iznad Beča i eksorcirao ju je biskup u prolazu. Bezopasno je pao na tlo i podignut je kameni lik Madonne u spomen na ovu jedinstvenu pobjedu obrambenog sustava grada & rsquosa.

Pojedinosti svakodnevnih strahota vrlo su slične onima u gradovima Italije i Francuske i nema ih potrebe ponovno raditi. Jedna razlika je u abnormalno velikom broju crkvenjaka koji su umrli tijekom epidemije. Čini se doista da je kuga pala s iznimnim nasiljem na njemačko svećenstvo jer se, u nedostatku drugog objašnjenja, mora pretpostaviti veća hrabrost s kojom su obavljali svoje dužnosti. Conrad Eubel, temeljeći svoje izračune gotovo u potpunosti na njemačkim izvorima, 9 pokazuje da je u tom razdoblju umrlo najmanje trideset pet posto višeg svećenstva. Ta brojka ne bi bila iznimno visoka da se odnosi na župnike, ali postaje zapanjujuća kada se odnosi na njihove obično oprezne i dobro zaštićene nadređene. No, što se tiče monaha, čini se da nije samo predanost dužnosti dovela do stanjivanja njihovih redova. Felix Fabri 10 kaže da su u Švapskoj mnoge vjerske kuće bile napuštene: & lsquoJer oni koji su preživjeli nisu bili u samostanima nego u gradovima i, nakon što su se navikli na svjetovne načine života, brzo su prešli iz lošeg u gore & hellip. & rsquo Kažu da su monasi iz Auwe imali preselili su se u tijelu u Ulm, gdje su raspršili manastirsko & rsquos blago u pobunjenom životu.

Zbog različitih razloga, dakle, Njemačkoj je Crkvi 1349. i 1350. nedostajalo osoblja. Jedan je rezultat bio nagli porast pluralnih beneficija. U jednom je području, između 1345. i 1347., trinaest muškaraca imalo trideset i devet beneficija. Od 1350. do 1352. ovo je postalo pedeset i sedam beneficija u rukama dvanaest ljudi. Drugi je bio zatvaranje mnogih samostana i župnih crkava, treći masovno ređenje mladih i često loše obrazovanih i neobučenih klerika. Kao zbroj ovih čimbenika, njemačka crkva nakon crne smrti bila je brojčano slabija, lošije vođena i sa lošijim osobljem nego nekoliko godina prije: nesretna posljedica gubitaka koje je pretrpjela hrabro izvršavajući svoje odgovornosti. Mnogo dobročinstava koje je primila tijekom terora osiguralo je da njezina duhovna i organizacijska slabost bude usklađena s većim financijskim prosperitetom, katastrofalnom kombinacijom koja je pomogla da se crkva prezire i mrzi tamo gdje je prije bila voljena, štovana ili barem prihvaćena. Do 1350. godine crkva u Njemačkoj bila je svedena na stanje u kojem je bilo koji energični pokret reformi zasigurno našao mnoge saveznike i oslabio oporbu.

Jedan po jedan napadnuti su gradovi Njemačke. Kao i uvijek, čvrsta statistika je rijetka i, tamo gdje postoji, često je teško uskladiti se međusobno. Reincke 11 procijenio je da je između pola i dvije trećine stanovnika Hamburga umrlo, a sedamdeset posto onih u Bremenu, no u L & uumlbecku je zabilježena samo četvrtina ukućana koji su poginuli. Većina seoskih područja bila je ozbiljno pogođena, ali je Bohemija bila gotovo netaknuta. Graus 12 sugerirao da je to posljedica udaljenosti Bohemije & rsquos od tradicionalnih trgovačkih putova, no u daleko blažoj epidemiji 1380. područje je poharala kuga. Ostavlja se dojam da je Njemačka, koristeći taj izraz u najširem mogućem smislu za uključivanje Pruske, Češke i Austrije, pretrpjela manje teške posljedice od Francuske ili Italije, no takav se dojam teško mogao potkrijepiti. Crna smrt u Njemačkoj, međutim, od posebnog je interesa budući da je ta zemlja pružila pozadinu za dva svoja najupečatljivija i najneugodnija nusprodukta: hodočašća Flagellanata i progon Židova.

Pokret flagelanta, 13 iako je dislociralo život na velikom području Europe i u jednom trenutku ugrozilo sigurnost vlada, dugoročno nije bilo baš puno. S razlogom bi se moglo tvrditi da u knjizi koja pokriva tako ogromnu temu kao što je Crna smrt ne zaslužuje pažnju. U statističkom smislu to bi moglo biti točno. No Flagellants, sa svojim vizijama i svojim praznovjerjima, svojim razvratima i disciplinom, svojim idealizmom i brutalnošću, pružaju jedinstveno otkrivajući uvid u um srednjovjekovnog čovjeka kada se suoče s ogromnom i neobjašnjivom katastrofom. Samo je manjina Europljana reagirala nasiljem Flagellantsa, no impulsi koji su pokrenuli ovu manjinu bili su posvuda na djelu. Sofisticiranijim, ekscesi Flagellanata mogli su se činiti neukusnima za razboritije i opasnije. Ali nikome nisu djelovali besmisleno ili nevažno & ndash da postoji metoda u njihovom ludilu uzeli su zdravo za gotovo čak i najmanje oduševljeni. It is this, the fact that some element of the Flagellant lurked in the mind of every medieval man, which, more than the movement&rsquos curious nature and intrinsic drama, justifies its consideration in some detail.

Flagellation as a practice seems to be almost as old as man himself. Joseph McCabe has pursued the subject with loving detail through the ages: 14 from the Indians of Brazil who whipped themselves on their genitals at the time of the new moon through the Spartans who propitiated the fertility goddess with blood until finally he arrived at the thirteenth and fourteenth century &ndash the &lsquoGolden Age of Pious Flagellation&rsquo. Most of these exercises were clearly if unconsciously erotic in their nature. As such, they were far removed from the pilgrimages of the Brethren of the Cross. It would be rash to assert that the Flagellants of 1348 did not satisfy, by their self-inflicted torments, some twisted craving in their natures, but &lsquoerotic&rsquo, in its normal sense of awakening sexual appetites, is not a word which can properly be applied to their activities.

The practice of self-scourging as a means of mortifying the flesh seems to be first recorded in Europe in certain Italian monastic communities early in the eleventh century. As a group activity it was not known for another two hundred years. At this point, in the middle of the thirteenth century, a series of disasters convinced the Italians that God&rsquos anger had been called down on man as a punishment for his sins. The idea that he might be placated if a group of the godly drew together to protest their penitence and prove it by their deeds seems first to have occurred to a Perugian hermit called Raniero. The project was evidently judged successful, at any rate sufficiently so for the experiment to be repeated in 1334 and again a few years later, when the pilgrimage was led by &lsquoa virtuous and beautiful maid&rsquo. This last enterprise ran foul of the authorities and the maid was arrested and sentenced to be burnt at the stake. Either her virtue or her beauty, however, so far melted the hearts of her captors that she was reprieved and ultimately released.

The pilgrimage of 1260 drew its authority from a Heavenly Letter brought to earth by an angel which stated that God, incensed by man&rsquos failure to observe the Sabbath day, had scourged Christendom and would have destroyed the world altogether but for the intercession of the angels and the Virgin and the altogether becoming behaviour of the Flagellants. Divine grace would be forthcoming for all those who became members of the Brotherhood: anybody else, it was clear, was in imminent danger of hellfire. A second edition of this letter was issued in time for the Black Death by an angel who was said to have delivered it in the Church of St Peter in Jerusalem some time in 1343. 15 The text was identical with the first except for an extra paragraph specifically pointing out that the plague was the direct punishment of God and that the aim of the Flagellants was to induce God to relent.

The &lsquoBrotherhood of the Flagellants&rsquo or &lsquoBrethren of the Cross&rsquo as the movement was called in 1348, traditionally originated in Eastern Europe, headed, according to Nohl in a pleasant conceit for which he unfortunately fails to quote authority, by various &lsquogigantic women from Hungary&rsquo. 16 It is to be deplored that these heroic figures quickly faded from the scene. It was in Germany that the Flagellant movement really took root. It is hard to be sure whether this was the result of circumstances or of the nature of the inhabitants. Dr Lea suggests that the German people had had their religious sensibilities stirred by the papal interdict against Louis of Bavaria and the recent earthquakes. But, if such were the causes, there would have been quite as much reason to expect the outbreak in Italy, the original home of collective scourgings, deprived as it was of its Pope and in a mood of striking melancholia.

The actual mechanism of recruitment to the Brotherhood is still obscure but the appearance of the Flagellants on the march is well attested. 17 They moved in a long crocodile, two-by-two, usually in groups of two or three hundred but occasionally even more than a thousand strong. Men and women were segregated, the women taking their place towards the rear of the procession. At the head marched the group Master and two lieutenants carrying banners of purple velvet and cloth of gold. Except for occasional hymns the marchers were silent, their heads and faces hidden in cowls, their eyes fixed on the ground. They were dressed in sombre clothes with red crosses on back, front and cap.

Word would travel ahead and, at the news that the Brethren of the Cross were on the way, the bells of the churches would be set ringing and the townsfolk pour out to welcome them. The first move was to the church where they would chant their special litany. A few parish priests used to join in and try to share the limelight with the invaders, but most of them discreetly lay low until the Flagellants were on the move again. Only a handful were so high-principled or foolhardy as to deny the use of their church for the ceremony and these were usually given short shrift by the Brethren and by their own parishioners.

Sometimes the Flagellants would use the church for their own rites as well as for the litany but, provided there was a market place or other suitable site, they preferred to conduct their service in the open air. Here the real business of the day took place. A large circle was formed and the worshippers stripped to the waist, retaining only a linen cloth or skirt which stretched as far as their ankles. Their outer garments were piled up inside the circle and the sick of the village would congregate there in the hope of acquiring a little vicarious merit. On one occasion, at least, a dead child was laid within the magic circle &ndash presumably in the hope of regeneration. The Flagellants marched around the circle then, at a signal from the Master, threw themselves to the ground. The usual posture was that of one crucified but those with especial sins on their conscience adopted appropriate attitudes: an adulterer with his face to the ground, a perjurer on one side holding up three fingers. The Master moved among the recumbent bodies, thrashing those who had committed such crimes or who had offended in some way against the discipline of the Brotherhood.

Then came the collective flagellation. Each Brother carried a heavy scourge with three or four leather thongs, the thongs tipped with metal studs. With these they began rhythmically to beat their backs and breasts. Three of the Brethren acting as cheer-leaders, led the ceremonies from the centre of the circle while the Master walked among his flock, urging them to pray to God to have mercy on all sinners. Meanwhile the worshippers kept up the tempo and their spirits by chanting the Hymn of the Flagellants. The pace grew. The Brethren threw themselves to the ground, then rose again to continue the punishment threw themselves to the ground a second time and rose for a final orgy of self-scourging. Each man tried to outdo his neighbour in pious suffering, literally whipping himself into a frenzy in which pain had no reality. Around them the townsfolk quaked, sobbed and groaned in sympathy, encouraging the Brethren to still greater excesses.

Such scenes were repeated twice by day and once by night with a benefit performance when one of the Brethren died. If the details of the ceremonies are literally as recorded then such extra shows must have been far from exceptional. The public wanted blood and they seem to have got it. Henry of Herford 18 records: &lsquoEach scourge was a kind of stick from which three tails with large knots hung down. Through the knots were thrust iron spikes as sharp as needles which projected about the length of a grain of wheat or sometimes a little more. With such scourges they lashed themselves on their naked bodies so that they became swollen and blue, the blood ran down to the ground and bespattered the walls of the churches in which they scourged themselves. Occasionally they drove the spikes so deep into the flesh that they could only be pulled out by a second wrench.&rsquo

But though, gripped as they were by collective hysteria, it is easy to believe that they subjected their bodies to such an ordeal, it is impossible to accept that they could have repeated the dose two or three times a day for thirty-three days. The rules of the Brotherhood precluded bathing, washing or changes of clothing. With no antiseptics and in such grotesquely unhygienic conditions, the raw scars left by the spikes would quickly have become poisoned. The sufferings of the Brethren would have become intolerable and it seems highly unlikely that any Flagellant would have been physically capable of completing a pilgrimage. The modern reader is forced to the conclusion that, somewhere, there must have been a catch. Possibly the serious blood-letting was reserved for gala occasions, such as that witnessed by Henry of Herford. Possibly two or three victims were designated on each occasion to attract the limelight by the intensity of their sufferings. The Flagellants were not fakes but some measure of restraint there must have been.

Certainly there was little in their chanting intrinsically likely to lead to total self-abandonment. The celebrated Ancient Hymn of the Flagellants, even in the Latin or vernacular German, was a pitiful little dirge as remote from ecstatic excitement as a Women&rsquos Institute Choir&rsquos rendering of &lsquoAbide With Me&rsquo:


[Eye witnesses and the flagellants in the year 1349]

Deeply affected and often desperately afraid, many contemporaries recorded their observations and emotions. These reports--no matter how obviously subjective they sometimes were--provide valuable information about what happened during the plague pandemic of 1348-1350. Thus many of our fellow countrymen left behind a direct testimony: Bartholomew of Bruges, a canon in Andenne Gilles li Muisis, the abbot of Saint Martin in Tournai Ludovicus Sanctus of Beringen Simon de Couvin, a canon in Liège Jan van Boendale, an alderman's clerk in Antwerp John of Burgundy (also known as John of Mandeville), professor of medicine in Liège but also texts in Middle Dutch that were not known up to now, and therefore not published, such as the important thesis by Arent Schryver, licentiate in medicine (see next article) an account in verse in the Brabant Chronicle, as well as contemporary testimonies in a different language that have been translated into our language, such as that by John of Eschinden, Johannes de Rupescissa or Guy de Chauliac (who had had the plague himself). They describe the precautions, the causes (God, a comet, an eclipse of the sun, the polluted water, the planets, the air), the symptoms, the social groups most likely to be affected (the youth, the lower classes, the clergy), the high mortality, the problems of hygiene,the social and administrative chaos, the general panic, the flight of countless people. One of the most virulent reactions led to the emergence of the flagellant sect. They originated from Hungary and advanced in an unstoppable advance with a growing number of followers as far as our country, singing, praying, dancing and flaying themselves until they drew blood. We only recently discovered what they sang in Dutch: very recently, a unique roll of parchment was discovered that they carried in their processions, and that contains the text of their songs and a flagellant sermon. The existence of this valuable document and its contents are presented here for the first time.


Flagellation & the Flagellants. a History of the Rod in All Countries

Flagellation & the Flagellants. a History of the Rod in All Countries, The Rev. Wm. M. Cooper, B.A. [James Glass Bertram] (John Camden Hotten, London, n.d. [1870, from ads at end of book])
7 3/4″ X 5 1/2″, 544pp plus 32 pages of advertisements for “Very Important New Books”, hardbound with red cloth, gilt lettering and decorations, spine worn at top and bottom and lower front, Binder’s ticket on lower pastedown: “Bound by W. Bone and Son. 76 Fleet St. London E.C.”, front pastdown has cute bookplate asking the book be returned to Robert Day, front end-paper has armorial bookplate of Robert Day. Good condition, corners bumped, top and bottom of spine worn, back boards loose but holding.

Bertram was apprenticed to Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine and became managing clerk, before joining a company of strolling players. He returned to Edinburgh and set up as a bookseller and newsagent. In 1855 he was appointed the editor of the North Briton and in 1872 of the Glasgow News, leaving to become a freelance journalist two years later. He published “flagellation” pornography under the names “Revd William Cooper” and “Margaret Anson”. Illustrated throughout with a colored frontispiece. The bookplate is of Robert Day (1836_1914), an Irish antiquarian and photographer who collaborated with Franz Tieze in producing imitation Williamite, Jacobite and Irish Volunteer glassware. He was an important and well-travelled antiquarian collector. He was involved in his family’s extensive saddlery business together with a sports shop well known to Cork anglers.

Opis

Flagellation & the Flagellants. a History of the Rod in All Countries, The Rev. Wm. M. Cooper, B.A. [James Glass Bertram] (John Camden Hotten, London, n.d. [1870, from ads at end of book])
7 3/4″ X 5 1/2″, 544pp plus 32 pages of advertisements for “Very Important New Books”, hardbound with red cloth, gilt lettering and decorations, spine worn at top and bottom and lower front, Binder’s ticket on lower pastedown: “Bound by W. Bone and Son. 76 Fleet St. London E.C.”, front pastdown has cute bookplate asking the book be returned to Robert Day, front end-paper has armorial bookplate of Robert Day. Good condition, corners bumped, top and bottom of spine worn, back boards loose but holding.

Bertram was apprenticed to Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine and became managing clerk, before joining a company of strolling players. He returned to Edinburgh and set up as a bookseller and newsagent. In 1855 he was appointed the editor of the North Briton and in 1872 of the Glasgow News, leaving to become a freelance journalist two years later. He published “flagellation” pornography under the names “Revd William Cooper” and “Margaret Anson”. Illustrated throughout with a colored frontispiece. The bookplate is of Robert Day (1836_1914), an Irish antiquarian and photographer who collaborated with Franz Tieze in producing imitation Williamite, Jacobite and Irish Volunteer glassware. He was an important and well-travelled antiquarian collector. He was involved in his family’s extensive saddlery business together with a sports shop well known to Cork anglers.


Flagellation & the Flagellants. a History of the Rod in All Countries

Flagellation & the Flagellants. a History of the Rod in All Countries, The Rev. Wm. M. Cooper, B.A. [James Glass Bertram] (John Camden Hotten, London, n.d. [1869] (first edition))
7 3/4″ X 5 1/2″, 544pp plus 16 pages of advertisements for “Very Important New Books”, hardbound with red cloth, gilt lettering and decorations, spine worn at top and bottom and lower front, Binder’s ticket on lower pastedown: “Bound by W. Bone and Son. 76 Fleet St. London E.C.”, front pastedown has original bookseller’s stamp “S. R. Gray Bookseller and Stationer, No. 38 state street”. Frontispiece slightly colored in blue.

Bertram was apprenticed to Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine and became managing clerk, before joining a company of strolling players. He returned to Edinburgh and set up as a bookseller and newsagent. In 1855 he was appointed the editor of the North Briton and in 1872 of the Glasgow News, leaving to become a freelance journalist two years later. He published “flagellation” pornography under the names “Revd William Cooper” and “Margaret Anson”. Illustrated throughout with a colored frontispiece. This particular book is unique in that we know where it was published, printed, bound, and first sold.

Opis

Flagellation & the Flagellants. a History of the Rod in All Countries, The Rev. Wm. M. Cooper, B.A. [James Glass Bertram] (John Camden Hotten, London, n.d. [1869] (first edition))
7 3/4″ X 5 1/2″, 544pp plus 16 pages of advertisements for “Very Important New Books”, hardbound with red cloth, gilt lettering and decorations, spine worn at top and bottom and lower front, Binder’s ticket on lower pastedown: “Bound by W. Bone and Son. 76 Fleet St. London E.C.”, front pastedown has original bookseller’s stamp “S. R. Gray Bookseller and Stationer, No. 38 state street”. Frontispiece slightly colored in blue.

Bertram was apprenticed to Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine and became managing clerk, before joining a company of strolling players. He returned to Edinburgh and set up as a bookseller and newsagent. In 1855 he was appointed the editor of the North Briton and in 1872 of the Glasgow News, leaving to become a freelance journalist two years later. He published “flagellation” pornography under the names “Revd William Cooper” and “Margaret Anson”. Illustrated throughout with a colored frontispiece. This particular book is unique in that we know where it was published, printed, bound, and first sold.


Errors of the Flagellants

Does God want our blood? People who do not properly understand the full pardon offered by Christ's atonement may try to appease God by their own sufferings. Some attempt desperate remedies. This was the case with the flagellants, bands of men who flogged themselves publicly.

With the tide of monasticism came monks who whipped themselves or each other for their errors. One who was especially noted for this practice was Peter Damien, who hoped to suppress his lusts by scourging himself.

During a dreadful plague in 1259, common folk of Europe took up the idea. God was angry at the world. Something had to be done to turn away his wrath. Gangs of men gathered to flog themselves for their own sins and the sins of the world. Stripped to the waist they marched in processions, sometimes numbering ten thousand penitents, whipping themselves until they bled. When religious authorities opposed the movement, it died out in 1261, only to rear its head in uglier forms later.

When the black plague swept Europe, killing a quarter or more of the population, it brought terror. Bands of hysterical flagellants sprang up again. Among the errors taught by flagellants was that Christ was about to destroy the world but that the Virgin Mary had interceded and won a reprieve for any man who would join them for 33 days. As their blood flowed, they claimed it was mingling with Christ's blood to save the world and that their penitence would preserve the world from perishing. Many other manias also emerged during this period, such as uncontrollable dancing and Jew hunts.

The flagellants flourished into the fourteenth century. Following an outbreak of the whippings in France, the University of Paris appealed to the pope to suppress the heresy. On this day, October 20, 1349, after careful inquiry, Pope Clement VI sent letters to the bishops in Western Europe condemning the practice and teachings of the flagellants. Even this measure did not fully succeed. Groups of flagellants appeared again and again over the next century and a half. Public flagellation occurred in Italy until the nineteenth century and in Mexico, South America, the Philippines and other countries into the twentieth century.


The Return of the Flagellants

The lockdowns have disproportionately targeted fun. No house parties. No travel. Bowling, bars, Broadway, theater, amusement parks, all banned. Weddings, forget it. Restaurants, hotels, conventions, and even golf were all targeted by the lockdowners.

There is an ethos here. To beat the disease, you have to suffer. You have to eschew joy. You must sit at home and go out only for bare essentials. Even today, the great disease mitigator Andrew Cuomo, who already admitted in a phone call that the lockdowns were not science but fear, has warned New Yorkers not to travel outside the state except when absolutely necessary.

There is even a costume associated with the new national penance. It’s a long sweater dress, wool leggings, clompy sneakers, gloves, and the biggest face covering you can find. It’s not about safety. It’s about symbolizing your virtue, contrition, and allegiances.

The first time I saw this costume, which reminds me of women at a Taliban funeral, was back in mid-March. A hipster millennial, once living a carefree life, found new meaning in suffering for a cause, and quickly turned on anyone not dressed in dread while listening to the Dies Irae in one’s head.

Što se ovdje događa? Surely this is not about the science. There is a moral drama at work, one that taps deeply into some spiritual impulse within people. It’s about the belief that bad things are happening to us because we have sinned. The clothing and the banning of fun are part of our acts of contrition and our penance for wrongdoing. Sounds crazy? Ne tako puno. Otherwise, it is hard to explain. And this kind of response to disease is not unprecedented.

Eyewitness to History explains that the Flagellants were a religious movement that arose during the Black Death:

The Flagellants were religious zealots of the Middle Ages in Europe who demonstrated their religious fervor and sought atonement for their sins by vigorously whipping themselves in public displays of penance. This approach to achieving redemption was most popular during times of crisis. Prolonged plague, hunger, drought and other natural maladies would motivate thousands to resort to this extreme method of seeking relief. Despite condemnation by the Catholic Church, the movement gained strength and reached its greatest popularity during the onslaught of the Black Death that ravaged Europe in the mid-fourteenth century. Wearing white robes, large groups of the sect (many numbering in the thousands) roamed the countryside dragging crosses while whipping themselves into a religious frenzy.

Here is a firsthand account of the Flagellants in the 14th century by Sir Robert of Avesbury, as quoted from Norman Cohn’s classic work Pursuit of the Millennium:

In that same year of 1349, about Michaelmas (September, 29) over six hundred men came to London from Flanders, mostly of Zeeland and Holland origin. Sometimes at St Paul’s and sometimes at other points in the city they made two daily public appearances wearing cloths from the thighs to the ankles, but otherwise stripped bare. Each wore a cap marked with a red cross in front and behind.

Each had in his right hand a scourge with three tails. Each tail had a knot and through the middle of it there were sometimes sharp nails fixed. They marched naked in a file one behind the other and whipped themselves with these scourges on their naked and bleeding bodies.

Four of them would chant in their native tongue and, another four would chant in response like a litany. Thrice they would all cast themselves on the ground in this sort of procession, stretching out their hands like the arms of a cross. The singing would go on and, the one who was in the rear of those thus prostrate acting first, each of them in turn would step over the others and give one stroke with his scourge to the man lying under him.

This went on from the first to the last until each of them had observed the ritual to the full tale of those on the ground. Then each put on his customary garments and always wearing their caps and carrying their whips in their hands they retired to their lodgings. It is said that every night they performed the same penance.

The Catholic Encyclopedia explains the terrifying movement in more detail:

The Flagellants became an organized sect, with severe discipline and extravagant claims. They wore a white habit and mantle, on each of which was a red cross, whence in some parts they were called the “Brotherhood of the Cross”. Whosoever desired to join this brotherhood was bound to remain in it for thirty-three and a half days, to swear obedience to the “Masters” of the organization, to possess at least four pence a day for his support, to be reconciled to all men, and, if married, to have the sanction of his wife.

The ceremonial of the Flagellants seems to have been much the same in all the northern cities. Twice a day, proceeding slowly to the public square or to the principal church, they put off their shoes, stripped themselves to the waist and prostrated themselves in a large circle.

By their posture they indicated the nature of the sins they intended to expiate, the murderer lying on his back, the adulterer on his face, the perjurer on one side holding up three fingers, etc. First they were beaten by the “Master”, then, bidden solemnly in a prescribed form to rise, they stood in a circle and scourged themselves severely, crying out that their blood was mingled with the Blood of Christ and that their penance was preserving the whole world from perishing. At the end the “Master” read a letter which was supposed to have been brought by an angel from heaven to the church of St. Peter in Rome. This stated that Christ, angry at the grievous sins of mankind, had threatened to destroy the world, yet, at the intercession of the Blessed Virgin, had ordained that all who should join the brotherhood for thirty-three and a half days should be saved. The reading of this “letter,” following the shock to the emotions caused by the public penance of the Flagellants, aroused much excitement among the populace.

To reiterate, these people expected everyone else to celebrate them, for it was they who were keeping the world from falling apart completely. Their sacrifice was an act of benevolence to the rest of humankind, so how dare people show ingratitude! Even worse, the more people continued to live in revelry and fun, the more the Flagellants had to punish themselves. For this reason, they felt and showed disdain for anyone who declined to join their cause.

If you do not see the parallels here with what’s going on today, you haven’t been paying attention for 7 months. See, for example, the tremendous media hatred for Trump rallies. This also helps explain why the lockdowners celebrated the BLM protests but condemned the anti-lockdown protests. The former are seen as part of penance for sin whereas the latter are calls to persist in sin.

The Catholic Church, which has a long history of crushing nutty extremism within its ranks, was clear: this was a “dangerous heresy” the real epidemic, the Church opined, was not the disease but an “heretical epidemic.” None of it mattered: the movements grew and persisted for hundreds of years, proving yet again that once fear and irrationality take hold, it can take a very long time for rationality to return.

Ali kako to može biti? We are not a very religious people as we were in the Middle Ages. Where are the priests guiding the new Flagellants? What is the sin we are attempting to expiate? It doesn’t take that much imagination. The priests are the data scientists and media stars who have been calling for lockdowns and celebrating them now for most of 2020. And what is the sin? It doesn’t take that much imagination to extend this analysis: people voted for the wrong person to be president.

Maybe my theory here is wrong. Maybe there is something else going on. Maybe we are really talking about a general loss of meaning in life, a guilt that comes from prosperity, a desire on the part of many to turn lights of civilization off and wallow in suffering for a time to purge ourselves of the stain of vice. Whatever the answer to the question of why this is really happening, and that it has nothing to do with actual science, is an observation that seems incontrovertible.

In England in the 14th century, when the marauding Flagellants came to town, good members of the community found these people amusing and rather ridiculous, and otherwise they went about their lives, having fun and building a better and more prosperous society. Let those who desire to suffer be free to do so. As for the rest of us, let us get back to having good lives, including partaking in actual fun.


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The Flagellants and Flagellation during the events of the black death - History bibliographies - in Harvard style

These are the sources and citations used to research The Flagellants and Flagellation during the events of the black death. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on Wednesday, May 6, 2015

U tekstu: (2015)

Vaša bibliografija: 2015. [image] Available at: <http://www.beloit.edu/nuremberg/book/images/Miscellaneous/big/Burning%20of%20the%20Jews%202%20CCLVIIv.jpg> [Accessed 6 May 2015].

Flagellants Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about flagellants

U tekstu: (flagellants Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about flagellants, 2015)

Vaša bibliografija: Encyclopedia.com. 2015. godine. flagellants Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about flagellants. [online] Available at: <http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/flagellants.aspx> [Accessed 6 May 2015].

The Flagellants Attempt to Repel the Black Death, 1349

U tekstu: (The Flagellants Attempt to Repel the Black Death, 1349, 2015)

Vaša bibliografija: Eyewitnesstohistory.com. 2015. godine. The Flagellants Attempt to Repel the Black Death, 1349. [online] Available at: <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/flagellants.htm> [Accessed 6 May 2015].

Frappell, S., Clyne, J., Searby, R., Leeds, M., Cummins, N., Cashman, L. and Meehan, M.

History 8 for NSW: The Ancient to the Modern World

2013 - Lucinda Joura

U tekstu: (Frappell et al., 2013)

Vaša bibliografija: Frappell, S., Clyne, J., Searby, R., Leeds, M., Cummins, N., Cashman, L. and Meehan, M., 2013. History 8 for NSW: The Ancient to the Modern World. 1st ed. Lucinda Joura, pp.310-311.


Gledaj video: #mojeargo na dvorečku - František Graus: Mor, flagelanti a vraždění Židů, hovoří Martin Nodl (Srpanj 2022).


Komentari:

  1. Kazidal

    Nije baš nisko

  2. Iyanuoluwa

    Potvrđujem. Tako se događa. Mi ćemo ispitati ovo pitanje.

  3. Moogurn

    I am here by chance, but specially registered to participate in the discussion.

  4. Fauzuru

    Nada add another item



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